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[Insights Secure STHIR– 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 20 May 2021

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic: The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.

1. What were the aims and objectives of the Indian National Congress at the time of its inception? Discuss how far was it successful to achieve the targets (250 words)

Reference:  Modern Indian history by Spectrum Publications

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper I , part Modern history.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the details of the aims and objectives of the Indian National Congress at the time of its inception and its success.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the situation prevalent at the time of formation of Indian National Congress (INC).

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Explain the aims and objectives of the INC at the time of its inception. In the later 1870s and early 1880s, a solid ground had been prepared for the establishment of an all-India organisation. The final shape to this idea was given by a retired English civil servant, A.O. Hume, who mobilized leading intellectuals of the time and, with their cooperation, organized the first session of the Indian National Congress in December 1885.

Evaluate the success of INC to achieve the targets in its early phase. Also present the challenges associated.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

2.  “The universalization of social security remains an unsatisfied aspiration in the new code on social security”. Critically analyse. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article explains in what way the universalization of social security remains an unfulfilled aspiration in the new code on social security.

Key Demand of the question:

Critically analyse the new code on social security and its lacuna with respect to universalization.

Directive:

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief context of the question.

Body:

India’s Parliament in September 2020 passed a Social Security Code (SS Code 2020).

The SS Code 2020 merges existing social security laws and attempts to include informal workers within the ambit of social security administration. It proposes that both the central and State governments will formulate schemes for unorganized workers. The legal framework as proposed in the Code and Rules, implies that the basic onus lies on informal workers registering as beneficiaries. Registration is a prerequisite for universal coverage. To avail social security, an informal worker must register herself on the specified online portal to be developed by the central government.

Discuss the challenges in detail and suggest what needs to be done.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic: Parliament and State legislatures—structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.

3. What is the rationale for creation of State Legislative Councils? Discuss the criticisms leveled against State Legislative Councils?  (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The West Bengal cabinet has decided to set up a Legislative Council. The formation of a legislative council was one of the promises included in the election manifesto of the Trinamool Congress.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the rationale for creation of State Legislative Councils and the criticisms for the same.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with basic demand of the question.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Firstly explain the Constitutional Provision for the abolition or creation of a Legislative Council.

Then explain the rationale for creation of State Legislative Councils? – Check on hasty legislation, Prevent arbitrary and populist legislation, sharing workload with the assembly, Accommodation of experienced individuals etc.

Then discuss the criticisms leveled against State Legislative Councils – No substantial power, Accommodating Party Functionaries, Promotion of vested interests etc.

Conclusion:

Suggest what needs to be done and conclude with way forward.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Disaster and disaster management.

4. Accurate forecasts and resilience ­building are quintessential in handling severe cyclones. Elucidate. (250 words)

Reference:  NDTV

Why the question:

Cyclone Tauktae which has made landfall on the western coast of India has caused loss of life and destruction of infrastructure in Kerala, Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra and Gujarat. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in what way accurate forecasts and resilience ¬building are quintessential in handling severe cyclones

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief context of the question.

Body:

Given the fact that it is very likely that India will see more frequent cyclones every year due to global warming, India should work towards mitigating the damage to life and property from these adverse climatic phenomena. The following measures will help in this direction.

India needs to develop greater expertise in forecasting which will help in the issuance of precise early warnings.

Given the rapid intensification of cyclones, there is very little time available to take immediate measures for evacuation at the ground. State-of-the-art cyclone models are unable to pick this rapid intensification because they do not incorporate the ocean dynamics accurately. This is a forecasting challenge that needs to be addressed.

Discuss the importance of Disaster mitigation and resilience building.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

5. What do you understand by Techno-nationalism?  Explain the factors that prevented India’s technological advancement in the past.  (250 words)

Reference:  Business Standard.

Why the question:

Techno-nationalism is on the sharp rise where nation states are using their superiority in specific technologies to rise up the global hierarchy and dominate other nations.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the concept of Techno-nationalism and explain the factors that prevented India’s technological advancement in the past. 

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what you understand by Techno-Nationalism.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Techno-nationalism as oppose to Techno-globalisation; Techno-globalisation seeks the free flow of technologies and sharing of innovations in order to bring countries and individuals on a shared platform to solve social problems. Techno-nationalism sees nation states using their superiority in specific technologies rise up the global hierarchy and dominates other nations.

Discuss the current state of affairs with respect to global affairs. Discuss the context of India; India has targeted self-sufficiency and techno-nationalism, due to rising tensions with China.

Explain the factors that prevented India’s technological advancement in the past.

Conclusion:

India should be more ambitious in develop cutting edge technologies to escape remaining a techno-colony.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: corporate governance. Work culture

6. Examine the impact of company culture on the employees with suitable examples. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu 

Why the question:

The article explains how company culture affects employee engagement.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the importance of company culture thus the importance of work culture.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what you understand by company culture.

Body:

Company culture is critical to the success and sustainability of any organisation as it directs employees via engagement initiatives for driving satisfaction and effective interpersonal relationships. Employees who are more satisfied and engaged in their workspaces, positively impact their roles and the work culture through their daily actions — as they have a well-rounded work ethic and commitment to the organization’s goals.

Take hints from the article and discuss all the key values essential for good company culture.

Conclusion:

Conclude with methods to practice good company culture.

 

Topic: Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

7. What are the consequences of ‘politicization of bureaucracy’? Discuss. (250 words )

Reference:  thedailystar.net

Why the question:

The question is based on the theme of politicization of bureaucracy’.

Key Demand of the question:

One is

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what you understand by politicization of bureaucracy’.

Body:

Cooperation between elected representatives and bureaucrats is essential for democratic governance of the country. However, due to ‘politicization of bureaucracy’, there is a deterioration in the functioning of the civil services.

Politicisation of bureaucracy is not a new phenomenon in democracy. However, the intensity of application and reasons for politicisation vary from country to country. There are some levels of political involvement in personnel matters in all countries. Politicisation of bureaucracy in a descriptive sense refers to the right of governments to appoint their own people to senior public service positions, and pejorative politicisation on the other hand refers to the substitution of political criteria for merit based criteria.

Give examples to substantiate.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.


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