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Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 14 May 2021


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.

1.  Discuss the contribution of Savitribai Phule in empowerment of women and in fight against caste discrimination. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper I , part Modern Indian history – Important personalities.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the contribution of Savitribai Phule in empowerment of women and in fight against caste discrimination.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with who Savitribai Phule was.

Body:

India was ahead in terms of recognizing this lacuna and the country was fortunate to witness Savitribai Phule, who took it on her to lead the gender justice movement in India, Savitribai Phule not only fought for right education for girls but also for the right to dignity for widows. She was the first female teacher of the first women’s school in India. Savitribai Phule’s contribution to education remains unparalleled.

She was a courageous lady who taught women, especially those coming from socially and economically deprived segments of the society. Her interest in reading, studying and teaching was the hallmark of her work and personality. She was an institution builder who initiated and sustained schools in Dalit neighborhoods and ensured that education reached those who were traditionally excluded from access to sources of knowledge.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of her contributions.

Introduction

Savitribai was born on January 3, 1831, in Naigaon village in Maharashtra. She is formally recognised as India’s first female teacher. Savitribai played a pivotal role in women’s empowerment with the support of her husband, Jyotiba Phule.

Body

Background

  • Born in a family of socially backward Mali community, Savitribai was illiterate when she married to Jyotiba at the tender age of nine.
  • Fortunately, Jyotiba strongly believed in the power of education in removing social inequalities.
  • He decided to start this revolution at home by teaching his wife to read and write, much against the family diktat.
  • Initially, he taught her when she brought lunch for him in the field. Later, Jyotiba admitted Savitribai to a teachers’ training Institute in Pune.
  • After the training, Savitribai started teaching girls at Maharwada in Pune. Here, Sagunabai, Jyotiba’s mentor and also an activist, supported Savitribai’s efforts in this direction.

Savitribai Phule’s contribution to women empowerment

  • Later, the couple along with Sagunabai, started their own school at Bhide Wada, which became India’s first girl’s school run by Indians. The school started with the nine girls, but the number increased to 25 gradually. Later, three more schools were opened for girls in Pune, with nearly 150 students altogether.
  • Special emphasis was given to subjects like English, science, mathematics and social studies. Consequently, the number of girls in their schools became higher than the boys enrolled in government schools in Pune.
  • When faced with threats by conservatives to shut down schools, this did not prevent them from strongly going ahead with their agenda.
  • Encouraged by improved enrolment, Phule opened a total of 18 schools for girls across Maharashtra from 1848 to 1852.
  • Afterwards, Jyotiba and Savitribai opened a night school for women and the children of those from the working-class community.
  • They set up 52 free hostels for poor students across Maharashtra.
  • Savitribai, a true feminist, set up Mahila Seva Mandali to raise awareness among women against child marriage, female foeticide and the sati system.
  • At the time, widows were often sexually exploited and pregnant widows suffered even more physical abuse and humiliation. To address this problem, the couple set up ‘Balyata Pratibandak Gruha’, a childcare centre for the protection of pregnant widows and rape victims.
  • Savitribai also encouraged the adoption of children borne out of such sexual abuse. She opened an ashram for widows and orphans.
  • She organised a boycott by barbers against the tradition of head tonsuring of widows.
  • Savitribai appealed to women to come out of the caste barriers and encouraged them to sit together at her meetings.

Contribution against caste discrimination

  • On September 24, 1873, they set up Satya Shodhaka Samaja, a platform which was open to all, irrespective of their caste, religion or class hierarchies, with the sole motto to bring about social equity.
  • As an extension, they started, ‘Satya Shodhaka Marriage’ where the marrying couple has to take a pledge to promote education and equality.
  • Likewise, widow re-marriage was also encouraged. Simple ceremonies without priests solemnising the wedding were conducted.
  • Awareness programmes against dowry were also organised.
  • They also dug a well at their courtyard for untouchables, who had no access to public drinking water facilities.
  • When Jyotiba died in 1890, Savitribai set a new precedent by lighting her husband’s pyre, amidst all opposition.
  • After his death, she dedicated all her time to the activities of Satya Shodhaka Samaja.

Conclusion

In commemoration of Savitribai, the University of Pune was renamed as Savitribai Phule Pune University in 2015. Her birthday is celebrated as “Balika Din” in Maharashtra every year. Complete women’s empowerment is still a distant dream in India. While celebrating her legacy, we must also remember the contributions of her husband Jyotiba, who dreamt of equity for women and people of lower castes.

 

Topic: Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

2. Discuss the expanses of Savanna grassland spread across the world. And analyse the impact of colonial forestry on Indian grasslands. (250 words)

Reference:  Down to Earth

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper I , part geography.

Key Demand of the question:

The article explains the long shadow of colonial forestry that is a threat to savannas and grasslands. One must substantiate this with required analysis.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Savanna and grassland store up to a third of the world’s carbon in its soils. They keep streams flowing, recharge groundwater, and provide grazing for livestock and wildlife.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Discuss the expanses of Savanna grassland spread across the world. Grasslands can store carbon reliably under increasingly hot and dry climates. The same conditions make forests vulnerable to die-back and wildfires. Restoring grasslands is also relatively cheap and has the highest benefit-to-cost ratio of all the world’s biomes.

Use a world map showing Savanna regions to substantiate and support your answer better.

Analyse the impact of colonial forestry on Indian grasslands

Conclusion:

Conclude with their importance.

Introduction

Savannas – also known as tropical grasslands – are found to the north and south of tropical rainforest biomes. The largest expanses of savanna are in Africa, where much of the central part of the continent, for example Kenya and Tanzania, consists of tropical grassland. Savanna grasslands can also be found in Brazil in South America.

Body

Distribution of Savanna grasslands

 

About Savanna grassland

  • Savanna regions have two distinct seasons – a wet season and a dry season. There is very little rain in the dry season.
  • In the wet season vegetation grows, including lush green grasses and wooded areas.
  • As you move further away from the equator and its heavy rainfall, the grassland becomes drier and drier – particularly in the dry season.
  • Savanna vegetation includes scrub, grasses and occasional trees, which grow near water holes, seasonal rivers or aquifers.
  • Plants and animals have to adapt to the long dry periods. Many plants are xerophytic – for example, the acacia tree with its small, waxy leaves and thorns.
  • Plants may also store water, for example the baobab tree) or have long roots that reach down to the water table. Animals may migrate great distances in search of food and water.

Impact of colonial forestry on Indian grasslands

Indian savanna grasslands are vast extents of grass-dominated landscapes, peppered with some trees, distributed across peninsular India. This biome came into existence 5 to 8 million years ago, although fossil evidence from central India dates grasses back to about 60 million years

  • Between 1880 and 2010, India lost 26 million hectares of forest land. Widely acknowledged as a crisis, there are a number of policies, programmes, and judicial pronouncements in place to combat this.
  • During the same time, about 20 million hectares of grasslands were also lost. Somehow this never made it to the front pages. The answer to why this is the case is tangled up in history and economics.
  • For a colonial state that was looking to generate revenue, forests were a natural goldmine. Agricultural land, although not as lucrative, still presented the state with revenues in the form of taxes.
  • These were classified as productive lands. Grasslands, with their nomadic pastoral communities who were hard to pin down and with no obvious income generation capacity, were categorized as ‘wastelands’, a terminology that continues to this day.
  • Colonial forest regulations treated grasslands as sub-par forests, and pushed for their conversion to tree plantations and irrigated agriculture, while outlawing grazing.
  • This posed a threat to the vast number of species that had adapted over millennia to grasslands, as well as many pastoralist communities that had sustainably used this landscape for their livelihood.
  • Irrigation canals built in these landscapes eventually rendered the soil saline in some areas, rendering them unsuited for agriculture.
  • Continuing to view grasslands through the ‘wasteland’ lens, independent India’s land classification norms clubbed all the natural habitats under the umbrella of forests, regardless of the type of biome it was.
  • For official purposes, if it wasn’t a forest, it must be made one. The Wasteland Atlas of India declares vast tracts of grassland area as wastelands, seemingly oblivious to its unique and rich natural heritage, and in disregard of the livelihood modes of millions of pastoralists and over 500 millions of their livestock.
  • The repercussions of classifying grasslands as forests or as wastelands is that it leaves grasslands open to large-scale diversion to other uses.
  • When treated as a wasteland, grasslands are used as empty spaces to site commercial and development projects, and when treated as an under-achieving forest, it is dug up for afforestation or land improvement programmes, irrevocably modifying the landscape.

Conclusion

While forests are undoubtedly great carbon sinks, grasslands are not all that far behind. Studies reveal that restoring grasslands is an immensely effective and economical way to combat climate change, as these landscapes store large amounts of carbon below ground. When a nuanced and informed understanding of the importance of grasslands filters into conservation and climate change policies, it will be win-win for pastoralists, grassland biodiversity, and the planet. Until then, the survival of India’s savanna grasslands hangs by a blade of grass.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

3. “An enforced disappearance is a continuous crime in East Asian region that needs a comprehensive approach to fight against it”. Justify. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article brings to us the dismal picture of enforced disappearance as a continuous crime in the East Asian region.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss and justify in what way an enforced disappearance is a continuous crime in East Asian region that needs a comprehensive approach to fight against it.

Directive:

Justify – When you are asked to justify, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question using suitable case studies or/ and examples.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what is “Enforced disappearance”.

Body:

An enforced disappearance is defined by several constituent elements. First, it is characterised by the deprivation of liberty, where persons are arrested, detained or abducted against their will or otherwise deprived of their liberty. Second, there are grounds for seeking governmental responsibility for the act, including of officials of different branches or levels of government or by organised groups or private individuals acting on behalf of, or with the support, direct or indirect, consent or acquiescence of, the government. Third, such an act typically occurs in the context of a state’s continuous refusal to take relevant action, including refusal to disclose the fate or whereabouts of the persons concerned or refusal to acknowledge the deprivation of their liberty, which places such persons outside the protection of the law.

Briefly present the case of enforced disappearances in the East Asian regions – Myanmar, case of Sri Lanka, China etc.

Discuss the underlying factors that lead to enforced disappearances.

Suggest remedial measures.

Conclusion:

Conclude that the international community should come together and strengthen its efforts to eradicate enforced disappearances as soon as possible.

Introduction

The democracy movement in Myanmar is at a critical juncture. On February 1, 2021, the military launched a coup d’état to overthrow the democratically elected government led by Aung San Suu Kyi’s party, the National League for Democracy.

Since the coup, the United Nations Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances (WGEID) has received reports of enforced disappearances from the family members of victims. There is concern that there will be a plethora of cases of enforced disappearances, torture, arbitrary detention, and even murder if the situation continues to deteriorate.

Body

About Enforced Disappearances

  • Enforced disappearances became widely known to the world in the 1970s and the early 1980s during the ‘Dirty War’ in Argentina where the Argentine military dictatorship committed the forceful disappearances of some 30,000 of its own citizens while denying that they kidnapped, tortured, and murdered them.
  • An enforced disappearance is defined by several constituent elements. First, it is characterised by the deprivation of liberty, where persons are arrested, detained or abducted against their will or otherwise deprived of their liberty.
  • Second, there are grounds for seeking governmental responsibility for the act, including of officials of different branches or levels of government or by organised groups or private individuals acting on behalf of, or with the support, direct or indirect, consent or acquiescence of, the government.
  • Third, such an act typically occurs in the context of a state’s continuous refusal to take relevant action, including refusal to disclose the fate or whereabouts of the persons concerned or refusal to acknowledge the deprivation of their liberty, which places such persons outside the protection of the law.

Enforced Disappearances in East Asia

  • It is not only in Myanmar that people are mysteriosuly disappearing. This has been the case in China as well as Sri Lanka wrt to minorities.
  • In China, the Working Group has received numerous reports from family members and concerned civil society organisations that a massive number of enforced disappearances have occurred in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.
  • Under the pretext of re-education to prevent terrorism, members of the Uyghur minority ethnic group are forcibly sent to what Chinese authorities call ‘vocational education and training centers’, with no information on their whereabouts and fate given to their families.
  • Sri Lanka has experienced more than three decades of domestic conflict, which was accompanied by various forms of enforced disappearances.
  • It seemed that there was some hope developing because of efforts by the government to confront its history.
  • However, recently, the government is weakening initiatives it previously started to search for and investigate enforced disappearances and has now returned to promoting a culture of impunity for these crimes.

Need of the hour

  • To protect the right to be free from enforced disappearances, the international community adopted the International Convention for the Protection of all Persons from Enforced Disappearance in 2006, which became effective in 2010.
  • However, the number of participating states is still very low compared to other treaties.
  • Among 63 member states of the treaty, only eight states from the Asia-Pacific region have ratified or acceded to the treaty.
  • Only four East Asian states — Cambodia, Japan, Mongolia, and Sri Lanka have ratified it.
  • Asian countries should consider their obligations and responsibilities more seriously and reject a culture of impunity in order to eradicate enforced disappearances.
  • They should also understand that their domestic criminal law systems are not sufficient to deal with the crime of enforced disappearance.
  • An enforced disappearance is a continuous crime that needs a comprehensive approach to fight against it.

 

Conclusion

It is also disheartening to point out that enforced disappearances are being committed in the name of counter-terrorism measures. Increasing numbers of enforced disappearances are being reported in Pakistan and Bangladesh, and it does not seem that the situation will improve in the near future.

Enforced disappearance is a serious crime that goes against the philosophy of humanity. The pain and suffering of the family members do not end until they find out the fate or whereabouts of their loved ones.

 

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

4. The privacy of students who use EdTech apps for learning is at risk, In this context discuss the concerns associated while explaining the need of ethical policy to address it. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The editorial explains how the privacy of students who use EdTech apps for learning is at risk.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the risks involved in using EdTech apps by students and explain the need to have an ethical policy to address it.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain the background of the question.

Body:

Due to the Pandemic, online education has replaced conventional classroom instruction, leading to the high popularity of EdTech apps due to their ability to customize learning to every student in the system. Changing role of teachers: Forced to become facilitators in learning rather than content providers.

Discuss the risks in the usage of EdTech apps – privacy concerns, scope for intrusions, violation of ethical rules, risks of manipulation etc.

Explain the need to have ethical policies to address the issues involved.

Conclusion:

EdTech companies would have to be encouraged to comply in the interest of a healthier learning ecosystem.

Introduction

Since the onset of the pandemic, online education has replaced conventional classroom instruction. The lack of a regulatory framework in India along the lines of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) in Europe could impinge on the privacy of students who now use educational technology (EdTech) apps for learning.

Body

Data collection by EdTech Apps

  • To perform the process of learning customisation, the apps collect large quantities of data from the learners through the gadgets that the students use.
  • These data are analysed in minute detail to customise learning and design future versions of the app.
  • The latest mobile phones and hand-held devices have a range of sensors like GPS, gyroscope, accelerometer, magnetometer and biometric sensors apart from the camera and microphones.
  • These provide data about the learner’s surroundings along with intimate data like the emotions and attitudes experienced and expressed via facial expressions and body temperature changes.
  • In short, the app and device have access to the private spaces of the learner that one would not normally have access to.
  • In the EdTech industry, where investments are pouring in, researchers and app developers are being pushed to be as intrusive as possible.

Issues in usage of Edtech apps

  • Children use these apps without parent or adult supervision. Intrusion of privacy can happen unnoticed.
  • The concept of informed consent is not meaningful since there are no proper primers to explain to stakeholders the intricacies in layperson terms.
  • Further, there is no option to stop using the app without some repercussions.
  • Since India does not have protection equivalent to the GDPR, private data collected by an EdTech company can be misused or sold to other companies with no oversight or protection.
  • It is prudent to remember the 2014 study titled ‘Experimental evidence of massive-scale emotional contagion through social networks’, wherein Facebook manipulated the emotions of 7,00,000 users by changing the type of posts that were shown to the user.
  • These instances necessitates the need for regulation of Edtech aps, especially those that deal with children and tutoring them.

 

Conclusion

Given these realities, it is necessary to formulate an ethics policy for EdTech companies through the active participation of educators, researchers, parents, learners and industry experts. Such a policy draft should be circulated both online and offline for discussions and criticism. Issues of fairness, safety, confidentiality and anonymity of the user would have to be dealt with. EdTech companies would have to be encouraged to comply in the interest of a healthier learning ecosystem.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

5. What do you understand by Goldilocks Economy? Explain why is it often  challenging for central bankers and governments to engineer a Goldilocks economy. (250 words)

Reference:  investopedia.com

Why the question:

The article throws light on what Goldilocks economy is and its nuances.  

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the concept of Goldilocks economy and the challenges involved therein.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

The term describes an ideal state for an economic system. In this perfect state, there is full employment, economic stability, and stable growth. The economy is not expanding or contracting by a large margin. Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Explain the key features of Goldilocks economy.

Discuss that the Central banks are responsible for regulating the money supply and the banking sector. The banking authority uses monetary policy tools to bring on and maintain a Goldilocks economy.

Give examples of such an economy.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance.

Introduction

The term describes an ideal state for an economic system. In this perfect state, there is full employment, economic stability, and stable growth. The economy is not expanding or contracting by a large margin. A Goldilocks economy is warm enough with steady economic growth to prevent a recession. However, growth is not so hot as to push it into an inflationary status.

Body

A Goldilocks economy describes an ideal state for an economy whereby the economy is not expanding or contracting by too much. A Goldilocks economy has steady economic growth, preventing a recession, but not so much growth that inflation rises by too much. A Goldilocks state is ideal for investing because as companies grow and generate positive earnings growth, stocks perform well.

 

Characteristics Goldilocks economy

  • Low unemployment: A low unemployment rate, most commonly known as the U3 rate, which defines the number of people willing and able to work but unable to find gainful employment, and who have sought work in the past four weeks. The U.S. Federal Reserve (The Fed) estimates a normal rate to fall somewhere between 5% and 6.7%.
  • Asset price inflation: An increase in the prices of stocks, derivatives, bonds, real estate, and other assets will earmark a Goldilocks economy. This increase is difficult to see when using broader measures that gauge real economic growth.
  • Low market interest rates: These rates are the percentage of a dollar amount that a lender will charge a borrower when they lend money. Market interest rates have a basis on the overnight rate set by the Fed, which dictates the rate banks charge to lend to one another.
  • Low inflation as measured by the quantitative-based; based on a number—consumer price index (CPI) and the producer price index (PPI) also identifies this golden economic state. Inflation describes the purchasing power of a nation’s money.
  • Steady gross domestic product (GDP) or economic growth: This is the most cited indicator of the Goldilocks economy. GDP is a broad economic measure of the value of all services and finished goods produced in a country and is a direct indicator of the health of an economy.

Difficulties in engineering a goldilocks economy

  • Central banks are responsible for regulating the money supply and the banking sector. The banking authority uses monetary policy tools to bring on and maintain a Goldilocks economy.
  • Rising prices can hurt an economy because it tends to lead consumers to cut back on spending.
  • Companies get hurt by inflation if their raw materials become too expensive since the added costs eat into their profits.
  • As a result, businesses can cut investment.
  • Economic conditions abroad and the response from foreign governments and other national central banks can also influence whether an economy can reach a Goldilocks state.
  • If GDP grows too quickly and inflation creeps up too rapidly, the economy can overheat. In this atmosphere, asset prices can become overvalued

Conclusion

It can be challenging for central bankers and governments to engineer a Goldilocks economy since many factors need to come together for this economic state to exist. A multitude of factors determine whether an economy can reach such a stable state.

 

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

6. Explain the need to reduce global methane emissions and advance to abatement, recovery, and use of methane as a clean energy source. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The ‘Global Methane Assessment: Benefits and Costs of Mitigating Methane Emissions’ report has been released by the Climate & Clean Air Coalition (CCAC) together with the United Nations Environment Programme.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain the need to reduce global methane emissions and advance to abatement, recovery, and use of methane as a clean energy source.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with some key facts related to global methane emissions.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Explain why do we need to reduce methane? – A potent greenhouse gas, contributes to Ground-level ozone, Alarming rate of increase etc.

Then move on to explain the Potential benefits of Methane reduction.

Explain the Methane emissions reduction potential of different sectors.

Conclusion:

Conclude that urgent steps must be taken to reduce methane emissions this decade. Given the wide range of impacts from methane, the societal, economic, and environmental benefits of acting are numerous and far outweigh the costs.

Introduction

Methane gets produced when living things decompose and is also found in natural gas. Most anthropogenic methane emissions come from three sectors viz Fossil-fuels due to oil and gas extraction, processing, and distribution account for 23 per cent, and coal mining accounts for 12 per cent of emissions. The waste sector from landfills and wastewater account for about 20 per cent of emissions.

Body

Need to reduce global methane emissions

  • Other gases under action: Methane constitutes nearly one-fifth of the total global greenhouse gas emissions.
  • All the other emissions are being cut-down under several protocols like aerosols under Montreal Protocol.
  • Therefore, Methane seems to be the odd priority at the moment in order to achieve the target of 1.5 degree rise under Paris Climate Agreement.
  • Continued Emissions: Human-caused methane emissions have been incessantly increasing, that too at a rate faster than any time known.
  • Even the pandemic-induced economic slowdown that worked its charm for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, could not reduce Methane emissions, according to data recently released by the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).
  • Powerful GHG: Methane has greater potential to cause warming, nearly responsible for 30 per cent of warming since pre-industrial times.
  • Here Methane can be less devastating in the fact that it stays for lesser time in Atmosphere than Carbon.

Need to mitigate and use methane as clean energy source

  • Methane coming in from the fossil fuel sector can be curbed as it is relatively easy to locate, fix methane leaks and reduce venting of the same into Atmosphere.
  • Targeted measures (60% of these are low-cost) to limit emissions from waste and agriculture sector are required.
  • Authorities around the World are looking to limit Methane more. European Union Methane Strategy drawn by EU has been out to plan.
  • Joe Biden collaborated a Leaders Summit on Climate in April that encouraged the leaders to call for reductions in methane.
  • Net Zero Producers Forum frames pragmatic net-zero strategies, including methane abatement for oil and gas production. This is led by U.S., Canada, Norway, Qatar, and Saudi Arabia.
  • With increasing emissions, we need to up the ante. Europe has the greatest potential to curb methane coming from agricultural sources.
  • Mitigation lies differently across different regions. India has the greatest potential to reduce methane emissions in the waste sector.
  • China’s mitigation potential is found best in coal production and livestock, while Africa’s potential lies in livestock, followed by oil and gas.

Conclusion

Urgent steps must be taken to reduce methane emissions this decade. Given the wide range of impacts from methane, the societal, economic, and environmental benefits of acting are numerous and far outweigh the costs.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics – in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

7. “Of all crimes that human creatures are capable of committing, the most horrid and unnatural is ingratitude”, In the context of the statement elaborate the importance of Gratitude with suitable examples.(250 words)

Reference:  Economic Times

Why the question:

The question is premised on the context of Gratitude as an important value.

Key Demand of the question:

In the context of the statement highlight the importance of Gratitude with suitable examples.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with definition of Gratitude.

Body:

Philosopher David Hume wrote, ‘Of all crimes that human creatures are capable of committing, the most horrid and unnatural is ingratitude.’

Gratitude is ‘the feeling of being thankful’. It is the recognition that one has obtained appositive outcome and recognising that there is an external source for this positive outcome.

Its importance: Studies reveal that expressing gratitude is linked to psychological well being — it increases happiness and satisfaction with life, and encourages the development of patience and humility.

At a societal level, it acts as glue, making people generous, kind and helpful. And where there is lack of appreciation for the good around you, a person tends to suffer from a sense of self-importance and becomes arrogant and, in effect, a poorer human being.

Suggest methods through which one can inculcate the value of Gratitude.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance.

Introduction

Philosopher David Hume wrote, ‘Of all crimes that human creatures are capable of committing, the most horrid and unnatural is ingratitude.’ And, conversely, gratitude ought to be the most pleasant and natural thing to do. A popular definition of gratitude is ‘the feeling of being thankful’.

Gratitude is a human emotion that can be most simply defined as appreciation or acknowledgment of an altruistic act.

Body

Importance of gratitude

  • Expressing gratitude not only helps people appreciate what they’ve received in life, but it also helps people feel like they have given something back to those who helped them.
  • Gratitude can be observed at an individual level, with its subsequent effects, or at a greater social level. The recipient of gratitude may not reciprocate directly back, but in turn, may lend a favor to a third party, effectively expanding a network of good
  • Effectively gratitude can create social networks and help individuals work towards goals and challenges, and overall, simply have stronger coping skills for life’s hardships.
  • Gratitude and indebtedness are associated with the intention to repay for the received benefit. It leads to internal motivation and external motivation to reciprocate.
  • Gratitude makes us appreciate the value of something, and when we appreciate the value of something, we extract more benefits from it; we’re less likely to take it for granted.
  • Gratitude blocks toxic, negative emotions, such as envy, resentment, regret—emotions that can destroy our happiness. There’s even recent evidence, including a 2008 study by psychologist Alex Wood in the Journal of Research in Personality, showing that gratitude can reduce the frequency and duration of episodes of depression.

Conclusion

Gratitude promotes optimism and helps us to develop a more positive outlook. It lets us pause for a moment to reflect on something we have in our life right now instead of always striving for more. Gratitude is simply cultivating a genuine appreciation for what we already have.


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