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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 6 May 2021


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary—Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.

1. Discuss the scope and issues related to judicial governance in this unprecedented medical crisis facing the country. (250 words)

Reference:  Hindustan Times

Why the question:

Editorial is discussing scope & issues related judicial governance in this unprecedented medical crisis. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the scope and issues related to judicial governance in this unprecedented medical crisis facing the country.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what is Judicial Governance.

Body:

Explain first the recent issues amidst covid-19 times taken up by the courts like – High court (HC) under Art. 226 & Supreme Court (SC) under Art. 32 (extraordinary jurisdiction to protect personal liberty) are intervening to ensure actions from executive on production and allocation of medical oxygen and the urgent requirement of basic medical infrastructure such as beds and drugs. According to some sections, suo motu petition being heard by SC is an act of interference in the executive policy domain, specifically on the issue of vaccination. During the 2G spectrum litigation, a Constitution Bench held that the court cannot enforce a policy decision on the executive.

Explain the issue and application of judicial review and judicial overreach in pandemic response.

Provide for a cursory view on preparation status of government with respect to covid immunisation program and challenges thereof.

Conclusion:

Suggest what needs to be done and conclude.

Introduction

India is in the midst of an unprecedented medical crisis. Four weeks into the second wave of Covid-19, and a year after the pandemic first struck, it is clear that the State had no plan for an emergency of this nature. This gave impetus for Courts to intervene to uphold the fundamental rights of people.

Body

Judicial activism in times of pandemic

  • It is in this context that the Delhi High Court (HC) has been moved under Article 226 (extraordinary jurisdiction to protect personal liberty) of the Constitution seeking judicial interference by private entities and individual citizens.
  • The petitions pertain to the production and allocation of medical oxygen and the urgent requirement of basic medical infrastructure such as beds and drugs.
  • Subsequently, the Supreme Court (SC), under Article 32 (extraordinary jurisdiction to protect personal liberty), has taken suo motu cognisance of the pandemic.
  • There is a vaccine shortage and second wave has ravaged the nation. Lack of adequate preparation on part of Centre is touted as reason for a smaller number of vaccinations.
  • The apex court categorically asked the Centre for its policy for mass inoculation and medication, and framed some important questions/remarks.
  • The questions included; how will the socio-economic disabilities be addressed so that all poor get vaccinated. Why powers under Patent Act was not used to ramp up production of vaccine by many manufacturers and so on.

Court intervention is not Judicial overreach

  • The suo motu hearing isn’t adversarial or seeking adjudication between two contesting parties.
  • What the court is doing is exercising its constitutional authority under Article 32 to fulfil its constitutional role of maintaining checks and balances within the framework of judicial review.
  • This is significant since the executive’s decisions affecting the lives of a billion people have been opaque.
  • SC is not seeking to take policy decisions, but is seeking public accountability and transparency on the executive’s policy decisions and its failure to act in time.
  • This exercise of judicial review to maintain accountability is the institutional duty of a constitutional court and an essential facet of constitutional democracy.
  • HC was bound by its duty to protect the right to life under Article 21.
  • As the hearings continued, one saw HC being forced to facilitate the supply and allocation of oxygen between the Centre and the Delhi government.
  • For almost a fortnight now, the court has been monitoring the oxygen situation on the ground.
  • This is not because the court is eager to exercise its extraordinary constitutional responsibility for protecting the lives of people.
  • It is because the federal cooperation expected between the Union and states has broken.
  • The basic structure of the Constitution holds federalism as essential to upholding our constitutional democracy.
  • Therefore, HC is not only ensuring administrative compliance, but also enforcing federal cohesion to ensure executive stability. Today, private entities and citizens are left with no option but to seek legal recourse for essential amenities in a pandemic.

 

Conclusion

Those who have petitioned the court have locus standi to seek judicial remedy. They seek nothing less than the protection of human life. The judiciary, today, is being forced by citizens to step into a vacuum created by the executive, and thereby, fulfil its constitutional duty to do justice. And, this, by its very nature, warrants judicial governance.

 

Topic: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary—Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.

2. Critically examine the recent judgment of Supreme Court in Maratha reservation case. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

In its judgment striking down Maharashtra’s Maratha quota, a five-judge Constitution Bench was unanimous on 3 issues and split 3:2 on another 3. A look at how the Bench ruled on these 6 issues.

Key Demand of the question:

Critically examine the recent judgment of Supreme Court in Maratha reservation case.

Directive:

Critically examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief background of the question.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Briefly explain the verdict of Indra Sawhney case.

Then present the case of Maratha quota; the court held that there is no need to revisit the case. The court said that the 50% ceiling, although an arbitrary determination by the court in 1992, is now constitutionally recognized.

Present the arguments made by State and countered by the apex court.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of such judgments.

Introduction

A five-judge Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court on Wednesday struck down the Maharashtra law granting reservation to the Maratha community in admissions and government jobs in the state.

Body

Indra Sawhney Case: Background

  • The objective of reservation as envisioned by the founding fathers of the Constitution was to ensure social justice by giving special status to backward castes as they were denied equal opportunities for generations and required special assistance to catch up with the other forward castes.
  • Later, reservation was extended to other backward classes (OBCs) under the recommendation of the Mandal Commission.
  • In Indra Sawhney & Others Vs. Union of India 1992 case, Supreme Court imposed 50% on the reservation limit, essentially capping the reservation to reign in populist tendencies and for efficiency purposes.

Maratha Reservation and Supreme Court judgement

  • The Maratha quota exceeded the 50% ceiling and Supreme Court struck down this law.
  • In a unanimous opinion on Wednesday, the court held that there is no need to revisit the Indra Sawhney Case.
  • The court said that the 50% ceiling, although an arbitrary determination by the court in 1992, is now constitutionally recognised.
  • Since the 50% ceiling is held valid, the court looked into whether the Maratha quota law falls under the exceptional circumstances contemplated by Constitution Bench in Indra Sawhney’s case.
  • The court also looked into the Maharashtra State Backward Commission report that the Maharashtra government had relied on to see if a case can be made out for exceptional circumstances.
  • The state government’s argument was that since the population of backward class is 85% and reservation limit is only 50%, an increase in reservation limit would qualify as an extraordinary circumstance.
  • All five judges disagreed with this argument. “The Marathas are dominant forward class and are in the main stream of National life. The above situation is not an extra-ordinary,” Justice Ashok Bhushan and Justice Abdul Nazeer held. Their view was accepted by the remaining three judges — Justice Nageswara Rao, Justice Hemant Gupta and Justice Ravindra Bhat.
  • Court also ruled that President or Prime Minister will be able to make a law on the same, basing their decision on the 102nd Constitutional Amendment that created NCBC.
  • Attorney General K K Venugopal argued “that it is inconceivable that no State shall have power to identify backward class”, and explained that the state government will have their separate list of SEBCs for providing reservation in state government jobs and education, whereas Parliament will only make the central list of SEBCs which would apply for central government jobs.
  • However, the Supreme Court held that “the final say in regard to inclusion or exclusion (or modification of lists) of SEBCs is firstly with the President, and thereafter, in case of modification or exclusion from the lists initially published, with the Parliament”.
  • The majority opinion by Justice Bhat essentially says that now the National Backward Classes Commission must publish a fresh list of SEBCs, both for states and the central list.
  • The Commission set up under Article 338B shall conclude its task expeditiously, and make its recommendations after considering which, the President shall expeditiously publish the notification containing the list of SEBCs in relation to states and union territories, for the purpose of the Constitution.

Conclusion

It now raises many questions in cases where states have breached the 50% limit such as Tamil Nadu and also regarding the nativist laws that reserves certain jobs for residents. Forefathers of the Constitution did not envisage reservation policy to be ongoing on permanent basis. This shows the failure of governments in alleviating the conditions of people. Moreover, reservation must not become a populist tool to attract voters by politicians.

 

Topic: Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.

3. Dearth of planning is the foremost cause behind the shortage of equipment during pandemic crisis. Do you agree with this view? Elaborate. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The article brings to life the crisis that Health sector is facing in the ongoing pandemic.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in what way dearth of planning is the foremost cause behind the shortage of equipment during pandemic crisis.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

People are constantly calling Lokmat offices seeking help to secure beds, obtain oxygen cylinders or arrange for vaccines and medicines. The situation is horrifying .

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Discuss the grim conditions of health infrastructure in the country; substantiate it with suitable facts and data.

Move on to explain the failures in planning that has happened in handling the situation. There should be micro-planning at the local level and a website for every district to dispense complete information on beds, oxygen, medicines and ventilators with a click.

Suggest measures in detail to address the issue.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of planning and its timely execution.

Introduction

Anticipating the possibility of the second wave, many countries ensured ample availability of oxygen, but we lagged because of the lack of vision from our authorities. This can only be attributed lack of planning, as India revelled in its victory over first wave of pandemic and was riding high on being the Pharmacy of the world. Amidst this, authorities lost precious time to prepare for the second wave which came as a tsunami.

Body

Lack of planning is the foremost cause behind shortage of equipment in pandemic

  • Oxygen cylinders shortage: In October 2020, the government placed an order for 162 oxygen production units. Today, only 33 of these units have been installed. People are dying for want of oxygen. There is no shortage of liquid oxygen in the country. There is a shortage of cylinders and containers to transport it.
  • Vaccine shortage: The vaccine roll-out had raised hopes. However, 3 months into the vaccination drive it became clear that India lacked the capacity to produce adequate vaccine to ensure coverage to 60% of its population.
  • Lack of fire safety equipment in hospitals: COVID-19 hospitals are catching fire, charring patients to death. Lives were lost sue to shoddy implementation of Building Code in various districts.
  • Drug shortage and black marketing of remdesivir and tocilizumab, which are recommended drugs in mild to severe cases of covid-19.
  • Lack of ventilators: In large cities such as Mumbai, Delhi, Bangalore, people struggled to get ICU beds with ventilators. There was chaos in allocation of beds and the most vulnerable patients were unable to get treated which goes against the Right to Live under Article 21.
  • Huge gatherings amidst pandemic: Mass gatherings in the form of religious melas and poll campaign without covid appropriate behaviour meant rapid transmission of virus and mutation. Such laxity on the part of administration is the reason for the huge second wave in India.

Way forward

  • A zero-tolerance policy should be adopted on the black marketing of medicine. Misconceptions must be removed regarding the use of medicines for mild and asymptomatic cases to prevent any hoarding.
  • Drugs must be procured and disbursed directly based on the assessment of the Disaster Management Group and profiteering by companies and middlemen must be stopped.
  • There should be micro-planning at the local level and a website for every district to dispense complete information from beds to oxygen, medicines and ventilators at a click.
  • There is a need to accelerate the vaccination drive in the rural areas as well where people lack resources to book appointments online and get inoculated against the virus.

 

Topic: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

4. India’s management of the pandemic could be a faltering block to the country’s assertion to regional primacy. Do you agree? Explain. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article talks about how COVID-19 could impact India’s great power/leading power aspirations.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain how India’s management of the pandemic could be a faltering block to the country’s assertion to regional primacy.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

The second wave of COVID-19 has prompted India to accept foreign aid after a gap of 17 years. This is bound to have far-reaching strategic implications for India.

Body:

COVID 2.0 has quickened the demise of India’s regional primacy.

The country’s geopolitical decline is likely to begin in the neighbourhood itself – a strategic space which India has been forced to cede to China over the past decade or so.

South Asian states are likely to favour China, if they haven’t already.

While the Indo-Pacific is geopolitically keen and ready to engage with India, the pandemic could adversely impact India’s ability and desire to contribute to the Indo-Pacific and the Quad.

Eventually, the Indo-Pacific balance of power could turn in Beijing’s favour.

Talk about the domestic politics.

Bring out the India-China equations.

Conclusion:

Suggest way forward and solutions to address to it.

Introduction

The second wave of COVID-19 and its agonising consequences, prompting the country to accept foreign aid after a gap of 17 years, is bound to have far-reaching strategic implications for India. As a direct consequence of the pandemic, New Delhi’s claim to regional primacy and leadership will take a major hit, its ‘leading power’ aspirations will be dented, and accentuate its domestic political contestations. These in turn will impact the content and conduct of India’s foreign policy in the years to come.

Body

India’s dented regional primacy due to covid-19 second wave

  • COVID 2.0 has quickened the demise of India’s regional primacy.
  • Regrettably, the country’s geopolitical decline is likely to begin in the neighbourhood itself, a strategic space which New Delhi has been forced to cede to Beijing over the past decade or so, a phenomenon that was intensified by the aggressive regional policies of Modi 1.0.
  • India’s traditional primacy in the region was built on a mix of material aid, political influence and historical ties.
  • Its political influence is steadily declining, its ability to materially help the neighbourhood will shrink in the wake of COVID-19, and its historical ties alone may not do wonders to hold on to a region hungry for development assistance and political autonomy.
  • As a result, South Asian states are likely to board the Chinese bandwagon, if they haven’t already.
  • COVID-19, therefore, comes at a time when India’s standing in the region is already shrinking: the pandemic will unfortunately quicken the inevitable.
  • No doubt, New Delhi will be able to regain a certain sense of normalcy in a few months, but the mishandling of the pandemic has dealt it a weaker hand in ongoing backchannel talks with Islamabad and border negotiations with Beijing.
  • But even longer-lasting damage has been done to India’s soft power. This is a big problem for the government as it was soft power that allowed New Delhi to assert itself for a seat at the global high table to begin with.

Constraints to expand India’s regional power

  • While the Indo-Pacific is geopolitically keen and ready to engage with India, the pandemic could adversely impact India’s ability and desire to contribute to the Indo-Pacific and the Quad.
  • COVID-19, for instance, will prevent any ambitious military spending or modernisation plans (called for in the wake of the stand-off at the Line of Actual Control (LAC)) and limit the country’s attention on global diplomacy and regional geopolitics, be it Afghanistan or Sri Lanka or the Indo-Pacific.
  • With reduced military spending and lesser diplomatic attention to regional geopolitics, New Delhi’s ability to project power and contribute to the growth of the Quad will be uncertain.
  • While the outpouring of global aid to India shows that the world realises India is too important to fail, the international community might also reach the conclusion that post-COVID-19 India is too fragile to lead and be a ‘leading power’.
  • New Delhi is pivotal to the Indo-Pacific project, but with India’s inability to take a lead role and China wooing smaller states in the region away from the Indo-Pacific with aid and threats, the Indo-Pacific balance of power could eventually turn in Beijing’s favour.

Way Forward

Post-COVID-19, Indian foreign policy is therefore likely to be a holding operation. These strategic consequences of the pandemic will shape the content and conduct of India’s foreign policy in several important ways.

  • India must ramp up efforts to stop the virus transmission and improve its health infrastructure on war footing.
  • Once, the pandemic second wave subsides, India must concentrate on regional aid and relief to its neighbours and restart the projects to strengthen its soft power.
  • Ramp up vaccination of all adults and production so that Vaccine Maitri can resume. This can recover India’s regional supremacy in a big way.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

5. Discuss about the recent measures taken by RBI to resolve the challenges faced by several sectors in India amid ongoing second wave of Covid 19 pandemic. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

RBI unveils Rs 50,000 crore fund support to healthcare; liquidity push.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss about the recent measures taken by RBI to resolve the challenges faced by several sectors in India amid ongoing second wave of Covid 19 pandemic.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what kind of pressure the covid-19 has brought to the economy of the country.

Body:

Discuss in detail the scheme being floated by RBI – Under the scheme, banks can provide fresh lending support to a wide range of entities including vaccine manufacturers, importers and suppliers of vaccines and priority medical devices, hospitals and dispensaries, pathology labs, manufactures and suppliers of oxygen and ventilators, importers of vaccines and Covid-related drugs, logistics firms and also patients for treatment.

Discuss all the measures floated by the RBI.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction

With the raging Covid pandemic putting severe stress on the economy, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) on Wednesday unveiled a host of measures to boost fund flow to the healthcare sector and ease the pain of small borrowers and units.

Body

Measures taken by RBI in the wake of pandemic

  • The RBI has opened an on-tap liquidity window of Rs 50,000 crore with tenors of up to three years at the repo rate – four per cent — till March 31, 2022 to boost provision of immediate liquidity for ramping up Covid-related healthcare infrastructure and services in the country.
  • Under the scheme, banks can provide fresh lending support to a wide range of entities including vaccine manufacturers, importers and suppliers of vaccines and priority medical devices, hospitals and dispensaries, pathology labs, manufactures and suppliers of oxygen and ventilators, importers of vaccines and Covid-related drugs, logistics firms and also patients for treatment.
  • Banks are being incentivised for quick delivery of credit under the scheme through extension of priority sector classification to such lending up to March 31, 2022.
  • These loans will continue to be classified under priority sector till repayment or maturity, whichever is earlier.
  • Banks are expected to create a Covid loan book under the scheme. By way of an additional incentive, such banks will be eligible to park their surplus liquidity up to the size of the Covid loan book with the RBI under the reverse repo window at a rate which is 25 bps lower than the repo rate or, termed in a different way, 40 bps higher than the reverse repo rate.
  • The RBI has decided to conduct special three-year long-term repo operations (SLTRO) of Rs 10,000 crore at repo rate for small finance banks, to be deployed for fresh lending of up to 10 lakh per borrower.
  • This is to provide further support to small business units, micro and small industries, and other unorganised sector entities adversely affected during the current wave of the pandemic.
  • SFBs will be permitted to reckon fresh lending to smaller MFIs (with asset size of up to Rs 500 crore) for on-lending to individual borrowers as priority sector lending. This means there will be concessions on interest rates and repayments. This facility will be available up to March 31, 2022.
  • The RBI has decided to rationalise certain components of the extant KYC norms. These include (a) extending the scope of video KYC known as V-CIP (video-based customer identification process) for new categories of customers.
  • The RBI also announced certain relaxations in Overdraft (OD) facilities of State Governments so that they can better manage their fiscal situation in terms of their cash-flows and market borrowings.

Conclusion

The global economy is exhibiting incipient signs of recovery as countries renew their tryst with growth, supported by monetary and fiscal stimulus. Still, activity remains uneven across countries and sectors. In the wake of this, RBI measures show that they are committed to go unconventional and devise new responses as and when the situation demands.

 

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

6. What do you mean by climate forcing? Explain the factors that cause the Earth’s climate to change. (250 words)

Reference:  Eco Watch

Why the question:

The question is premised on the topic of climate Forcings and its effect on Earth’s climate.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss what you understand by climate forcing and explain the factors that cause Earth’s climate to change.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with definition of climate forcing.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Explain the meaning of climate forcing and related phenomenon with relevant examples.

Discuss various natural; Solar Irradiance, Volcanic Eruptions, Plate tectonics etc. and anthropogenic causes of climate change.

Variations in the Earth’s Orbit and anthropogenic causes of climate change.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions to address and mitigate the challenge of climate change before us.

Introduction

Climate forcing is the physical process of affecting the climate on the Earth through a number of forcing factors. These factors are specifically known as forcings because they drive the climate to change, and it is important to note that these forcings exist outside of the existing climate system.

Body

Climate forcing: Concept

  • The climate system includes the hydrosphere, land surface, the cryosphere, the biosphere, and atmosphere.
  • Examples of some of the most important types of forcings include: variations in solar radiation levels, volcanic eruptions, changing albedo, and changing levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
  • Each of these are considered external forcings because these events change independently of the climate, perhaps as a result of changes in solar activity or human-caused fossil fuel combustion.
  • Typically, the climate is affected due to some modification in the Earth’s energy flow.
  • Since temperature and other characteristics that define climate are constrained by energy flows in and out of the planet, all of the physical processes that are capable of modifying these flows are important to modelling climate change.
  • The Earth responds to these forcings by establishing a new balance at a new temperature. This new steady state is a forced steady state as it is not the natural state, rather it was caused as a result of human activities.
  • The rate at which the climate changes in response to forcing – particularly positive radiative forcing – depends on factors such as how well the ocean can store heat.

Factors causing Earth’s climate change

  • Natural causes include volcano eruptions, ocean currents and orbital changes, but these sources generally have smaller and shorter-term environmental impacts.
  • Increased solar radiation triggering the Ice Ages to the asteroid strike that rapidly raised global temperatures and eliminated dinosaurs and many other species in the process was the consequence of Climate Change by natural causes.
  • Humanity’s increased use of fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas to generate electricity, run cars and other forms of transport, and power manufacturing and industry.
  • Rapid Deforestation: It is one of the biggest causes because living trees absorb and store carbon dioxide. Land degradation and cutting trees incessantly have depleted the rich carbon sink. Eg: Amazon forests are called the lungs of the earth.
  • Increasingly intensive agriculture which emits greenhouse gases like methane and nitrous oxide.
  • Anthropogenic causes are rapidly increasing the pace og climate change and one of them is global warming.
  • The industrial activities that our modern civilization depends upon have raised atmospheric carbon dioxide levels from 280 parts per million to 414 parts per million in the last 150 years.
  • The IPCC panel also concluded there’s a better than 95 percent probability that human-produced greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide have caused much of the observed increase in Earth’s temperatures over the past 50 years.

Conclusion

It’s taken centuries to reach a climate tipping point, with just a matter of decades left to prevent the worst-case climate scenarios from happening. But there’s still hope of controlling a warming climate as long as individuals, companies and nations make an immediate concerted effort to lower greenhouse gas emissions. As the world already experienced with the COVID-19 pandemic, a rapid unified response can make all the difference.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

7. Public Servants occupy vital position in the government in terms of dealing with huge amount of public funds and their decisions have wide ramifications. Thus there is a need for creating ethical competent public Servants. In this backdrop, discuss ways to promote ethical competence among public Servants. (250 words)

Reference:  Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question is based on the importance of ethical competence to public servants.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss ways to promote ethical competence among public Servants.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what you understand by Ethical competence in general.

Body:

With great power comes great responsibility. Civil servants have to ensure proper utilisation, appropriation and allocation of funds. The decisions undertaken by the Civil Servant impact large number of individuals and society as a whole.

Thus, considering large impact of their action, it is necessary to lay a strong foundation of ethical values amongst Civil Servants.

Move on to discuss ways to improve ethical competence among them such as by inculcating values of integrity, sense of responsibility, values of leaders etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of building ethical competence among public Servants.

Introduction

Civil servants are responsible for the greater good of the society. The responsibility of vast number of people and their welfare is in the hands of civil servants, as the officials facilitate implementation of social welfare schemes of the government.

Body

Need to groom ethically competent public servants

  • Even though there is constitutional and legal sanctity to the exercise of power by civil services, the legitimacy is gained through the manner in which it is exercised.
  • Ethics in public administration is essential to build public trust. And thus, in order for civil servants to exercise power with justice and fairness, ethics becomes necessary.
  • Civil servants have to ensure proper utilisation, appropriation and allocation of funds.
  • The decisions undertaken by the Civil Servant impact large number of individuals and society as a whole.
  • Civil servants were called the steel frame of the country which has now taking the idiom of bureaucratic babus. This shows the moral deterioration of ethics in public servants.

Ways to promote ethical competence among public servants

  • Avoid conflict of interests-Setting accountability clearly demarcates area of one’s actions where he or she is required to act.
  • Civil Servant needs to take pride in integrity such as procedural integrity where there is a lot of discretion. This will help in valuing taxpayer’s hard-earned money and ensure proper utilisation of funds.
  • There is need to create a sense of responsibility amongst Civil Servants, wherein they understand that power is not a privilege and need to keep away from usurpation of power.
  • There is also a need to promote values learned from the lives of great leaders like Mahatma Gandhi, Mother Teresa and Swami Vivekananda, to become the true steel frame of the country.
  • Civil Servant also needs to follow the principle of sustainable development and trusteeship so as to help India achieve ‘common future’ or ‘sustainable future’ targets.
  • The techniques of attitude and behavioural change like cognitive appeal, emotional appeal needs to be adopted.
  • Further, serving Civil Servant need to be advised to practice code of ethics and code of conduct. Training in this regard must be given due importance.
  • Improve the emotional intelligence quotient of an officer by more field visits and understanding the hardships of the people.

Conclusion

Thus, adopting the above methods in letter and spirit will ensure creating a strong foundation of ethically competent Civil Servant, which is a condition precedent for achieving inclusive growth along with sustainable development.