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[Insights Secure STHIR– 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 06 May 2021

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General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary—Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.

1. Discuss the scope and issues related to judicial governance in this unprecedented medical crisis facing the country. (250 words)

Reference:  Hindustan Times

Why the question:

Editorial is discussing scope & issues related judicial governance in this unprecedented medical crisis. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the scope and issues related to judicial governance in this unprecedented medical crisis facing the country.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what is Judicial Governance.

Body:

Explain first the recent issues amidst covid-19 times taken up by the courts like – High court (HC) under Art. 226 & Supreme Court (SC) under Art. 32 (extraordinary jurisdiction to protect personal liberty) are intervening to ensure actions from executive on production and allocation of medical oxygen and the urgent requirement of basic medical infrastructure such as beds and drugs. According to some sections, suo motu petition being heard by SC is an act of interference in the executive policy domain, specifically on the issue of vaccination. During the 2G spectrum litigation, a Constitution Bench held that the court cannot enforce a policy decision on the executive.

Explain the issue and application of judicial review and judicial overreach in pandemic response.

Provide for a cursory view on preparation status of government with respect to covid immunisation program and challenges thereof.

Conclusion:

Suggest what needs to be done and conclude.

 

Topic: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary—Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.

2. Critically examine the recent judgment of Supreme Court in Maratha reservation case. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

In its judgment striking down Maharashtra’s Maratha quota, a five-judge Constitution Bench was unanimous on 3 issues and split 3:2 on another 3. A look at how the Bench ruled on these 6 issues.

Key Demand of the question:

Critically examine the recent judgment of Supreme Court in Maratha reservation case.

Directive:

Critically examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief background of the question.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Briefly explain the verdict of Indra Sawhney case.

Then present the case of Maratha quota; the court held that there is no need to revisit the case. The court said that the 50% ceiling, although an arbitrary determination by the court in 1992, is now constitutionally recognized.

Present the arguments made by State and countered by the apex court.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of such judgments.

 

Topic: Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.

3. Dearth of planning is the foremost cause behind the shortage of equipment during pandemic crisis. Do you agree with this view? Elaborate. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The article brings to life the crisis that Health sector is facing in the ongoing pandemic.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in what way dearth of planning is the foremost cause behind the shortage of equipment during pandemic crisis.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

People are constantly calling Lokmat offices seeking help to secure beds, obtain oxygen cylinders or arrange for vaccines and medicines. The situation is horrifying .

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Discuss the grim conditions of health infrastructure in the country; substantiate it with suitable facts and data.

Move on to explain the failures in planning that has happened in handling the situation. There should be micro-planning at the local level and a website for every district to dispense complete information on beds, oxygen, medicines and ventilators with a click.

Suggest measures in detail to address the issue.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of planning and its timely execution.

 

Topic: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

4. India’s management of the pandemic could be a faltering block to the country’s assertion to regional primacy. Do you agree? Explain. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article talks about how COVID-19 could impact India’s great power/leading power aspirations.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain how India’s management of the pandemic could be a faltering block to the country’s assertion to regional primacy.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

The second wave of COVID-19 has prompted India to accept foreign aid after a gap of 17 years. This is bound to have far-reaching strategic implications for India.

Body:

COVID 2.0 has quickened the demise of India’s regional primacy.

The country’s geopolitical decline is likely to begin in the neighbourhood itself – a strategic space which India has been forced to cede to China over the past decade or so.

South Asian states are likely to favour China, if they haven’t already.

While the Indo-Pacific is geopolitically keen and ready to engage with India, the pandemic could adversely impact India’s ability and desire to contribute to the Indo-Pacific and the Quad.

Eventually, the Indo-Pacific balance of power could turn in Beijing’s favour.

Talk about the domestic politics.

Bring out the India-China equations.

Conclusion:

Suggest way forward and solutions to address to it.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

5. Discuss about the recent measures taken by RBI to resolve the challenges faced by several sectors in India amid ongoing second wave of Covid 19 pandemic. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

RBI unveils Rs 50,000 crore fund support to healthcare; liquidity push.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss about the recent measures taken by RBI to resolve the challenges faced by several sectors in India amid ongoing second wave of Covid 19 pandemic.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what kind of pressure the covid-19 has brought to the economy of the country.

Body:

Discuss in detail the scheme being floated by RBI – Under the scheme, banks can provide fresh lending support to a wide range of entities including vaccine manufacturers, importers and suppliers of vaccines and priority medical devices, hospitals and dispensaries, pathology labs, manufactures and suppliers of oxygen and ventilators, importers of vaccines and Covid-related drugs, logistics firms and also patients for treatment.

Discuss all the measures floated by the RBI.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

6. What do you mean by climate forcing? Explain the factors that cause the Earth’s climate to change. (250 words)

Reference:  Eco Watch

Why the question:

The question is premised on the topic of climate Forcings and its effect on Earth’s climate.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss what you understand by climate forcing and explain the factors that cause Earth’s climate to change.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with definition of climate forcing.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Explain the meaning of climate forcing and related phenomenon with relevant examples.

Discuss various natural; Solar Irradiance, Volcanic Eruptions, Plate tectonics etc. and anthropogenic causes of climate change.

Variations in the Earth’s Orbit and anthropogenic causes of climate change.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions to address and mitigate the challenge of climate change before us.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

7. Public Servants occupy vital position in the government in terms of dealing with huge amount of public funds and their decisions have wide ramifications. Thus there is a need for creating ethical competent public Servants. In this backdrop, discuss ways to promote ethical competence among public Servants. (250 words)

Reference:  Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question is based on the importance of ethical competence to public servants.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss ways to promote ethical competence among public Servants.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what you understand by Ethical competence in general.

Body:

With great power comes great responsibility. Civil servants have to ensure proper utilisation, appropriation and allocation of funds. The decisions undertaken by the Civil Servant impact large number of individuals and society as a whole.

Thus, considering large impact of their action, it is necessary to lay a strong foundation of ethical values amongst Civil Servants.

Move on to discuss ways to improve ethical competence among them such as by inculcating values of integrity, sense of responsibility, values of leaders etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of building ethical competence among public Servants.


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