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RSTV: SCIENCE MONITOR 27.03.2021

RSTV

 

 

Centre of Excellence for Intelligent Sensors and Systems:

  • Union Minister inaugurated the Centre of Excellence for Intelligent Sensors and Systems at CSIR-CSIO.
  • This facility will house the development of Multisensor systems based on Seismic, Acoustic, IR and UWB in the area of perimeter monitoring for societal and strategic applications using Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning.
  • Such initiatives will kick-start a lot of synergies to proven strengths in many areas, which are at the heart of the ‘Make in India’ dream.
  • CSIR-CSIO has a head-start by already having delivered in the complex, multi-disciplinary areas of Earthquake monitoring Systems which have helped in real-time disaster management for metro rail systems and avionic display systems for Indian defence needs.
  • Air sampling devices for detection of COVID 19 virus in aerosols with the economical solution having better suction capacity having less noise levels making it suitable for deployment in hospitals and other critical areas in place of expensive imported equipment.
  • CSIO is committed to develop indigenous technologies as per the needs of the nation with minimum dependence on imports to provide impetus towards achieving the goal of Atmanirbhar Bharat.

Automated system to detect colorectal cancer:

  • Researchers from the Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati (IIT-Guwahati) has designed an automated Artificial Intelligence-based system to detect colorectal cancer in collaboration with scientists from research institutions in Japan and the United States of America.
  • Colorectal cancer is the third most common type of cancer among men and women in India. It can be cured if detected early.
  • The commonly used technique to detect colorectal cancer is colonoscopy, in which the medical personnel attending the patient – physician, gastroenterologist or oncologist – visually inspects the image obtained by a camera inserted into the colon of the subject.
  • In the current manual approach for colonoscopy examination, observation bias may sometimes lead to an erroneous diagnosis.
  • The new technique promises to overcome this problem and help the physician to not only accurately but also rapidly detect cancer.
  • It is also based on analysis of colonoscopy images. The only difference is that the system is based on artificial intelligence and does the analysis automatically.
  • Presently, during the visual examination, doctors check for the presence of abnormal tissue growths (polyps) and study their features including shape, surface structure and contour to classify them into different categories (neoplastic and non-neoplastic).
  • The multi-institutional team extracted the shape, texture and color components through artificial intelligence algorithms using different filters. The statistical significance in the contribution of different components was then evaluated, followed by feature selection, classifier selection based on six measures, and cross-validation.
  • To evaluate the robustness of their system, they compared their work with four classical deep learning models and found theirs to be better than others.
  • The research team is excited with their results and believes that their work would have a global impact on the detection of colorectal cancer.
  • They plan to commercialize the technology in the future as the market need is enormous. However, before commercialization, they have laid out an ambitious research plan to fine tune their system.

4 Indians completed 1 year training at Russia:

  • The four cosmonauts shortlisted for Gaganyaan, India’s first manned space mission, have completed their training in Russia.
  • The ₹10,000-crore ambitious project is expected to be launched in 2022, the year of the 75th anniversary of India’s Independence.
  • The Four Indian Air Force fighter pilots are likely to be potential candidates for the Gaganyaan project.
  • The contract for the training of Indian candidates for space flight between the Glavkosmos company (part of the Roscosmos State Corporation) and the Manned Space Flight Center of the Indian Space Research Organisation was signed on June 27, 2019.
  • The entire process of preparation and training included a number of elements necessary for future cosmonauts, such as medical and physical training, studying the Russian language, studying the design, layout and systems of the Soyuz transport manned spacecraft.
  • Objectives of the Gaganyaan Mission:
    • Enhancement of science and technology levels in the country
    • A national project involving several institutes, academia and industry
    • Improvement of industrial growth
    • Inspiring youth
    • Development of technology for social benefits
    • Improving international collaboration

 

Genome mapping expedition in Indian ocean by CSIR NIO:

  • CSIR-NIO has launched a 90 days Expedition to Indian Ocean to conduct genome and proteome mapping of microorganisms present in the seawater and sediments.
  • The team of researchers will be cruising through Indian Ocean for nearly 3 months, collecting huge amount of samples to unravel the mysteries in Indian Ocean.
  • The expedition will be starting from Visakhapatnam Port, going to the mouth of Hooghly, Brahmaputra and going southwards right up to 30oS latitude along 90oE.
  • With a fuel refill at Mauritius, the team will continue the return journey northwards coming up to EEZ of Pakistan and back to Goa. The expedition will cover approximately 10,000 Nautical miles.
  • The team will be cruising through CSIR-NIOs Research Vessel Sindhu Sadhana.
  • One of the key objectives of the mission is to identify and characterise the genes and proteins in the ocean to understand the cellular level processes occurring in the microorganisms is response.
  • Proteins act as markers and catalysts for the biochemical reactions occurring in the organisms existing in the various conditions in the ocean.
  • By studying proteomics, one can understand the various cellular biochemical changes and their response to the climate change, nutrient stress, increasing pollution.
  • By studying proteomics, the researchers will be able to   identify the physiological responses of the organisms under varying ocean conditions.
  • This will allow the scientists  to understand cellular biochemistry and the response of ocean to the climate change, nutrient stress and  pollution.
  • The large pool of RNA, DNA library of the oceans will be utilised for future bio-prospecting in the Indian Ocean. Rapid advances in sequencing technologies and bioinformatics have enabled exploration of the ocean genome.