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[Insights Secure STHIR– 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 03 May 2021

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Important Geophysical phenomena

1. Explain the theory around Earth’s axial tilt. Discuss the major factors causing the shift in Earth’s axis. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The question is based on the theory of Earth’s axial tilt.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain the theory around Earth’s axial tilt. Discuss the major factors causing the shift in Earth’s axis.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define the concept of Earth’s axial tilt briefly.

Body:

The Earth’s axis of rotation is the line along which it spins around itself as it revolves around the Sun. The points on which the axis intersects the planet’s surface are the geographical north and south poles.

The location of the poles is not fixed, however, as the axis moves due to changes in how the Earth’s mass is distributed around the planet. Thus, the poles move when the axis moves, and the movement is called “polar motion”.

Discuss the major factors causing the shift in Earth’s axis.

Conclusion:

Conclude with its importance.

 

Topic: Social empowerment

2. Monetizing the household care is instrumental in addressing the gender disparity in India. Explain. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The article explains the measures to address gender inequalities through recognition of unpaid care work.

Key Demand of the question:

Election promises have sparked a debate on the issue of care work and possible solutions to address the disparities therein.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief background of the question.

Body:

Explain the recent initiatives that have brought the issue to fore – From a monthly assistance to women family heads in Tamil Nadu to an enhanced Orunodoi scheme in Assam, pension for housewives in Kerala and income support to female heads of households in West Bengal, various proposals for ‘empowerment’ have been put forward by various parties to reach out to women voters.

The promises have sparked a debate on the issue of care work and possible solutions to address the disparities therein.

Define unpaid care work, according to the OECD, refers to all unpaid services provided within a household for its members, including care of persons, housework and voluntary community work. These activities are considered work because theoretically one could pay a third person to perform them.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

3. How far do you agree with the view that a law for criminal contempt is asynchronous with the freedom of speech guaranteed under Indian constitution. Evaluate. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The Supreme Court has issued a timely warning to the States against any attempt to clamp down on the dissemination of information about the serious health crisis besetting the country, or calls for help through social media from citizens affected by COVID-19.

Key Demand of the question:

One is expected to analyse in what way law for criminal contempt is asynchronous with the freedom of speech guaranteed under Indian constitution.

Directive:

Evaluate – When you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming a personal opinion here.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with present conditions in the country in relevance to the question.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Discuss the present nuances with respect to criminal contempt law and explain in what way freedom of speech guaranteed under our constitution is being compromised by it.

One must give examples amidst covid-19 cases and justify the answer.

Conclusion:

Suggest solutions to address the issue at hand.

 

Topic: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

4. Analyse the scope and potential of India-Japan ties in the background of new dynamism of global politics and closeness of US-Japan relations. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article analyses the scope and potential of India-Japan ties in the background of new dynamism of global politics and closeness of US-Japan relations.

Key Demand of the question:

Analyse the scope and potential of India-Japan ties in the background of new dynamism of global politics and closeness of US-Japan relations.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief history of India-Japan ties.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Discuss the Scope for a deepened India-Japan ties – Balancing security policy against China, Scope for technology partnership, Economic ties, Scope for expansion: Support for key manufacturing initiatives such as ‘Make in India’ and Japan Industrial Townships, secure infrastructure investments in strategically vital connectivity projects currently underway in Northeast and Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Etc.

Explain that time has come for India and Japan to take a hard look at reports suggesting that joint infrastructure projects in Africa and Iran have stalled with substantial cost overruns and different stand on Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership.

Conclusion:

Writing in 2006, Shinzo Abe, in his book, Utsukushii Kuni E (Toward a Beautiful Country), expressed his hope that “it would not be a surprise if, in another 10 years, Japan­India relations over­ take Japan­U.S. And Japan­China relations.”

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Disaster and disaster management.

5. Discuss the measures that need to be adapted to prevent fire hazards in hospitals during the COVID-19 health crisis and suggest post-disaster recovery plan. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

Over the past few weeks there have been deadly fires in hospital buildings, including those treating COVID-19 patients, thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the measures that need to be adapted to prevent fire hazards in hospitals during the COVID-19 health crisis and suggest post-disaster recovery plan.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with recent episodes of fire safety breaches that occurred in hospitals across the country.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Discuss the reasons first – The National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) says 330 people died in commercial building fires in 2019, while fatalities for residential or dwelling buildings were much higher at 6,329. Electrical faults are cited as the leading cause of fires, but State governments are also widely criticized+ for being lax with building safety laws and for failing to equip public buildings with modern technology.

Discuss what needs to be done. What measures must be taken to prevent these incidences.

Suggest a Disaster recovery plan.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic: Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

6. Critically analyse the various provisions of National Policy on Biofuels-2018 which were different from 2009 policy. (250 words)

Reference:  Economic Times.

Why the question:

The question is based on the National policy on Biofuels -2018.  

Key Demand of the question:

Critically analyse the various provisions of National Policy on Biofuels-2018 which were different from 2009 policy.

Directive:

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the definition of Biofuels.

Body:

Discuss in detail the decision of the government to make alcohol from rice. The move was bound to trigger the debate over food security of the country with a population ravaged by hunger and poverty. While the 2009 biofuel policy had stressed the use of non-food resources, the 2018 updated policy allowed using excess grains.

Compare the two and critically analyse.

Conclusion:

Conclude with what should be the way forward.

 

Topic: Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

7. India needs a Solar Waste Management and Manufacturing Standards Policy. Do you agree? Comment. (250 words)

Reference:   Economic Times.

Why the question:

The question is based on the theme of Solar Energy.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the need for needs a Solar Waste Management and Manufacturing Standards Policy for India.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the definition of Solar energy; The radiation that is received from the sun and utilized in the form electricity and thermal energy by using various available technologies like photovoltaic panels, solar heater etc.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

First discuss the importance of solar energy, its need in terms of energy security, economic development, social development, environmental concerns etc.

Then discuss the challenges and more so specifically with respect to Solar Waste Management and Manufacturing Standards Policy.

Suggest what needs to be done to overcome these challenges.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions and importance of solar energy as a source of renewable energy in the country.


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