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Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 30 April 2021


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.

1. Despite numerous efforts by the government to eliminate child marriage, it is widely prevalent in India. By examining the reasons, discuss the bearing of child marriage on Indian economy. (250 words)

Reference:  Down to Earth

Why the question:

The article presents to us the importance of Time and support as the essence in preventing child marriages.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the factors responsible for child marriages in India and examine them by evaluating their impact on the economy.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with some shocking data related to Child marriages in India that can show some appreciation of the context of the question.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Discuss the efforts of government in eliminating Child marriages in India and explain why the efforts haven’t been very fruitful.

Examine the reasons that have led to child marriages in the country from past to present and also its prevalence.

Discuss the bearing of child marriage on Indian economy.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions to address the problems.

Introduction

Recent analysis by UNICEF points out that one in three of the world’s child brides live in India. It has also warned India against the increase in child marriages owing to the adversaries of COVID-19.  To achieve the commitment of ending child marriages by 2030, it becomes important to integrate the COVID -19 responses with child marriage elimination efforts.

Body

The factors that encourage its subsistence are usually a combination of poverty, the lack of education, continued perpetration of patriarchal relations that encourage and facilitate gender inequalities, and cultural perspectives that encourage the phenomenon to thrive.

Continued prevalence of child marriage in India

  • Lack of education: A big determinant of the age of marriage is education. Around 45% of women with no education and 40% with primary education married before the age of 18, according to NFHS-4.
  • Seen as a Burden: Economically, child marriages work as mechanisms that are quick income earners. A girl child is seen as a leeway to a large dowry, to be given to her family upon her marriage.
  • Poverty: In terms of economic status, women from poor households tend to marry earlier. While more than 30% of women from the lowest two wealth quintiles were married by the age of 18, the corresponding figure in the richest quintile was 8%.
  • Social background: Child marriages are more prevalent in rural areas and among Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.
  • Trafficking: Poor families are tempted to sell their girls not just into marriage, but into prostitution, as the transaction enables large sums of money to benefit the girl’s family and harms the girl. There is apathy towards their girls and the money by selling their girls is used for the benefit of their sons

Impact of child marriage on Indian economy

  • Child marriage negatively affects the Indian economy and can lead to an intergenerational cycle of poverty.
  • Girls and boys married as children more likely lack the skills, knowledge and job prospects needed to lift their families out of poverty and contribute to their country’s social and economic growth.
  • Early marriage leads girls to have children earlier and more children over their lifetime, increasing economic burden on the household.
  • Child marriage is estimated to cost economies at least 1.7 percent of their GDP.
  • It increases total fertility of women by 17 percent, which hurts developing countries battling high population growth.
  • As per IRCW study, the welfare benefit in ending child marriage is estimated to be $22.1 billion globally in the first year (2015). This number increases to $566 billion annually by 2030, for a cumulative welfare benefit of more than $4 trillion. Considering how one out of three such marriages happen in India, this impact is huge on India.
  • Decreased household sizes would lead to an increased availability of funds which then could be used to pay for food, education, health care and other expenses for other members of the household.

Conclusion

India needs greater granular analysis to better target efforts against child marriage. As part of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals, India has promised to eliminate child marriage by 2030. To achieve this, there should be greater emphasis on girl’s education and making education more accessible to and affordable for girls from poor families.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

2. Analyse the nuances of sovereign control of the State over the temples. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article presents understanding the demand for relieving government control of temples.

Key Demand of the question:

One is expected to analyse the nuances of sovereign control of the State over the temples.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief context of the question.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Arguments to justify sovereign control of the State over the temples – Historical and cultural dimension, Secular distinction, Constitutional provisions of religious liberty; Article 25(2)(a), Article 25(2)(b).

Then present your arguments in support of relieving government control of temples – Gross misconduct in temple administration, State control is limited to secular activities, Demand for the right of representation in affairs of management of temples etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way ahead.

Introduction

With claims of the state government looting the temple money and leaving temples to die, the campaign of ‘Free Hindu temples’ is on a full flow. On the other hand, it is argued that the increase in the government control is attributed to the local communities deserting the temples due to local issues, including enmity among the management committees.

Body

Background for State intervention in control of temples

  • Constituent Assembly framed the religious liberty clauses keeping in mind the historical prohibition of entry to certain classes and sections of Hindu society.
  • Article 25(2) grants power to the State to enact law on two distinct aspects. Article 25(2)(a) empowers the state to regulate “economic, financial, political or other secular activities which may be associated with religious practice”.
  • Article 25(2)(b) enables the state to enact law to prohibit the exclusion of ‘classes and sections’ of Hindu society to enter into Hindu temples of a public character and also make law for social welfare and reform.
  • Thus, the control of secular aspects associated with religion and the power to throw open Hindu temples to all classes and sections of society are distinct.
  • The control of secular aspects is not a measure of any social reform.
  • Viewed from this standpoint, the Hindu Religious and Charitable Endowments Department is not a “tribune for social justice” as argued in the article nor has it ever guaranteed equal access to worship.

Issue of sovereign control of State over the temples

  • The state has assumed the role of religious functionaries to determine who will be heads of Mutts and the authority to conduct poojas.
  • For example, The Shri Jagannath Temple Act, 1954 entrusted the committee appointed by the state with the task of ensuring the performance of seva pooja.
  • When the Act was questioned by the Raja of Puri before the Supreme Court, in Raja Birakishore vs The State Of Orissa, the Court made a revelation: the performance of a puja is in fact a secular act and, therefore, the state is justified in its regulation.
  • The exercise of state regulation of secular aspects of religion was taken to extreme lengths when the Court ruled that the state, by appointing temple priests, was exercising a secular function (Seshammal & Ors, Etc. Etc vs State Of Tamil Nadu).
  • Nowhere does the text of the Constitution permit the state to assume ownership of properties belonging to religious institutions and treat them as state largesse to be siphoned off.
  • Whatever style of secularism we subscribe to, surely the Indian state is not to tell the believer how he/she is to offer worship to the deity nor is it to tell the custodian of the deity how she will be appointed.

Way Forward

  • Lesson can be learnt from Religious Endowments Act (Act XX of 1863) repealing the pre-existing Bengal and Madras Regulations during British times.
  • In handing over the religious institutions to the society, it created committees in every district to exercise control over temples.
  • Section 8 of the Act provided that the members of the committee to be appointed from persons professing the religion, for purposes of which the religious establishment was founded or maintained and in accordance with the general wishes of those who are interested in the maintenance of the institution.
  • For this purpose, the local government caused an election.
  • In the spirit of equality of all religions, this scheme should be applicable to all religious institutions which would guarantee adequate community representation in the management of their places of worship.

 

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

3. Discuss how democratization of education through its digitalization can be a boon in the long term to ensure quality education. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The article explains that the aggravation of education crisis in India due to pandemic warrants for taking some urgent steps to solve the gaping education crisis.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss how democratization of education through its digitalization can be a boon in the long term to ensure quality education.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief context of the current crisis facing education.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Firstly explain the education crisis in India; with public schools being completely shut for an entire year now, the majority of our kids have had no access to any form of education for over 12 months. Due to obvious problems like lack of smart devices and access to the internet, these kids have missed an entire year of schooling. Most of them have probably also forgotten what they already knew.

Suggest solutions to address creative ways to solve gaping education crisis in short term such as restarting schools at outdoor locations and in smaller groups, expanding the definition of teachers, disseminating free standardized content through existing widespread mediums.

Explain how democratization of education through its digitalization can be a boon in the long term to ensure quality education.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction

The pandemic has created a mammoth crisis in education. Going digital is a solution that can also solve long-term problems of quality. The concept of education changed overnight and in these times of crisis, digital learning has emerged as an indispensable resource for education. But India has a huge digital divide.

Body

Crisis of education in India in times of Pandemic

  • Covid-19 hit the poor and marginalised the most. A similar but less noticed deprivation is being visited to children of the same people, which may push the next generation in a direction of even greater comparative disadvantage.
  • Digital Divide: According to the Indicators of Household Social Consumption on Education in India report, less than 15% of rural Indian households have Internet connection (as opposed to 42% urban Indian households).
    • Those with no access to the internet are still excluded from quality learning. Further, classes at times get disturbed due to connectivity issues.
    • As per NSSO data, only 4.4% of rural households and 23.4% of urban households have computer/laptop.
  • Difficult for parents to adjust to the online system. Parents complain of increased screen time for children, aren’t comfortable with technology themselves and increased pressure from the added household work due to the absence of domestic help adds to their problem.
  • Gender divide: Increased domestic responsibilities especially for girls is impairing the atmosphere of learning. According to a recent UN report, only 29% of all internet users are female, which indicates that transitions to digital learning may compound the gender gap in education.
  • Lack of vernacular content: Most of the content and existing lectures on internet are in English. In India, the Ministry of HRD data shows that there are only 17% English medium schools.
  • Creating new inequality: Only a handful of private schools, universities and IITs could adopt online teaching methods. Their low-income private and government counterparts, on the other hand, have completely shut down for not having access to e-learning solutions.
  • No inclusive: Issues of rural students, tribal children are not same. Not everyone can be onboarded to digital learning. Needs of these children must be thought of and a comprehensive learning policy must be made.

Democratising the education

  • While there were a lot of challenges and shortfalls in this transition to online learning, there were also huge gains. Availability of new and interactive global content, that included games, apps and much more, and access to high-quality global teachers.
  • Accessing and creating free standardised content that can be easily disseminated through existing widespread mediums like television, radio and telephone can be done immediately.
  • We should redefine who the “teacher” is and expand it to include parents, volunteers and older children in the community.
  • These people can support the traditional teacher and create continuity in the learning process. We could do this by giving autonomy to school authorities and creating decentralised community-based solutions.
  • Local authorities can work with their communities to create new localised learning solutions. This will also provide great opportunities for smaller experimental public-private partnerships.
  • We will also need to create new standardised assessments to ensure that continued learning on these platforms is taking place.

Measures taken by government in this regard

  • VidyaDaan is national program, in which individuals (teachers, educationists, subject experts etc.) & organizations (schools etc.) can contribute to e-learning in the education domain.
  • Diksha platform was launched in 2017, by MHRD to provide supplementary learning material for students and for upgrading the skills of teachers. The high-quality e-learning material both for students and teachers are available on this portal.
  • Access to Education: ‘SWAYAM’ scheme provides an opportunity to students to access courses taught in classrooms from ninth standard to post graduation, that can be accessed by anyone, anywhere at any time.
    • This digital scheme not only brings education at the door step of numerous students but also aims to bridge the digital divide as students who cannot join mainstream or formal education can access this application.
    • Another digital scheme is ‘ePATHSHALA’ which disseminates all educational content through website and mobile app.
  • Inclusive learning solutions need to be developed: With a rapid increase of mobile internet users in India, which is expected to reach 85% households by 2024, technology is enabling ubiquitous access and personalization of education even in the remotest parts of the country. This can change the schooling system and increase the effectiveness of learning and teaching.
  • Reducing the Gender Divide by leveraging the digital solutions to enrol out of school girls. Targeted Information and Education campaigns, curated content borrowing from behavioural science and interactive media can be used to incentivize girls to re-join the education journey.

Conclusion

A long-term outlook of digitalisation of education will truly democratise education. It can be an opportunity to provide equal access to the best quality of education to all. Globally, there is no shortage of high-quality content in education. In fact, we can even view this as an opportunity to train our teachers online and give them access to high-quality global training. In the long run, we can create a truly high-quality hybrid education model that combines the best online learning tools with well-trained face-to-face teachers.

 

Topic: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

4. Despite being one of the largest welfare states in the world, India seems to have failed to provide for its most vulnerable citizens during the COVID-19 pandemic. Critically analyse. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article explains how leveraging existing schemes and providing universal social security is of utmost importance in the current times.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the importance of making social welfare universal in the country and analyse the failures of the government in this regard while suggesting solutions to fix the same.

Directive:

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

India witnessed multiple crises: mass inter- and intra-migration, food insecurity, and crumbling health infrastructure. As per some estimates, the pandemic has pushed an estimated 75 million people into poverty. The second wave of the pandemic has also affected middle and upper-class citizens.

Body:

Explain that Economic capital, in the absence of social capital, has proven to be insufficient in accessing healthcare facilities. India has over 500 direct benefit transfer schemes for which various Central, State, and Line departments are responsible. However, these schemes have not reached those in need.

Then move on to argue for a universal social security system in India. Present arguments with suitable examples.

Conclusion:

Conclude that the pandemic has revealed that leveraging our existing schemes and providing universal social security is of utmost importance. This will help absorb the impact of external shocks on our vulnerable populations.

Introduction

India is grappling with the second wave of the pandemic that ravaged whole of 2020 around the globe. The country witnessed multiple crises: mass inter- and intra-migration, food insecurity, and a crumbling health infrastructure. The second wave has brought even the middle and upper-class citizens to their knees. Economic capital, in the absence of social capital, has proven to be insufficient in accessing healthcare facilities. Illness is universal, but healthcare is not.

Body

Welfare State falling short in handling pandemic

  • The country has over 500 direct benefit transfer schemes for which various Central, State, and Line departments are responsible. However, these schemes have not reached those in need.
  • Existing schemes cover a wide variety of social protections. However, they are fractionalised across various departments and sub-schemes. This causes problems beginning with data collection to last-mile delivery.
  • India is in now in the grips of a public health emergency. Social media feeds are full with videos of Covid funerals at crowded cemeteries, long queues of ambulances carrying gasping patients, mortuaries overflowing with the dead, and patients, sometimes two to a bed, in corridors and lobbies of hospitals.
  • There are frantic calls for help for beds, medicines, oxygen, essential drugs and tests. Drugs are being sold on the black market, and test results are taking days.
  • Amidst this, India had several elections and Kumbh mela without following proper social distancing norms that aggravated the situation.
  • Universal vaccination was slow and not targeted well, with inadequate supply that was not augmented by foreign vaccines.

Need for a universal social security

  • We have seen an example of a universal healthcare programme that India ran successfully — the Pulse Polio Universal Immunisation Programme. In 2014, India was declared polio-free. It took a dedicated effort over a number of years.
  • With the advancements in knowledge and technology, a universal coverage of social welfare is possible in a shorter time frame.
  • Having a universal system would improve the ease of application by consolidating the data of all eligible beneficiaries under one database. It can also reduce exclusion errors.
  • The Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Yojana (PMGKY) is one scheme that can be strengthened into universal social security. It already consolidates the public distribution system (PDS), the provision of gas cylinders, and wages for the MGNREGS.
  • Having a universal scheme would take away this access/exclusion barrier. For example, PDS can be linked to a universal identification card such as the Aadhaar or voter card, in the absence of a ration card.
  • This would allow anyone who is in need of foodgrains to access these schemes. It would be especially useful for migrant populations.
  • Making other schemes/welfare provisions like education, maternity benefits, disability benefits etc. also universal would ensure a better standard of living for the people.
  • The implementation of any of these ideas is only possible through a focus on data digitisation, data-driven decision-making and collaboration across government departments.

Conclusion
To ensure some of these issues are addressed, we need to map the State and Central schemes in a consolidated manner. This is to avoid duplication, inclusion and exclusion errors in welfare delivery. Alongside, a study to understand costs of welfare access for vulnerable groups can be conducted. This will help give a targeted way forward.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Disaster and disaster management.

5. Deliberate upon the risks and vulnerability of earthquakes in the Himalayan region. Also suggest earthquake preparedness measures to abate the effect of it. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

An earthquake with a magnitude of 6.4 struck Assam. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Deliberate upon the risks and vulnerability of earthquakes in the Himalayan region. Also suggest earthquake preparedness measures to abate the effect of it.

Directive:

Deliberate – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you agree with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

One can start with the definition of Earthquake.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Discuss briefly the Earthquake proneness of regions in India especially the seismic zones of India. Entire northeastern India, parts of the UTs Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Rann of Kutch, parts of North Bihar and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are classified as Zone-V.

Explain the risks and vulnerability of earthquakes in the Himalayan region.

Suggest earthquake preparedness measures to abate the effect of it.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction

Recently, Assam was hit by an earthquake of magnitude 6.0, causing damages to houses and buildings. The preliminary analysis shows that the events are located near to Kopili Fault closer to Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT). The area is seismically very active falling in the highest Seismic Hazard zone V associated with collisional tectonics where Indian plate sub-ducts beneath the Eurasian Plate

Body

Himalayan region and earthquake vulnerabilities

  • India falls prominently on the ‘Alpine – Himalayan Belt’. This belt is the line along which the Indian plate meets the Eurasian plate. Being a convergent plate, the Indian plate is thrusting underneath the Eurasian plate at a speed of 5 cm per year.
  • The movement gives rise to tremendous stress which keeps accumulating in the rocks and is released from time to time in the form of earthquakes.
  • India has been divided into four seismic zones according to the maximum intensity of earthquake expected.
  • Of these, zone V is the most active which comprises of whole of Northeast India, the northern portion of Bihar, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, J&K, Gujarat and Andaman & Nicobar Islands.
  • The entire Himalayan Region is considered to be vulnerable to high intensity earthquakes of a magnitude exceeding 8.0 on the Richter scale.

Risks of high magnitude Earthquakes

  • Primary damage: Damage occurs to human settlement, buildings, structures and infrastructure, especially bridges, elevated roads, railways, water towers, pipelines, electrical generating facilities.
  • Aftershocks of an earthquake can cause much greater damage to already weakened structures.
  • Secondary effects include fires, dam failure and landslides which may block water ways and also cause flooding, landslides, Tsunami, chemical spills, breakdown of communication facilities, human loss.
  • There is also a huge loss to the public health system, transport and water supply in the affected areas.
  • Tertiary impact of earthquake includes Post Trauma Stress Disorder (PTSD), long term psychological issues, loss of livelihood, disruption of social capital due to relocation related issues, etc.

Earthquake preparedness measures

  • Earthquake monitoring centres (seismological centres) for regular monitoring and fast dissemination of information among the people in the vulnerable areas should be established. Currently, Centre for Seismology (CS) is the nodal agency of Government of India responsible for monitoring seismic activity in and around the country.
  • A vulnerability map of the country along with dissemination of vulnerability risk information among the people can be done to minimize the adverse impacts.
  • Planning: The Bureau of Indian Standards has published building codes and guidelines for safe construction of buildings against earthquakes. Before the buildings are constructed the building plans have to be checked by the Municipality, according to the laid down by-laws.
  • Important buildings such as hospitals, schools and fire stations need to be upgraded by retrofitting techniques.
  • Community preparedness and public education on causes and characteristics of an earthquake and preparedness measures is important. It can be created through sensitization and training programme for community, by preparation of disaster management plans by schools, malls, hospitals etc. and carrying out mock drills, by preparing documentation on lessons from previous earthquaes and widely disseminating it.
  • Engineered structures: The soil type should be analysed before construction. Building structures on soft soil should be avoided. Similar problem persists in the buildings constructed on the river banks which have alluvial soil.
  • Encouraging use of Indigenous methods – Indigenous earthquake-resistant houses like the bhongas in the Kutch Region of Gujarat, dhajji diwari buildings in Jammu & Kashmir, brick-nogged wood frame constructions in Himachal Pradesh and ekra constructions made of bamboo in Assam are helpful in this regard.

Conclusion

It is not possible to prevent the occurrence of an earthquake; hence, the next best option is to lay emphasis on disaster preparedness and mitigation rather than curative measures. Hence, a robust early warning system, decentralised response mechanism is the best way forward.

 

Topic: Li-Fi

6. Can the Li-Fi technology prove to be the green avatar of Wi-Fi? Discuss and explain the challenges before India in realizing the potential of Li-Fi technology. (250 words)

Reference:  Live Mint

Why the question:

The question is based on the theme of Li-fi technology and it’s potential.

Key Demand of the question:

One has to analyse if the Li-Fi technology prove to be the green avatar of Wi-Fi.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what you understand by Li-Fi technology.

Body:

Li-Fi, or light fidelity, invented by German physicist and professor Harald Haas, is a wireless technology that makes use of visible light in place of radio waves to transmit data at terabits per second speeds—more than 100 times the speed of Wi-Fi.

Explain how Li-Fi works. List down its advantages and its limitations.

Present its potential applications.

Explain how it presents greater opportunity for India

Conclusion:

If Li-Fi can be put into practical use, every LED lamp (indoor as well as outdoor) can be converted into something like a hot spot to transmit data to every mobile device to achieve universal broadband communication between devices.

Introduction

Li-Fi (Light Fidelity) is similar to Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) but uses light for data transmission instead of radio waves. It facilitates the wireless method of data transmission through Visible Light Communication (VLC) technology and can be up to 100 times faster than Wi-Fi. It uses solid-state lighting (SSL) such as LED bulbs.

Body

Li-Fi uses visible light. This indicates that Li-Fi has a wider range of available frequencies as the visible light spectrum is 10,000 times larger than the entire radio spectrum. It covers frequencies from 430,000 to 770,000 GHz and colours from near-ultraviolet to near-infrared.

Li-Fi as a greener avatar of Wi-Fi

  • A technical solution for wireless pollution, power shortages and unavailability at outdoor locations should meet the 3L criteria: low interference, low power and low maintenance.
  • In addition, it has to support the three Hs of high data rates, high reliability and high affordability.
  • Since Li-Fi relies on visual light and not radio waves as the carrier, it has potential for the first two Hs, but the last one—high affordability—may be achieved only when volumes increase, as it has in the case of Wi-Fi.
  • The above characteristics can be met by an all-IP (packetized) Li-Fi system utilizing existing LED lamps which are ruggedized, have a high MTBF (mean time between failure) and consume less power, therefore replacing conventional lamps on existing structures in both indoor as well as outdoor without need for any additional power supply.
  • As Li-Fi can work without devices such as routers, modems, signal repeaters, wave amplifiers and antennas, it would not incur an extra cost. It would substantially reduce the e-waste.

Challenges in realizing the potential in India

  • The main challenge is to create a Li-Fi ecosystem, which will need the conversion of existing smartphones into Li-Fi enabled ones by the use of a converter/adapter.
  • Also, an integrated chip that has both light-to-electrical conversion and data-processing capability (Wi-Fi/Bluetooth) combined into one needs to be developed and manufactured in the millions.
  • As light cannot penetrate through walls, it is good with the security point of view but it provides a limited range.
  • Thus, Li-Fi can be effectively used in closed spaces. In open spaces, Wi-Fi’s coverage can go up to 32 meters as compared to Li-Fi.
  • At present, Li-Fi cannot fully replace Wi-Fi as a connectivity source. However, with the increased consumer base and demand of fast internet access, it is predicted that the Li-Fi would be released to the general public in early 2022 and future homes and building may be housed with Li-Fi.
  • As the world looks to use green technology, LED light bulbs are becoming a staple everywhere – in homes, offices, businesses, and even transportation. This means soon enough, high-speed internet connectivity will be as ubiquitous as there are light bulbs.

Conclusion

Perhaps the biggest selling point of LiFi technology is that it is able to transmit data at far greater speeds than WiFi. The visible light is the future of data communication and also one of the many ways in achieving sustainable development goals by 2030.

 

Topic: Blockchain Technology

7. Blockchain Technology is potential of revolutionizing the traditional Banking system, do you agree? Comment. (250 words)

Reference:  investopedia.com

Why the question:

The question is based on the theme of Blockchain Technology.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in what way Blockchain Technology is potential of revolutionizing the traditional Banking system.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what Blockchain Technology is.

Body:

A blockchain is a decentralized ledger of all transactions across a peer-to-peer network. Using this technology, participants can confirm transactions without a need for a central clearing authority. Potential applications can include fund transfers, settling trades, voting, and many other issues.

Discuss then its specific applications in the Banking system. Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies act both as digital money and also a method to send payments in that money-form around the globe. These transactions require only an internet connection and take place instantly. While it is true that it may take many minutes for a transaction to be 100% confirmed, the transaction itself takes place in a matter of moments. These transactions are borderless, secure and largely anonymous.

Suggest challenges if any.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance.

Introduction

One potential disrupter for the financial industry today comes from applications involving blockchain technology — the tamper-proof system of distributed ledgers which underlie cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin. Large financial institutions, from investment banks to stock exchanges to central banks, are all beginning to work on their own blockchain-based solutions in order to stay on top of this innovation.

Body

Blockchain technology has received a lot of attention over the last decade, propelling beyond the praise of niche Bitcoin fanatics and into the mainstream conversation of banking experts and investors.

About blockchain technology in banking

  • Blockchain technology provides a way for untrusted parties to come to agreement on the state of a database, without using a middleman.
  • By providing a ledger that nobody administers, a blockchain could provide specific financial services — like payments or securitization — without the need for a bank.
  • Further, blockchain allows for the use of tools like “smart contracts,” self-executing contracts based on the blockchain, which could potentially automate manual processes from compliance and claims processing to distributing the contents of a will.

Potential of blockchain to revolutionise traditional banking system

  • Blockchain has steadily advanced into the world of payments to change the transaction environment.
  • It reshaped the financial services by:
    • Removing incorruptibility and driving efficiency and simplicity by establishing new financial processes and services infrastructure.
    • Allowing the inflow of liquid cash through smart contacts, by which participants will be able to convert fiat currencies to support foreign exchange.
    • Prompting cross-border payments in real time.
  • Blockchain technology and DLT have a massive opportunity to disrupt the $5T+ banking industry by disintermediating the key services that banks provide, including:
  • Payments: By establishing a decentralized ledger for payments (e.g. Bitcoin), blockchain technology could facilitate faster payments at lower fees than banks.
  • Clearance and Settlement Systems: Distributed ledgers can reduce operational costs and bring us closer to real-time transactions between financial institutions.
  • Fundraising: Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs) are experimenting with a new model of financing that unbundles access to capital from traditional capital-raising services and firms.
  • Securities: By tokenizing traditional securities such as stocks, bonds, and alternative assets — and placing them on public blockchains — blockchain technology could create more efficient, interoperable capital markets.
  • Loans and Credit: By removing the need for gatekeepers in the loan and credit industry, blockchain technology can make it more secure to borrow money and provide lower interest rates.
  • Trade Finance: By replacing the cumbersome, paper-heavy bills of lading process in the trade finance industry, blockchain technology can create more transparency, security, and trust among trade parties globally.
  • Customer KYC and Fraud Prevention: By storing customer information on decentralized blocks, blockchain technology can make it easier and safer to share information between financial institutions.

Conclusion

It becomes obvious that blockchain technology is much more than Bitcoin or cryptocurrencies. Disruption doesn’t happen overnight, and much of blockchain technology has yet to be perfected or widely tested. Blockchain technology will supplement traditional financial infrastructure, making it more efficient. It remains to be seen to what degree banks embrace the technology. One thing is clear, however: blockchain will indeed transform the industry.


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