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[Insights Secure STHIR– 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 20 April 2021

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General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

1. Explain the worsening impact of Covid-19 on malnutrition in children of India. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The opinion from Indian express brings to us the impact of the pandemic on the Malnutrition of children in the country.

Key Demand of the question:

One must explain the worsening impact of Covid-19 on malnutrition in children of India.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what Malnutrition is and its general conditions in the country.

Body:

Malnutrition is one of the leading causes of death and diseases in children under-five years of age globally. It adversely affects cognitive development and learning capacities among children, thereby resulting in decreased productivity in the booming years.

Discuss the factors that have led to it in the country.

Despite various targeted outreach and service delivery programmes run by the government such as POSHAN Abhiyaan, Supplementary Nutrition and Anaemia Mukt Bharat, to name a few, 16 out of the 22 states and Union territories have still shown an increase in SAM, as per NFHS-5 conducted in 2019-20.

While the deteriorating facets of malnutrition continue to remain a matter of grave concern, the emergence of COVID-19 has only worsened it.

Suggest its impact and explain what needs to be done to overcome it.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions to address the issue.

 

Topic: Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.

2. Critically analyse the role and powers of the Election Commission of India (ECI) in conducting free and fair elections. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The question is based on the role of ECI in conducting free and fair elections.  

Key Demand of the question:

The article provides a critical analysis of the role and powers of the Election Commission of India (ECI) in conducting free and fair elections.

Directive:

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with some information on ECI.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Talk about the powers of ECI and its evolution – Evolution of powers –

Constitutional body: Under Article 324 of the Indian Constitution, the ECI superintends, directs and controls the conduct of elections. Discovery of hidden powers by T.N. Seshan in Article 324, which was then used to discipline recalcitrant political parties, who considered rigging the election as their birthright. Judicial backing: Supreme Court (S.C.) in Mohinder Singh Gill vs Chief Election Commissioner case held that Article 324 contains plenary powers to ensure free and fair elections, and ECI can take all necessary steps to achieve this constitutional objective. The Model Code of Conduct (MCC) etc.

Present the issues associated with ECI – No legal backing for MCC, Confusion regarding enforceability, abrupt transfer of officials, Intervention in administrative decisions of Government etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance and need to give it more teeth.

 

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

3. In the process of migration driven by Covid, the impact of migration on women is different from that on men. Analyse. (250 words)

Reference:  Hindustan Times

Why the question:

The article presents to us the impact of Covid pandemic on women migrants.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in what way the impact of migration on women is different from that on men.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief understanding of the question.

Body:

With the surge in Covid-19 across the country, there are reports, yet again, of migrant workers being left with little choice but to go back to their villages.

In the process of migration driven by Covid, the impact of migration on women is different from that on men. Discuss about the unequal gender impact and the major problems faced by women migrant workers.

Highlight the problems of women migrant workers during the pandemic.

 Suggest steps to protect their rights. Identify steps to protect the rights of migrant women workers such as incorporating a rights-based approach in the government’s draft National Policy on Migrant Workers, acting on the advisory issued by the National Commission for Women, addressing the structural and other challenges, etc.

 Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

4. Given the state of the water crisis and skewed rainfall distribution in the country, India requires to take steps beyond Jal Shakti Abhiyan (JSA) phase-II for water conservation. Discuss.  (250 words)

Reference:  Business Standard 

Why the question:

NITI Aayog reckons that nearly 600 million Indians are already facing “high to extreme” water stress. The situation is set to worsen as the water demand is likely to double by 2030. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the need for adopting urgent water conservation methods in the country to address the water crisis.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by stating the current state of water crisis in the country.  

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Firstly present data that confirms State of water crisis in the country like – Nearly 600 million Indians are facing “high to extreme” water stress, likely to double by 2030. About 22 % of groundwater has either dried up or is in the critical category. India might lose nearly 6 % of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by 2050 due to water-related factors.

Then talk about the skewed rainfall factor. Around 88 cm of 117-120 cm (annual area-weighted average rainfall in India) comes in the main monsoon season of just four months (June to September).

Explain the positive aspects of JSA phase-II: A step taken for water conservation.

Conclusion:

Any meteorologists and hydrologists believe that India is not an innately water-deficient nation. It is the indiscriminate splurging of water that has made it so. Thus prudent management of water resources.

 

Topic: Carbon Credit

5. “By raising energy prices overall, carbon pricing creates incentives for households and firms to shift toward greener options, while promoting energy efficiency, boosting green investments and spurring innovation”, Elucidate. (250 words)

Reference:  Economic Times

Why the question:

The article is amidst the growing consensus that carbon pricing was the most efficient and cost-effective way to curbing emissions.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in what way carbon pricing creates incentives for households and firms to shift toward greener options.

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what carbon pricing is.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Explain the concept of carbon pricing. A carbon price gives an economic signal to polluting businesses to reduce and eventually discontinue their harmful activities emitting CO2 and other GHG. In this way, carbon pricing aims to stimulate the development of new, greener, more efficient, low-carbon technologies.

Discuss the merits and demerits of it.

Carbon pricing helps express carbon emissions in monetary terms which makes it relatively simpler for businesses to incorporate this figure into their financial planning and strategies. Carbon price helps shift the burden for the damage back to those who are responsible for it, and who can reduce it.

Carbon price as a planning tool helps identify revenue opportunities and risks to reduce costs, emissions and guide capital investment decisions. For businesses, it can mean gradually transforming into a greener and sustainable model, which in all likelihood, is the way for the future.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance.

 

Topic: Various efforts and initiatives for climate change by India and recent issues

6. Analyse the scope of green contracts as an institutional tool for Indian corporations to define India’s sustainable growth story. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article presents an analysis on the scope of green contracts as an institutional tool for Indian corporations to define India’s sustainable growth story.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the scope of green contracts as an institutional tool for Indian corporations to define India’s sustainable growth story.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what you understand by Green contracts.

Body:

A type of commercial contracts which mandate that contracting parties cut down greenhouse gas emissions at different stages of delivery of goods/services, including design, manufacturing, transportation, operations and waste disposal, as applicable to the industry.

Explain the need for green contracts: Demand for an institutional mechanism for sharing (Between consumers and corporations) responsibilities relating to the loss of resources and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

Suggested stages of implementation: At the bidding stage: ‘Green tender’ prescribing ‘green qualifications’ can be considered when awarding the contract to a bidder.

Green qualifications can range from using a pre-defined percentage of ‘green energy’ in service delivery to adequate on-site waste management etc.

Contracting agreement: including detailed ‘green obligations’, which shall be legally binding and enforceable contractual clauses.

Discuss the challenges.

Conclusion:

While the massive levels of production, consumption and disposal of goods and services have their own set of benefits in a post-­industrial society, they have also slowed down the replenishment cycle of limited resources.  Corporations can contribute to cutting down emissions through the process of green contracting.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and nonpartisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker-sections.

7. Explain the significance of neutrality and impartiality in public administration. As aspirant what steps would you suggest to promote neutrality and impartiality? (250 words)

Reference:  Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper IV.

Key Demand of the question:

The question aims to analyse the significance of neutrality and impartiality in public administration.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with definition of Neutrality and Impartiality.

Body:

Explain the importance of neutrality and nonpartisanship in public administration.

Discuss why they are important.

Give examples justifying why they play a key role in civil services.

Explain as an aspirant what steps you would suggest to promote neutrality and impartiality.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance.


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