InstaLinks help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically.
Table of Contents:
GS Paper 1:
GS Paper 2:
GS Paper 3:
Facts for Prelims:
1. Disc-footed bat.
2. Cholistan desert.
3. Tiki Formation.
GS Paper : 1
Topics Covered: Art and Culture.
1004th birth anniversary of Sri Ramanujacharya was observed on April 18, 2021.
About Sri Ramanujacharya:
- Born in 1017 CE in Tamil Nadu.
- He is the most respected Acharya in the philosophy of Sri Vaishnavism.
- He was also referred to as Ilaya Perumal which means the radiant one.
- His philosophical foundations for devotionalism were influential to the Bhakti movement.
- He is famous as the chief proponent of Vishishtadvaita subschool of Vedānta.
- He wrote influential texts, such as bhāsya on the Brahma Sutras and the Bhagavad Gita, all in Sanskrit.
What is Vishishtadvaita?
- It is a non-dualistic school of Vedanta philosophy. It is non-dualism of the qualified whole, in which Brahman alone exists, but is characterized by multiplicity.
- It can be described as qualified monism or qualified non-dualism or attributive monism.
- It is a school of Vedanta philosophy which believes in all diversity subsuming to an underlying unity.
- About Sri Ramanujacharya.
- About Advaita Philosophy.
- About Bhakti movement.
Differentiate between Dvaita and Advaita schools of philosophy.
GS Paper : 2
Topics Covered: Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.
Chief Justice of India S A Bobde recently appreciated the uniform civil code (UCC) in Goa, the only state to have one.
- The CJI urged intellectuals to seriously study the Goa UCC.
About Goa’s UCC:
- Goa’s Portuguese Civil Code, 1867 is basically an alien code given by the Portuguese.
- Goa’s Civil Code has four parts, dealing with civil capacity, acquisition of rights, right to property, and the breach of rights and remedies.
- It begins in the name of God and Dom Luis, King of Portugal and Algarves.
- The Code has survived by virtue of Section 5(1) of the Goa, Daman and Diu Administration Act, 1962 that permitted its continuance.
What the constitution says?
Article 44 of the Constitution says that there should be a Uniform Civil Code. According to this article, “The State shall endeavor to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India”. Since the Directive Principles are only guidelines, it is not mandatory to use them.
- About UCC.
- What are DPSPs.
- Enforcement of DPSPs.
- Shah Bano case is related to?
Discuss why is UCC not desirable for India at this point?
Sources: Indian Express.
Topics Covered: Important International institutions, agencies and fora, their structure, mandate.
Every year, the United Nations marks April 18 as the International Day for Monuments and Sites.
In many countries the day is also celebrated as World Heritage Day.
- The theme for this year is “Complex Pasts: Diverse Futures”.
- Globally, the day is promoted by the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS).
What is a World Heritage site?
- These sites are officially recognised by the UN and the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation, also known as UNESCO. UNESCO believes that the sites classified as World Heritage are important for humanity, and they hold cultural and physical significance.
- The list is maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 UNESCO member states which are elected by the General Assembly.
- Each World Heritage Site remains part of the legal territory of the state wherein the site is located and UNESCO considers it in the interest of the international community to preserve each site.
To be selected, a World Heritage Site must be an already classified landmark, unique in some respect as a geographically and historically identifiable place having special cultural or physical significance.
Heritage sites in India:
- India is home to 38 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, out of the 1121 such spots identified around the world.
- Of these, 30 are ‘cultural’ and 7 are ‘Natural’. One is classified as ‘Mixed’, the Khangchendzonga National Park.
- In 2019, ‘Jaipur City’ became the 38th addition to the India list under Culture.
- So far, only China, Italy, Spain, Germany, and France have more locations on the list than India.
- Who declares a site as world heritage site?
- What is endangered list?
- What is tentative list?
- WHS in India and their locations?
Sources: Indian Express.
GS Paper : 3
Topics Covered: Conservation and disaster management related issues.
National climate vulnerability assessment released. The report is titled ‘Climate Vulnerability Assessment for Adaptation Planning in India Using a Common Framework’.
- It identifies the most vulnerable states and districts in India with respect to current climate risk and key drivers of vulnerability.
Key findings of the report:
- It has identified Jharkhand, Mizoram, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Assam, Bihar, Arunachal Pradesh, and West Bengal as states highly vulnerable to climate change.
- These states, mostly in the eastern part of the country, require prioritization of adaptation interventions.
Need for vulnerability assessment:
- Mapping the parts of India that are vulnerable to extreme changes will help initiating climate actions at the ground level.
- The assessment will help Policymakers in initiating appropriate climate actions. It will also benefit climate-vulnerable communities across India through development of better-designed climate change adaptation projects.
- The assessments can further be used for India’s reporting on the Nationally Determined Contributions under the Paris Agreement. And finally, these assessments will support India’s National Action Plan on Climate Change.
- Key findings of the report.
- states highly vulnerable to climate change as per the report.
What is climate change vulnerability? Why is it significant? Discuss.
Topics Covered: Pollution related issues.
The sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions from a volcanic eruption in the Caribbean (from La Soufriere volcano eruption) reached India on April 16, 2021 sparking fear of increased pollution levels in the northern parts of the country and acid rain.
- Scientists have also found evidence for the entry of sulphate aerosol particles (precursors for sulphuric acid) in the stratosphere, the second layer of the Earth’s atmosphere. This might be the reason that the particles have reached as far as India and will likely travel beyond to reach South East Asia.
Impact and Implications:
- The most significant climate impacts from volcanic injections into the stratosphere come from the conversion of sulphur dioxide to sulphuric acid, which condenses rapidly in the stratosphere to form fine sulphate aerosols.
- The aerosols increase the reflection of radiation from the Sun back into space, cooling the Earth’s lower atmosphere or troposphere.
Sulfur Dioxide- Source:
- The largest source of SO2 in the atmosphere is the burning of fossil fuels by power plants and other industrial facilities.
- Smaller sources of SO2 emissions include: industrial processes such as extracting metal from ore; natural sources such as volcanoes; and locomotives, ships and other vehicles and heavy equipment that burn fuel with a high sulfur content.
- About Sulphur Dioxide.
- Sources and impacts on Environment.
- La Soufriere volcano.
- Various pollutants produced from a volcanic eruption.
Sources: down to earth.
Facts for Prelims:
- Meghalaya has yielded India’s first bamboo-dwelling bat with sticky discs.
- The disc-footed bat (Eudiscopus denticulus) was recorded in Meghalaya’s Lailad area near the Nongkhyllem Wildlife Sanctuary, about 1,000 km west of its nearest known habitat in Myanmar.
- The disc-footed bat has raised Meghalaya’s bat count to 66, the most for any State in India. It has also helped add a genus and species to the bat fauna of India.
- Located in Pakistan.
- The place was in news because of recent shooting of two Great Indian Bustards (GIBs) here.
- The GIB, which is the State bird of Rajasthan, is considered India’s most critically endangered bird.
- The GIB’s population of less than 100 in Rajasthan accounts for 95% of its total world population.
- The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), which categorised the GIBs as “endangered” in 1994, was forced to upgrade the species to the status of “critically endangered” in 2011 because of continued threats faced in the survival of these large birds.
- The wildlife authorities in Rajasthan had permitted captive breeding of GIB, protected under the Wildlife Protection Act, in Rajasthan’s Desert National Park (DNP) through a project executed by the Dehradun-based Wildlife Institute of India in 2019 after a prolonged debate.
- The Tiki Formation is a Late Triassic geologic formation in Madhya Pradesh. It is a treasure trove of vertebrate fossils.
- Dinosaur remains are among the fossils that have been recovered from the formation, although none have yet been referred to a specific genus.
Why in News?
The Tiki Formation in Madhya Pradesh, a treasure trove of vertebrate fossils, has now yielded a new species and two genera of cynodonts, small rat-like animals that lived about 220 million years ago.
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