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[Insights Secure STHIR– 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 13 April 2021

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General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

1. There is a necessity to aggressively involve local communities and civil society for the containment of pandemics like COVID-19. Comment. (250 words)

Reference:  epw.in

Why the question:

The article explains how Odisha is currently coping with the onslaught of the COVID-19 pandemic and the aftermath of supercyclone Amphan. This double occurrence is the first such experience for the state. Dealing with the twin challenges of managing both the events is extremely complex.

Key Demand of the question:

One has to explain the importance of actively involving local communities and civil society for the containment of pandemics like COVID-19.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief background of the ongoing pandemic situation.  

Body:

The containment of pandemic requires awareness among local people. As most of the population living in villages with little knowledge about the pandemic, it is important to involve local communities at grassroots level.

Give examples such as – Odisha model of procuring village produce and delivering to the door steps was a success story. SHG people worked actively to feed the farmers and also helped maintain social distance.

Kudumbasree model of Kerala – aggressive testing was done at village level.

Suggest more such methods that can help in overcoming the concerns posed by the pandemic.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary—Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.

2. Vacancies in the judiciary is aggravated by the disagreements between the Government and Collegium. Critically analyse. (250 words)

Reference:  tribuneindia.com

Why the question:

The article explains the need and importance of prescribing a suitable time frame for appointing Judges in the country.

Key Demand of the question:

One must critically analyse how vacancies in the judiciary is aggravated by the disagreements between the Government and Collegium.

Directive:

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with some key data/statistics related to vacancies of Judges in our Judiciary.

Body:

Comment on the status of vacancies in the Judiciary – of the total sanctioned strength of 1,080 of 25 High Courts, they have been functioning with only 661, judges leaving 419 vacancies (almost 40%) as of March 1.

Then discuss in detail the impacts of delays in filling vacancies in the judiciary.

Explain the causes for delays in filling vacancies.

Conclusion:

Suggest what needs to be done, emphasis on the need for the government and the judiciary to come to terms.

 

Topic: India and its neighborhood- relations. Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

3. What do you understand by Backchannel diplomacy? Present an analysis on the existence and importance of back channel diplomacy between India and Pakistan. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The question is based on the concept of Backchannel Diplomacy and its aspects with respect to India – Pak relations from past to present.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss first the concept of Backchannel diplomacy and analyse the existence and importance of back channel diplomacy between India and Pakistan.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with indications of backchannel talks taking place between India and Pakistan since 2020. Define what Backchannel diplomacy is.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

First discuss the background – India – Pakistan Bilateral relations witnessed a particularly recriminatory period following the 2019 Pulwama attack, the Balakot strikes and capture of an Indian pilot thereafter. Even prior to that, the Pathankot terror attack and the subsequent surgical operation by India had pushed the bilateral relationship to the limits. The periodic violation of the ceasefire agreement along the LoC had further strained the relationship between the two neighbours.

Explain the significance of backchannel talks.

Speak of the inevitability of backchannel diplomacy for India and Pakistan.

Highlight the challenges.

Conclusion:

There is ample scope for improvement of the bilateral relationship between India and Pakistan provided that there is no terror attack in India traceable to Pakistan.

 

Topic: GS-2:  Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

4. Discuss in detail how the Personal Data Protection Bill, 2019, protects users’ interests in the digital economy of today’s world. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The Joint Parliamentary Committee has proposed 86 amendments and one new clause to the Bill. The Committee is expected to submit its final report in the Monsoon Session of Parliament in 2021.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail how the Personal Data Protection Bill, 2019, protects users’ interests in the digital economy of today’s world.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with importance of Personal Data Protection Bill, 2019. While the number of people participating in the digital economy has increased exponentially over the years, there has also been a proportionate increase in the number of personal data breaches from major digital service providers.

Body:

Explain that the recent alleged data breach at MobiKwik could stand to be India’s biggest breach with the data of 9.9 crore users at risk. Robust data protection regimes are necessary to prevent such events and protect users’ interests. Unfortunately, the existing data protection regime in India does not meet this standard.

Talk about the rising threat of data breach. Present the Lacunae in existing data protection regime.

Then move on to discuss the Evolution of the bill.

Account for the significance of the provisions in it.

Explain how it protects users’ interests in the digital economy of today’s world.

Conclusion:

Conclude that the Personal Data Protection Bill, 2019 could play a big role in providing robust protections to users and their personal data. However, there is the need to make some changes in the Bill targeted towards addressing various concerns in it to ensure a stronger and more effective data protection regime.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Major crops-cropping patterns in various parts of the country, – different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers. Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing

5. India’s long coastline has the potential of becoming the strength of the economy particularly through Aquaculture; in this context discuss the challenges and advantages of practicing aquaculture along with the efforts of the Government in this direction. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

To bolster confidence in India’s frozen shrimp produce, the country’s biggest seafood export item, the Centre has kicked off a new scheme to certify hatcheries and farms that adopt good aquaculture practices. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the challenges and advantages of practicing aquaculture along with the efforts of the Government in India for Aquaculture practices.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Aquaculture resources in India include 2.36 million ha of ponds and tanks, 0.798 million ha of flood plain lakes/derelict waters plus in addition 195 210 km of rivers and canals, 2.907 million ha of reservoirs and that could be utilized for aquaculture purposes.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Aquaculture (aqua farming) means farming of aquatic organisms in both coastal (saltwater) and inland (freshwater) areas. As per FAO, aquaculture in India accounts for 85% of the total fish production.

Write about the scope of aquaculture in India and then in brief mention about the challenges associated with it.

Discuss the steps taken by the government in this direction like Matsya Sampada Yojna, Shaphari scheme etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward to tackle the above challenges and the prospects it holds for the economy in future.

 

 

Topic: GS-3: Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

GS-4: Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics – in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

6. What is Data Scraping? What are the different types? Discuss the ethical concerns involved in it and suggest what needs to be done to address the gaps. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu.

Why the question:

The question is premised on the concept of Data scrapping.  

Key Demand of the question:

One is

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with definition of Data scrapping.

Body:

Explain in detail about ‘data scraping’, reasons behind it, its legality and how this data is helpful for the businesses.

Data scraping is a technique used by the attackers to extract valuable data from a website. For this, an application is used by the attackers to scrap data for unauthorized purposes.

Then explain the Types of data scraping – Content scraping, Price scraping, Contact scraping.

Comment on the legality of it – The legality of data scraping is still a matter of debate amongst the business owners. It is legal as far as the data scraped is available in the public domain and is used to gain insights and not for profit out of it. Many companies like Facebook do not allow data scraping on their websites and can sue the companies extracting data.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

7. What determines ethical behavior in public organizations: is it rules or leadership? Explain.  (250 words)

Reference:  Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

Explain what determines ethical behavior in public organizations: is it rules or leadership.

Key Demand of the question:

Analyse what determines ethical behavior in public organizations: is it rules or leadership.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what you understand by ethical behaviour.

Body:

Explain that Ethics is a key component of good governance and has significant potential to affect public trust in all forms of government. There are a number of factors that can shape standards of conduct within an organization, among which the role of leadership has attracted significant attention.

Discuss the importance of Leadership in any public organisation.

Then discuss the role that rules play in an organisation to determine ethical behaviour and action of people.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a fair and balanced opinion.


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