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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 12 April 2021


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: poverty and developmental issues

1. Present an analysis on catastrophic impacts of pandemic and the way ahead for India. Also, explain can India build a vaccine for Poverty? (250 words)

Reference:  Times of India.

Why the question:

The rapid spread of the pandemic in the country had led to the loss of livelihood and productivity, increase in poverty and decline in nutrition levels. Thus, the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in detail the impact of the pandemic and its consequences on poverty. Also suggest what needs to be done to address the issue.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief background of the question.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Present in detail the catastrophic impacts of the pandemic such as – Increased poverty, Poverty rate in India likely rose to 9.7% in 2020. (Global poverty rate increased to 10.4% – IMF). Reversed decadal gains, Impact on Middle class: Middle-class section, earning Rs 700-1,500 daily, estimated to have shrunk by 3.2 crore in 2020. Impact on low-income group, Unequal impact on poor, Lacunae in state response etc.

Then move on to explain solutions to address the issue such as – Fix a universal basic income in the post-Covid period, Strive for improvements in Human Development Index, Introduce a wealth tax etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Today, the nation encounters bigger challenges as the catastrophic pandemic threatens achieved progress in poverty eradication while deepening existing inequalities and uncovering the fragility of the systems. Early impacts of the pandemic-induced lockdown indicate that the resultant economic distress is exacerbating pre-existing structures of disadvantage based on social identity

Body:

Catastrophic impacts of pandemic in India:

  • A key element of the pandemic control strategy everywhere was to shut down economic and social activity, and to impose social distancing with varying degrees of strictness.
  • India’s lockdown, imposed in the last week of March 2020, was among the most stringent. The first month of the severe lockdown, April 2020, witnessed a sharp rise in unemployment to nearly 23%.
  • A new study by the Pew Research Center estimates that the middle class may have shrunk by 30% and ranks of the poor risen by 7.5 crore.
  • The pandemic-led lockdown measures resulted in shut businesses and lost jobs sinking the Indian economy. However, the brunt of jobs and income loss has been disproportionately borne by the lower-income population.
  • Domestic burden: Women are already burdened with three times more unpaid care work than men. During lockdowns the burden increases manifold.
  • Education: UNESCO estimates that some 1.25 billion students are affected by this pandemic, posing a serious challenge to the attainment of Goal 4, Quality Education.
  • Unemployment: According to the International Labour Organisation (ILO) some 25 million people could lose their jobs with those in informal employment suffering most from lack of social protection during this pandemic. Unfortunately, these might just be the tip of the iceberg.
  • India has been slipping on hunger, poverty and income inequality indicators. The Global Hunger Index 2020 report ranked India at 94 (of 107 it mapped for the 2020 report). The significant and increasing divergence between the income gap of the rich and the poor sections appears to be the prime cause for inequality differences.

India’s vaccine for pandemic of poverty:

  • India should consider fixing a universal basic income in the post-Covid period through a combination of cash transfers, expansion of MGNREGA, and introduction of an urban employment guarantee scheme.
  • It must focus to steadily improve the Human Development Index score. India has been ranked 139 out of 149 countries in the UN World Happiness Report 2021.
  • It should strive to improve GDP per person and healthy life expectancy.
  • India, in the long run, should invest and build efficient and equitable health, education, infrastructure and water resources.
  • Capitalisation via skill-building and profitable resource expansion looks like the road ahead.
  • India should be concerned about the loss in the economic momentum and make poverty eradication the prime agenda of discussion.
  •  Forthwith, developing a vaccine for poverty is what is required for India to walk on the path of economic prosperity.

Conclusion:

A well-designed fiscal stimulus package, prioritising health spending to contain the spread of the virus and providing income support to households most affected by the pandemic would help to minimise the likelihood of a deep economic recession and poverty experienced by the vulnerable population

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

3. The refugee crisis post Junta crackdown in Myanmar brought the debate back on the flaws of refugee protection policies and framework in India. Comment. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article explains the heart-wrenching scenes of Myanmarese citizens, including little children — fleeing from a junta bent on killing its way into power in Myanmar — being turned away at the Indian border in the Northeast has once again revived the domestic debate about refugee protection in India.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the flaws of refugee protection policies and framework in India.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief background of the question.

Body:

While the issue of illegal migration acts as a threat to the socio-political fabric of any nation and also has potential security implications, there is also a need to do justice to the refugees fleeing the persecution.

Explain the issues in Indian framework of handling refugees; Legal ambiguity in defining refugees, Not a party to international conventions, Moral complexities etc.

Suggest what needs to be done to address the solutions.

Conclusion:

Conclude by emphasizing on the urgent need for strong domestic laws for the Migrants.

Introduction:

With recent development of military coup by the Myanmar junta and atrocities on civilians protesting their rule, there have been refugee influx in India’s north-east. The current plight of the Myanmarese has been preceded by that of another group of Myanmarese, the Rohingya.

Body:

India, for the most part, has had a stellar record on the issue of refugee protection, a moral tradition that has come under great stress of late. New Delhi has been one of the largest recipients of refugees in the world in spite of not being a party to the 1951 Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol. Off late this has come under stress.

Flaws of refugee protection policies and framework in India

  • India does not have a National Refugee Law nor is it a signatory to the UN Convention governing refugees. India is not a party to the 1951 Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol, the key legal documents pertaining to refugee protection.
  • India has allowed Tibetans, Tamil refugees from Sri Lanka, Chakmas of Bangladesh, the Lothsampas of Nepali origin from Bhutan, Afghans, Somalis and many others into this land. But these remain ad hoc approaches.
  • This has been sought to be addressed for six “minority” communities of Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan in a long-term manner by the controversial Citizenship Amendment Act.
  • However, the CAA does not cover many of the cases such as those fleeing Myanmar now or issue of Rohingyas etc.
  • There is no clear distinction between illegal migrants and refugees. There get jumbled up in the political discussions in India. This is because as per Indian law, both categories of people are viewed as one and the same and are covered under the Foreigners Act, 1946 which offers a simple definition of a foreigner — “foreigner” means “a person who is not a citizen of India”.
  • India is legally ill-equipped to deal with them separately due to a lack of legal provisions. The absence of such a legal framework also leads to policy ambiguity whereby India’s refugee policy is guided primarily by adhocism which, of course, often has its own ‘political utility’.

Need for a new framework to address refugee issues in India:

The answer perhaps lies in a new domestic law aimed at refugees.

  • The said domestic refugee law should allow for temporary shelter and work permit for refugees. This is crucial because in the absence of proper legal measures, refugee documentation, and work permit, refugees may end up becoming illegal immigrants using illicit means.
  • Put differently, the absence of a refugee law incentivises illegal immigration into the country.
  • New Delhi must also make a distinction between temporary migrant workers, illegal immigrants and refugees and deal with each of them differently through proper legal and institutional mechanisms.
  • Our traditional practice of managing these issues with ambiguity and political expediency has become deeply counterproductive: It neither protects the refugees nor helps stop illegal immigration into the country.
  • A national mechanism needs to be developed which goes beyond short-term measures and takes into account a needs-based assessment of how best to handle rapid outflows of persecuted persons.
  • India must also consider to become part to non-refoulement, which will reinforce its place in the UN Human rights council.
  • Any decision of the Indian government to grant refugee or asylum status cannot be isolated from its international responsibility under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness, and the Convention on the Rights of the Child (of which India is a signatory).

Conclusion:

Additionally, resettlement efforts must be made with the country from which such refugees arrive after strife is over. Resettlement engagements may also be undertaken between India and other affluent countries that have better physical and economic infrastructure so that the refugee influx is better managed and does not cause a permanent strain on the resources

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

4. What are Green Bonds? In what way can they prove to be a gateway for Environment-friendly Investment in the country? Discuss the merits and demerits. (250 words)

Reference:  Financial Express

Why the question:

The article explains that the Centre, states must tap into green bonds.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the concept of Green bonds and explain in what way they can prove to be a gateway for Environment-friendly Investment in the country.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the definition of Green Bonds.

Body:

A green bond is a debt instrument with which capital is being raised to fund ‘green’ projects, which typically include those relating to renewable energy, clean transportation, sustainable water management etc.

Today, green bonds help companies tap money from specialized funds focused on climate change. As of now, 120 institutional investors from nine countries have joined the Institutional Investors’ Group on Climate Change. Also, over 1,500 institutions are signatories to the United Nations’ Principles for Responsible Investments.

Sovereign funds like GIC, Abu Dhabi Investment Authority, and multilateral agencies such as International Monetary Fund, International Finance Corp. and Asian Development Bank, among others, are proactively channeling funds to invest in green sustainable projects.

These global institutions believe in growing responsibly and, hence, are committing funds to mitigate the impact of climate change and avail business opportunities associated with the transition to a lower-carbon society and economy.

Discuss the merits and demerits.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

A green bond is like any other regular bond but with one key difference: the money raised by the issuer are earmarked towards financing `green’ projects, i.e. assets or business activities that are environment-friendly. Such projects could be in the areas of renewable energy, clean transportation and sustainable water management.

Body:

Trends in Green Bonds:

  • Green bonds have been gaining traction among governments worldwide for mobilising resources for green projects or refinancing them.
  • Since the first sovereign issuance by Poland in 2016, 22 countries have issued sovereign green bonds, raising more than $80 billion.
  • Despite the pandemic, the market for sovereign green bonds remained resilient in 2020 with both new issuances and re-openings.
  • The year ended on a high with the UK announcing its plan for its first-ever sovereign green bond issuance in 2021 and the Kingdom of Thailand tapping its earlier issuance to raise an additional 20 billion Thai baht (about $665.8 million) to finance a rapid mass-transit line in Bangkok.

Merits of Green Bonds:

  • Green bonds enhance an issuer’s reputation, as it helps in showcasing their commitment towards sustainable development.
  • It also provides issuers access to specific set of global investors who invest only in green ventures.
  • With an increasing focus of foreign investors towards green investments, it could also help in reducing the cost of capital.
  • Green bonds typically carry a lower interest rate than the loans offered by the commercial banks.
  • An important feature of green bonds is that the responsibility of repayment is with the issuer and not with the firm that is utilizing the funds in green projects.
  • Green bonds expand the quantum of clean energy finance and broaden investor base.
  • Ability to meet commitments, for signatories to climate agreements and other green commitments.
  • Green bonds could support India aims to install 175 GW of renewable energy by 2022, which will require an estimated $264 billion of investments.

Demerits of Green bonds:

  • There have been serious debates about whether the projects targeted by green bond issuers are green enough because the proceeds of green bond were being used to fund a dam project that hurts the Amazon rainforest in Brazil.
  • Lack of Credit rating or rating guidelines for green projects and bonds
  • Lack of historical trends on the bond performance
  • Green bonds in India have a shorter tenor period of about 10 years in India whereas a typical loan would be for minimum 13 years.
  • Buyers of Indian green bonds may not invest in any bonds that are rated lower than the AAA
  • Lack of green bond standards, low credit rating of potential issuers, and higher cost of issuance.
  • Limited to large, creditworthy investors
  • Limited set of green investors, limiting demand for green bonds to infuse new capital to scale the renewable energy market

Potential in India:

  • With 300 clear sunny days, over a dozen perennial rivers and a coastline of more than 7,500 KMs, India since the age of Puranas, had realised the importance of the sun and other sources of renewable energy and the power they possess for the benefit of its inhabitants.
  • India’s green bonds market is still nascent. The country’s first green bonds were issued as recently as 2015. Cumulatively, India has raised over $6 billion via green bonds, of which one third were issued in 2017.
  • SEBI’s indicative list includes renewable and sustainable energy such as wind and solar, clean transportation, sustainable water management, climate change adaptation, energy efficiency, sustainable waste management and land use and biodiversity conservation.

Way forward for India:

  • In India, banks and non-banking financial companies have traditionally been the primary sources of green infrastructure funding. But they have a limited appetite for long-term debt due to asset-liability mismatch.
  • Also, the current regulatory restrictions allow insurance companies and pension funds to invest only in AAA-rated bonds.
  • This regulatory framework should change in order to provide a fillip for green bond issuances.
  • To deepen the green bonds markets in India, the government should actively consider making them tax-free.
  • Tapped astutely, the Smart Cities project can attract huge capital from these bonds.
  • A conducive and transparent regulatory environment can unlock the full potential of green financial strategies in India, helping the country achieve its Paris Climate Accord targets.
  • International Solar Alliance could provide needed support mechanisms to grow the green bonds market in India and internationally.
  • The Ministry of Finance play an active role in attracting both issuers and investors to green bonds by providing tax-free bonds.
  • Decentralized renewable energy solutions such as mini-grids and rooftop solar, where the grid can’t reach or reliably serve, and operating together is the most sustainable last-mile solution to reach consumers and achieve universal access to energy.
  • “Going green” is no longer jargon but an imperative of the times we live in. All stakeholders—the government, companies/ banks, individuals—must collectively own the responsibility to conserve the environment for our future generations.

Conclusion:

Green bonds act as an effective tool to tap climate funds from developed countries under Paris accord. Collective participation of regulators, policymakers, corporate and financial institutions is going to be crucial in pushing frontiers of green bonds further. leverage a wider investor base such as pension funds, sovereign wealth funds and insurance companies

 

 

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

5. Analyse the features of IBC Amendment ordinance 2021 in providing relief to MSME sector in India. (250 words)

Reference:  Live Mint

Why the question:

The article presents a detailed analysis of IBC and the relief that it provides to MSME sector in India.  

Key Demand of the question:

Analyse the features of IBC Amendment ordinance 2021 in providing relief to MSME sector in India. Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Seeking to provide a quicker and value-maximizing outcome for stressed MSMEs, the government has introduced a pre-packaged resolution process for such enterprises by amending the insolvency law.

Body:

Explain that many MSMEs have been impacted by the coronavirus pandemic and experts opined that the latest amendment, which comes less than two weeks after the suspension of certain IBC provisions ended, is a welcome move.

Analysis the clause in detail, explain its merits and demerits to MSME sector.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance.

Introduction:

The MSME sector is the fulcrum of the Indian economy since it plays a pivotal role in providing large-scale employment and is the engine of industrialization of the rural and backward areas. Many MSMEs have been impacted by the coronavirus pandemic, thus affecting many people’s livelihoods

Seeking to provide a quicker and value-maximising outcome for stressed MSMEs, the government has introduced a pre-packaged resolution process for such enterprises by amending the insolvency law. Now, Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) can seek resolution for their stress through the pre-packaged process under the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC).

Body:

Background:

  • The Hon’ble Prime Minister’s announcement to the nation, of the Rs. 20 lakh crore fiscal package to deal with the COVID-19 pandemic looks at turning the “crisis into an opportunity” for the Indian economy.
  • Since the Prime Minister’s emphasis is on self-reliance, dependence on other countries shall decrease, which will greatly boost the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) sector in the country.
  • Apart from the financial stimulus, the government also promulgated the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (Amendment) Ordinance to deal with the unprecedented hardship faced by the MSME sector on 05.06.2020.

The following are the highlights of the ordinance:

  • Suspension of sections 7, 9, 10 of the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 (“IBC”) in case of defaults which have arisen on or after 25.03.2020 that deal with financial creditors, operational creditors and corporate applicants respectively.
  • Time period in which suspension of Corporate Insolvency Resolution Process (“CIRP”) would be effective is yet to be notified by the government. As per the ordinance, the suspension is for a minimum of 6 months and could be extended up to a maximum of 1 year.
  • Applications seeking to initiate CIRP for corporate debtors are however allowed in case the following conditions are satisfied:
    • The default arose before 25.03.2020
    • The amount of default is greater than Rs. 1 crore

Potential of India’s MSME sector:

  • Contribution to GDP: The share of MSMEs in the country’s gross value added is estimated to be about 32%.
  • Leveraging Exports: It also contributes about 40% to total exports and 45% to manufacturing output.
  • Employment Opportunities: It employs 60 million people, creates 1.3 million jobs every year and produces more than 8000 quality products for the Indian and international markets.
  • Diversity: There are approximately 30 million MSME Units in India and is quite diverse in terms of its size, level of technology employed, range of products and services provided and target markets.
  • Fostering Inclusive Growth: MSME is constructing inclusive growth in numerous ways through promoting non- agricultural livelihood at least cost, unbiased regional development, large female participation, and providing a protection against deflation.

Importance of the legislation:

  • The ordinance, thus, endeavours to provide some relief to those corporate debtors especially the MSME sector who are directly affected due to the COVID-19 pandemic which has led to widespread disruption of business operations across the nation.
  • It primarily attempts to prevent corporate persons who are experiencing distress on account of this unprecedented and unfortunate pandemic, from being dragged into insolvency proceedings under the IBC for some time, thus giving them a breather to revive their business.
  • The primary motive of doing so was to prevent the triggering of proceedings under the IBC against the small and medium enterprises that were facing a huge brunt due to the Covid-19 outbreak.
  • Strict timelines are the essence of this ordinance. A corporate debtor is required to submit a base resolution plan within 90 days from the pre-package insolvency commencement date, failing which the proceedings would stand terminated. The adjudicating authority (NCLT) is required to approve or reject the plan within a further period of 30 days.
  • With over 86 per cent of the total cases under the IBC pending beyond the prescribed statutory period (330 days), one would have to wait and see whether the tight timelines prescribed under the ordinance are adhered to.
  • One notable departure from the conventional corporate insolvency resolution mechanism is the fact that under the pre-package regime, the board of the corporate debtor does not get suspended and shall continue to manage the affairs of the company as a going concern.
  • The Hon’ble Finance Minister had also announced in March earlier this year that debts relating to COVID-19 will be excluded from default under the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code up to one year with a special insolvency framework also being notified under Section 240-A of the IBC.
  • Presently, this has been increased by six months as per the aforesaid ordinance. This proposed amendment will indeed provide respite to the MSME Sector which as mentioned earlier has been badly affected by the pandemic.
  • Small businesses and non-banking final companies are critical to the economy and liquidity will provide a great fillip to this sector by ensuring their solvency which is extremely vital for employment and job retention.
  • Moreover, it will also help the MSMEs in tackling the acute financial crisis faced by this sector amid this global pandemic to the government.
  • As per the ordinance, it is considered expedient to provide an efficient alternative insolvency resolution process MSMEs to ensure a quicker, cost-effective and value maximising outcome for all stakeholders, in a manner which is least disruptive to the continuity of their businesses and which preserves jobs.

Way forward:

  • The option to have separate dedicated tribunals dealing with pre-packaged insolvency must be considered.
  • Further, the government must also extend the benefits of this ordinance to other forms of juristic entities, such as HUFs and proprietorship firms. These account for a significant portion of micro and small enterprises in India.
  • Government of India and banks should design plans and measures to widen easy, hassle-free access to credit.
  • The RBI should bring stringent norms for Non-Performing Assets (NPA) and it will help curbing loan defaulters and motivate potential good debts. Further, according to critics, the Credit Guarantee Scheme for MSME (CGTMSE) run by SIDBI is a growing contingent liability and needs to be examined with urgency
  • Government should provide enhanced development and upgradation of existing rail & road network and other infrastructure facilities in less developed and rural areas to boost growth and development of MSMEs
  • There should proper research and development in respect of innovative method of production and service rendering. Further, the government should promote and subsidize the technical know-how to Micro and small enterprises.
  • Government should encourage procurement programme, credit and performance ratings and extensive marketing support to revive the growth of sick units.
  • Skill development and imparting training to MSME workers is a crucial step to increase the productivity of the sector. The government should emphasize predominantly on skill development and training programs

Conclusion:       

MSMEs being the growth engine of economy, there is a need to prepare a roadmap for sector in addition to the ad-hoc initiatives undertaken. This new insolvency law is surely a step in the right direction. Considering its possible impact on the MSME sector, the prospects of this ordinance are keenly awaited. Considering that the MSME sector has been struggling since the outbreak of the pandemic, one hopes that the ordinance is implemented in letter and spirit.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

6. There is huge ethical responsibility on the public administrators as they occupy positions of authority, handle enormous amounts of public funds, and their decisions have wide-ranging impact on the society. What steps have you taken to improve your ethical competence to handle such responsibility? Discuss.(250 words)

Reference:  Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question is based on the theme of ethical competence.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the importance of ethical competence and ways and means to develop the same.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the definition of Ethical competence.

Body:

Ethical competence can be defined as a combination of skills, capacity and high degree of professionalism.

Explain that Public servants have to perform critical and tedious administrative works. Sometimes they even need to delegate responsibilities to other officials and team members. They have to manage huge funds and require listening to viewpoints of the public and political leaders.

Then suggest steps to inculcate and develop ethical competence, suggest methods such as – social influence, awareness etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance.

Introduction:

Ethical competence is often described as an experience acquired through the combination of knowledge and practice. In simple terms, it is a fundamental qualification or capacity that public administrators need in daily practice to identify the ethical dimensions inherent in their decision‐making.

Studies find that individuals who do not possess strength of character might not “do what is correct” or “take correct action” in a given situation. Ethical competence concerns character strength, ethical awareness, moral judgement skills and the willingness to do good. The prerequisites for ethical competence are professional virtues, experience of professionalism, human communication, ethical knowledge and a supportive organizational environment.

Body:

Need for ethical competence for civil servants:

  • Public servants exercise power in a variety of ways, at least some of which are seen as problematic in democratic systems of government.
  • The ethical standards according to which they do so are likewise problematic, for reasons related not only to compliance, but also to the competent identification in each case of ‘the ethics problem’ itself.
  • For all practical purposes, public servants and public officials control the use of various state-provided resources and benefits, the interpretation and application of law and policy, access to both official and private information, and the grant of licenses and permissions affecting the rights and interests of citizens and non-citizens.
  • They exercise discretionary powers which can impact on the processes of governing, both for themselves and for other officials.
  • The typical modern public servant works at implementing government policy, policy development or application, providing expert advice of various kinds to governments, elected officials and the public, and/or at case-based decision-making at some level involving the   discretionary   application   of   agency   policy, rules and precedents.
  • Meeting the demands of procedural and substantive fairness, due process, and the exercise of discretionary judgment, are seen as providing fertile ground in which for ethical dilemmas may grow.
  • Taking account of ‘the public interest’ is generally demanded, and this requirement has long provided a contextual factor of great difficulty for officials faced with the inherent conflict of loyalties.

Measures to improve ethical competence are as follows:

  • Civil Servant needs to take pride in integrity and procedural integrity. This will help in valuing taxpayer’s hard earned money and ensure proper utilisation of funds.
  • There is need to create a sense of responsibility amongst Civil Servant, wherein they understand that power is not a privilege and need to keep away from usurpation of power.
  • There is also a need to promote values learned from the lives of great leaders like Mahatma Gandhi, Mother Teresa
  • Civil Servant also needs to follow the principle of sustainable development and trusteeship so as to help India achieve ‘common future’ or ‘sustainable future’ targets.
  • The techniques of attitude and behavioural change like cognitive appeal, emotional appeal needs to be adopted.
  • Further, serving Civil Servant need to advised to practice code of ethics and code of conduct.

Conclusion:

A public servant needs to be ethically competent. An ethically competent public servant has commitment to high standards of personal and professional behaviour; has knowledge of relevant ethics, codes and laws; has the ability to engage in ethical reasoning when confronted with challenging situations, acts ethically, and promotes ethical practices and behaviour in public agencies and organisations. Accountability and transparency are essential to sound governance and public administration; so are sound ethical behavior in professional performance with high competency and efficiency.

 

 

Topic: Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics – in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

7. “As human beings, our greatness lies not so much in being able to remake the world- this is the myth of the atomic age- as in being able to remake ourselves” – Mahatma Gandhi. Comment from ethical perspectives. (250 words)

Reference:  Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question is based on a quote by Mahatma Gandhi.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the statement in question, elaborate on the importance of it.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain meaning of statement in question.

Body:

The statement explains that we as human beings are not great because of technological advancements or advancements in defence capabilities rather it lies in ability to remake ourselves for purpose of betterment of society (Summum Bonum).

With examples, explain the meaning of statement in detail.

Give some measures to remake ourselves.

Conclusion:

Mahatma Gandhi, who not only transformed fear, greed, and violence in himself but inspired hundreds of thousands of ordinary men, women, and even children in India to do the same.

Introduction:

Today, Human beings are the only dominant species on earth that are dominating the planet. The world is under the making from several eons. However, the moral quotient has been continuously depreciating due to the greed. Our greatness lies not in the fact that we have such advance technology that can wipe living organisms on the face of earth. Rather it is to change from within which might be revolutionary in making the world a better place.

Body:

Human beings in general might feel like our actions are insignificant when compared to the 7 billion population on earth. Indeed, some nations and individuals are more powerful than others. But it is Gandhiji himself that also said that ‘Be the change you wish to see in the world’.

It may seem that what we are doing is of no value. People also believe that, “There’s too much bad in the world. It will never change.” Instead of focusing on changing the world, focus on changing ourselves. Set goals for how one can improve. If we could change any bad habit, what should it be? Introspection of us actions can give us answers Work on remaking yourself first.

For example, environmentalists are exhorting humans towards sustainable development. Considering the issues to be solved one may feel they cannot contribute to it. But we can still make a difference. Stopping plastic use for instance can do a great service to planet Earth.

This means that we must set an example and implement the right kind of changes in order to make the world a beautiful place. In other words, if we want to remake the world, we should be the one to do it first for ourselves. When we want others to follow a good habit and we insist on it, first of all we should follow that habit. Leading by example would be the start of a change. For example, only when we are punctual, we can teach others on Values of Punctuality. That is how others will accept the change.

Conclusion

The quote essentially means that we should become the torchbearers of change to remake the world. Facing the challenges that come during this time and taking away the fear, can make real wonders in the world. Great achievers of the world did not fear the change but they made the change they wanted in this world.


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