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Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 7 April 2021


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate.

1. India’s reluctance to engage a major European institution like North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) will be a stunning case of strategic self-denial. Comment. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The article explains why Delhi must talk to NATO.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in detail how India’s reluctance to engage a major European institution like North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) will be a stunning case of strategic self-denial.

Directive:

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

 Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with details of what North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is about; a military alliance established by the North Atlantic Treaty (also called the Washington Treaty) of April 4, 1949, by the United States, Canada, and several Western European nations to provide collective security against the Soviet Union.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Indian ties with European countries in the past: explain before and after independence.

Then explain factors responsible for India’s poor relation with NATO or European countries.

India’s efforts to end the prolonged political neglect towards NATO.

Need of an enhanced India- NATO relationship.

Conclusion:

India should scale up its engagement with NATO, and while doing so, it should also insulate its bilateral relationship (with countries like Russia) from the larger structural trends buffeting the world today.

Introduction

Delhi appears to be poised for a vigorous new push into Europe this year. A pragmatic engagement with NATO must be an important part of India’s new European orientation especially amidst the continent’s search for a new role in the Indo-Pacific.

Body

As recently till second decade of 21st century, India and Europe have not had any substantial partnerships on major issues. Post-cold-war, the bureaucratisation of the engagement between Delhi and Brussels and the lack of high-level political interest prevented India from taking full advantage of a re-emerging Europe.

Importance of Europe in India’s foreign policy

  • The deepening maritime partnership with France since 2018 is an example. Joining the Franco-German Alliance for Multilateralism in 2019 is another.
  • PM Modi’s first summit with Nordic nations in 2018 was a recognition that Europe is not a monolith but a continent of sub-regions. So was the engagement with Central Europe’s Visegrad Four.
  • The India and European Union Bilateral Trade and Investment Agreement has been long pending. With more strategic convergence politically, economic interests can be pushed.
  • With China planning its Belt and Road Initiative till Europe via Central Asia, India must not be left wanting in its engagement with Europe.

Need for India-NATO engagement

  • A sustained dialogue between India and NATO could facilitate productive exchanges in a range of areas, including terrorism, changing geopolitics; the evolving nature of military conflict, the role of emerging military technologies, and new military doctrines.
  • More broadly, an institutionalised engagement with NATO should make it easier for Delhi to deal with the military establishments of its 30 member states.
  • On a bilateral front, each of the members has much to offer in strengthening India’s national capabilities.
  • Neither Delhi nor NATO are seeking membership under any coalition. At issue is the question of exploring potential common ground. To play any role in the Indo-Pacific, Europe and NATO need partners like India, Australia and Japan.
  • Delhi, in turn, knows that no single power can produce stability and security in the Indo-Pacific. India’s enthusiasm for the Quad is a recognition of the need to build coalitions.

Conclusion

Meanwhile, both Russia and China have intensive bilateral engagement with Europe. Even as hostilities between Moscow and Brussels have intensified, multiple European voices call for a dialogue with Russia. Also, China has long understood Europe’s salience and invested massively in cultivating it. Delhi’s continued reluctance to engage a major European institution like NATO will be a stunning case of strategic self-denial.

 

Topic: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary—Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.

2. Do you think the opportunities of continuing virtual access to the Supreme Court (SC) provides for free and unhindered justice in the country? Comment. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article presents an analysis on opportunities of continuing virtual access to the Supreme Court (SC).

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in what way opportunities of continuing virtual access to the Supreme Court (SC) provides for free and unhindered justice in the country.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief background of the question.

Body:

Discuss first the Constitutional aspect of the significance of free and equal access to the SC.

The idea of a single place of sitting: The R. Ambedkar­led Drafting Committee was of the view that the Court must have a specified place of sitting and that litigants should “know where to go and whom to approach”.

Talk about Provision of holding benches at other places.

Present the associated issues. Then move on to discuss the significance of virtual hearings.

Conclusion:

Till the judiciary acts on proposals of virtual hearings, it shall continue as a matter of right and just and equitable policy.

Introduction

The top court, after taking suo motu cognizance of a letter written by former Supreme Court Bar Association (SCBA) president and senior lawyer Vikas Singh, had on April 6 2020 issued a slew of directions to use technology for conducting hearings in courts across the country to avoid congregation due to the “extraordinary” outbreak of COVID-19.

Body

Constitutional aspect of Supreme Court place of sitting

  • Even at the time the Constitution was being debated by the Constituent Assembly, geographical access to the Supreme Court was flagged as a concern.
  • The B.R. Ambedkar-led Drafting Committee was nevertheless of the view that the Court must have a specified place of sitting and that litigants should “know where to go and whom to approach”.
  • Accordingly, in recognition of the same, the Constitution empowered the Chief Justice to hold sittings of the Supreme Court through Circuit Benches in places other than Delhi as well.
  • However, despite an increasing caseload and repeated pleas by litigants and governments, successive Chief Justices have refused to invoke this constitutional power for reasons best known to them.

Challenges in reaching the apex court

  • In India, given the unified, single-pyramidal structure of the judicial system, all types of cases can potentially make their way to the Supreme Court, irrespective of the place or forum of the original institution. It is the effective exercise of that right, however, that is curtailed by the court assembling exclusively in Delhi.
  • According to a report by the Centre for Policy Research, a disproportionately high number of cases filed in the Supreme Court originated in High Courts closer to Delhi.
  • For instance, cases from States like West Bengal, Bihar and Andhra Pradesh, which collectively account for around a fifth of India’s total population, contribute to less than 10% of the court’s docket.
  • On the other hand, almost 18% of all cases in the Supreme Court originate from Punjab and Haryana, with less than 5% of the total population share.
  • Geographical constraints have also meant that appearing before the Supreme Court has inescapably become the domain of a select few lawyers in and around Delhi.
  • Such implied exclusivity consequently translates into steep and often prohibitive monetary costs for litigants.
  • Without the option of a local advocate of their choice, litigants are forced to choose from what the Bar in Delhi offers, both in terms of quality and costs.

Significance of virtual hearing

  • Over the past year, with virtual hearings, what was seen as the exclusive domain of a limited number of lawyers in Delhi has opened up to advocates from all over India, most of whom could only ever have dreamt of addressing the Supreme Court in their lifetimes.
  • Litigants now have the option to engage a local lawyer of their own choice and convenience, including the same lawyer who argued their case before the lower court.
  • More than one Law Commission and Parliamentary Committee have recommended Circuit Benches of the Supreme Court to be set up around the country.
  • Nonetheless, till the judiciary acts on such proposals, virtual hearings should be allowed to continue, if not as a matter of right, then at least as a matter of just and equitable policy.

 Conclusion

Indeed, virtual hearings may not be the perfect alternative, but such imperfections must be preferred over a denial of the right to access justice itself. It is only when each person in India is provided unhindered access to its corridors can the Supreme Court be said to have fulfilled its constitutional promise.

 

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

3. In the post-pandemic world, addressing inequality is key to sustaining growth and well-being. Discuss. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article explains how in the post-pandemic world, addressing inequality is key to sustaining growth and well-being.

Key Demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the Pillars of an equitable Post-COVID India.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with current situation of Covid pandemic and its effects.

Body:

Firstly present the challenges of inequality in the country and explain how they have aggravated due to Covid situation. India’s middle class shrunk by a third due to the pandemic, while the number of poor people earning less than Rs.150 per day more than doubled. – Pew Research Report.

In the pre-COVID scenario: Following factors led to the rising inequalities even before the pandemic; slow economic growth, Presence of large informal sector, Prospects of K-shaped economic growth, gender impact etc.

Conclusion:

Suggest solutions to address the situation and emphasize on sustainable development.

Introduction

COVID-19 in the last one year has once again reminded us of the growing inequalities in India. A recent Pew Research Report shows that India’s middle class may have shrunk by a third due to the novel coronavirus pandemic while the number of poor people earning less than ₹150 per day more than doubled.

Body

Growing inequality due to Covid-19

  • Inequalities were increasing earlier also but the pandemic has widened them further. For example, the share of wages declined as compared to that of profits. The big companies and a large part of the corporate sector could manage the pandemic.
  • But the informal sector and workers have suffered a lot with loss of incomes and employment in the last one year. In other words, the recovery is more k-shaped with rising inequalities.
  • According to the Centre For Monitoring Indian Economy, the employment rate is still 2.5 percentage points lower now as compared to the level before the lockdown last year.
  • Women lost more jobs and many are out of the workforce. Inequalities have increased in health care and education.
  • In its latest report, Oxfam noted “The wealth of Indian billionaires increased by 35 per cent during the lockdown and by 90 per cent since 2009 to $422.9 billion ranking India sixth in the world after US, China, Germany, Russia and France,” in its report titled ‘The Inequality Virus’.
  • Multiple estimates by multilateral institutions show the COVID-19 pandemic will hit India the hardest by sending 40 million people into “extreme poverty”, worsen hunger and income inequality, and yet the government seems oblivious with no data, no estimation or policy response
  • The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) estimates that 260 million people will be back in poverty by 2020 – almost as many as the 271 million who left between 2006 and 2016.

Thus, reduction in inequalities is important for its own sake and for improving demand which can raise private investment, consumption and exports for higher and sustainable economic growth.

 Addressing the inequalities for sustainable growth

A three-pronged approach for reducing inequalities. These are: focus on employment and wages; raising human development, and quasi universal basic income and other social safety nets.

  • First, creation of quality or productive employment is central to the inclusive growth approach. At the macro level, the investment rate which declined from 39% in 2011-12 to 31.7% in 2018-19 has to be improved. Investment in infrastructure including construction can create employment.
  • In labour market, correcting the mismatch between demand and supply of labour is needed (only3% of India’s workforce has formal skill training as compared to 96% in South Korea, 80% in Japan, and 52% in the United States).
  • Manufacturing should be the engine of growth. Here, labour-intensive exports are important and manufacturing and services are complementary.
  • Focusing on micro, small & medium enterprises and informal sectors including rights of migrants is important rather than providing 75% reservation to locals in private jobs.
  • Getting ready for automation and technology revolution such as IR 4.0. Workers need to be reskilled and up-skilled.
  • Social security and decent working conditions for all; raising real wages of rural and urban workers and guaranteeing minimum wages are key to reducing inequality.
  • Apart from spending on vaccines and other related measures, we need to move towards universal health care and spend 2%-3% of GDP on health. Education and health achievements are essential for reducing inequality of opportunities.

Way Forward

  • Enhancing tax and non-tax revenues of the government is needed to spend on the above priorities.
  • The tax/GDP ratio has to be raised, with a wider tax base. Richer sections have to pay more taxes.
  • Similarly, the inequalities between the Centre and States in finances should be reduced. State budgets must be strengthened to improve capital expenditures on physical infrastructure and spending on health, education and social safety nets.
  • Apart from economic factors, non-economic factors such as deepening democracy and decentralisation can help in reducing inequalities.
  • Unequal distribution of development is rooted in the inequalities of political, social and economic power. We have to find opportunities and spaces where the power can be challenged and redistributed.

 

Topic: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

4. Though hostility and competition between the U.S. and China will dominate this century, interdependence between the two superpowers is also a reality which the two countries will have to confess. Explain. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The question is in the backdrop of U.S.-China Foreign Ministers’ meeting in March at Alaska.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in what way hostility and competition between the U.S. and China will dominate this century; and interdependence between the two superpowers is also a reality which the two countries will have to confess.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by talking about the  increasing clout of China.

Body:

China will surpass the U.S. as the world’s largest economy, has established a worldwide network of economic ties and set up multilateral and financial institutions like the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, New Development Bank and Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank to compete with the West-dominated International Monetary Fund and World Bank.

Throw light on Confrontation and competition between U.S. and China.

Discuss the interdependency between the two.

Conclusion:

Conclude with fair and balanced opinion.

Introduction

In 2017, the US’s National Security Strategy called China as “a revisionist power” seeking “to erode American security and prosperity” and “shape a world antithetical to U.S. values and interests”. Trump administration was very hostile to the aggressive China, while it needs to be seen how their relations pan out under Biden.

Body

US-China competition and hostilities

  • Trade war: Former U.S. President Donald Trump accused China of unfair trade practices and pursued a dual policy of offering deals and threatening sanctions, but China continued to extend its influence and counter American increases in military funding by expanding its own military power.
  • Biden has censured China for human rights abuses in Hong Kong and Xinjiang.
  • There has been mounted aggression in the South and East China Seas and repeated intimidation of Taiwan.
  • USA has accused China of intellectual property theft, calling it techno-authoritarianism.
  • Currency manipulation and cyberattacks are amped under current Chinese administration.
  • The current tension is due to China’s rise that is transforming power settings and the U.S.’s attempts to constrict China before it becomes a peer competitor.
  • China will surpass the U.S. as the world’s largest economy, has established a worldwide network of economic ties and set up multilateral and financial institutions like the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, New Development Bank and Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank to compete with the West-dominated International Monetary Fund and World Bank.

Interdependence between US-China inevitable

  • The U.S.-China rhetoric masks the reality that both countries need each other not only for world stability but growth, supply chains, jobs, services, investments and market access.
  • China’s rise generated booms for numerous Asian and Western economies and accelerated the transition of the U.S. towards the lower end of manufacturing.
  • Sanctions used indiscriminately against China are unlikely to engender any change of behaviour, and it is clear that hectoring will not be left unanswered.
  • The U.S. deals for the first time with an economic and military rival it cannot browbeat, and economic interdependence today makes the war of words confined to words.

Conclusion

The world must not descend into a cold war like situation once again. Any policy change in these nations will have amplified impact on the globe, especially on trade and geo-politics. Both nations must realise the potential in collaboration towards peace and stability overcoming the challenges facing the world today.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

5. Native people are one of the most susceptible sections facing climate change, however, they can act as change agents to mitigate and adapt climate change. Discuss. (250 words)

Reference:  Down to Earth

Why the question:

The article explains that Indigenous and tribal peoples play vital roles in global and regional climate action and in fighting poverty.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in what way native people can contribute to mitigate and adapt to climate change by being change agents.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly define Indigenous people, highlight their vulnerability/problems face due to Climate Change.

Body:

Indigenous peoples, who have long inhabited an area, are among the first to face the direct consequences of climate change, due to their dependence upon, and close relationship, with the environment and its resources. Climate change exacerbates the difficulties already faced by indigenous communities including political and economic marginalization, loss of land and resources, human rights violations, discrimination and unemployment. For example, in the high altitude regions of the Himalayas, glacial melts affect hundreds of millions of rural dwellers who depend on the seasonal flow of water.

Highlight how they can act as change agent in mitigation as well as adaptation efforts with example.

In conclusion, highlight some challenges for becoming a change agent and some measures to overcome them.

Conclusion:

Conclude in what way they can work as change agents.

Introduction

Indigenous people are affected in distinctive ways by climate change, and also by the policies or actions that are aimed at addressing it. At the same time, they are agents of change, indigenous peoples are essential to the success of policies and measures directed towards mitigating and adapting to climate change, and to just transition policies as workers.

Body

Impact of climate change is more extreme on native people

  • For their economic, social and cultural activities, indigenous peoples depend on renewable natural resources that are most at risk to climate variability and extremes.
  • They live in geographical regions and ecosystems that are the most vulnerable to climate change. These include polar regions, humid tropical forests, high mountains, small islands, coastal regions, and arid and semi-arid lands, among others. Eg: Tribals in Amazon are nearly wiped out.
  • In the high altitude regions of the Himalayas, glacial melts affecting hundreds of millions of rural dwellers who depend on the seasonal flow of water is resulting in more water in the short term, but less in the long run as glaciers and snow cover shrink.
  • Rising temperatures, dune expansion, increased wind speeds, and loss of vegetation are negatively impacting traditional cattle and goat farming practices of indigenous peoples in Africa’s Kalahari Basin, who must now live around government-drilled bores in order to access water and depend on government support for their survival.
  • Gender inequality, which is a key factor in the deprivation suffered by indigenous women, is exacerbated by climate change.
    • While indigenous women play a vital role in traditional and non-traditional means of livelihood, unpaid care work, and food security, they often face discrimination from within and outside their communities.
  • Indigenous peoples, their rights, and their institutions often lack recognition. Consequently, consultation with and participation of indigenous peoples in decision making is limited in the absence of dedicated public mechanisms established for this purpose.

Native people as change agents to mitigate climate change

  • Deforestation rates are significantly lower in indigenous and tribal territories, where governments have formally recognized collective land rights, according to a new report.
  • In contrast, forests outside indigenous territories and protected areas lost 0.53 per cent each year, 0.36 per cent more than the indigenous territories, the report said.
  • The indigenous people follow forestry management practices such as assisted forest regeneration, selective harvesting and reforesting and assisted growth of trees within existing forests. These form an efficient and cost-effective way to reduce carbon emissions.
  • Indigenous people, with their traditional knowledge and occupations, have a unique role to play in climate action, cutting across both climate mitigation and adaptation efforts.
  • These people who dwell in forests have a vast wealth of culture, knowledge and natural resources but have the lowest incomes and poorest access to services. They were also among the worst-hit during the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, healthwise and economically.

Way Forward

An FAO report proposed a set of investments and policies that have great potential to reactivate the economies of the indigenous and tribal territories, mitigate climate change, preserve biological and cultural diversity, and reduce social and environmental conflicts.

The proposal is based on six pillars:

  • Recognition of collective territorial rights
  • Compensation for environmental services
  • Community forest management
  • Revitalization of ancestral knowledge
  • Strengthening of grassroots organizations and
  • Mechanisms for territorial governance

The FAO report is significant because it comes days after forest fires in Odisha’s Similipal highlighted the importance of engaging local communities in the first line of action.

Conclusion

It is important to note that enhancing and supporting the adaptive capacity of indigenous peoples will only be successful if this is integrated with other strategies such as disaster preparation, land-use planning, environmental conservation and national plans for sustainable development.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

6. Efficiency of bureaucratic performance in the country can be promoted through high-powered financial incentives. Analyse the statement with suitable examples. (250 words)

Reference:  Live Mint

Why the question:

The article talks about giving financial incentives to ensure better efficiency in Bureaucracy.  

Key Demand of the question:

Analyse in what way the efficiency of bureaucratic performance in the country can be promoted through high-powered financial incentives.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the definition of Bureaucratic performance.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Explain in what way promoting bureaucratic performance through high-powered financial incentives can bring efficiency; In contrast to monitoring or control-based measures, these have the potential to reduce corruption without increasing procedural complexity and processing frictions. Targets and performance measures can be changed as per the changing needs of the public/state. The incentives can also be tweaked and fine- tuned over time. For example, a bureaucrat in a more visible function may be more risk-averse (due to the higher cost of visible failures) than one in a less visible role. Financial incentives allow for heterogeneous risk preferences and targets. Various functions and departments can have incentives designed especially for their performance objectives.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way ahead.

Introduction

A wealth of anecdotal and academic evidence supports the deployment of high- powered incentives for transforming the bureaucracy from an albatross around the public’s neck into an engine of growth. To become true Karmayogis, bureaucrats need to have a strong motivation in the form of good financial incentives.

Body

High-powered financial incentives and bureaucratic performance

  • Many models across the globe serve as an evidence that better financial incentive will shake the bureaucracy from their lethargy and prevent red tapism.
  • The bureaucratic entrepreneurship which transformed China’s economy can largely be attributed to pay reforms. The low base pay of bureaucrats was supplemented with high add-on pay for economic performance.
  • Similarly, the bureaucracy of Singapore enjoys high supplemental pay that incentivizes performance. Bureaucrats in Singapore can earn four types of performance pay—a non-pensionable annual allowance, an annual variable component, a performance bonus and a national bonus. All this can add up to 20 months of a bureaucrat’s regular salary.
  • A sense of professional duty is usually inadequate to motivate public servants, and other incentives such as plum postings are too weak and/or randomly assigned (with high error rates) to act as strong motivators.
  • This, coupled with no incentives for information generation, makes bureaucrats risk-averse and unproductive. Financial incentives can often solve these problems.
  • In an empirical study (2018), Imran Rasul and Daniel Rogger found that well-designed financial incentives have a positive effect on project completion rates for the Nigerian Civil Service.

Advantages of promoting performance by incentives

  • In contrast to monitoring or control-based measures, these have the potential to reduce corruption without increasing procedural complexity and processing frictions.
  • Also, this approach to reforming the bureaucracy is flexible. Targets and performance measures can be changed as per the changing needs of the public/state.
  • The incentives can also be tweaked and fine- tuned over time.
  • Several research studies have shown that bureaucrats in different functions have different risk preferences. For example, a bureaucrat in a more visible function may be more risk-averse (due to the higher cost of visible failures) than one in a less visible role.
  • Financial incentives allow for heterogeneous risk preferences and targets. Various functions and departments can have incentives designed specially for their performance objectives.
  • Also, financial incentives can be imparted a ‘tournament’ like structure, which helps maintain motivation even in situations where outcomes are shaped by uncontrollable factors.

 

Conclusion

In sum, unlike monitoring and control-based measures, which have failed to reform the Indian bureaucracy, promotional measures that incentivize good performance are a powerful, comprehensive and flexible approach that would help India’s babudom achieve its ‘Weberian’ ideal.

 

Topic: ethics – in private and public relationships.

7. How ethics in private relationships affects ethics in public relationships? Explain. (250 words)

Reference:  Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question is based on the concept of ethics in private relationships and its effect on public relationship.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in what way ethics in private relationships affects ethics in public relationships.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Introduction should explain meaning of ethics in private relationship and ethics in public relationship.

Body:

Explain how ethics in private relationships affects ethics in public relationships?

Private relationships are all those relations which have least impact on life of others in society i.e. relation remains private so long as it does not harm interest of others. E.g. Husband-Wife relation, Father-Son relation etc. Ethics in private relationship deals with which values should guide these relationships.

Ethics in private relation means ethical standards followed by people in their private relations such as family, friends, groups community which are private in nature & people may have their own moral standards like family values, personal values, values in their social relations.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of both.

Introduction

Ethics in private relations helps in humanising public relations and play an important role in forming the base for moral values of a person. A good man can also be a good citizen and the virtues of his private relationship will reflect in his public relationships.

Body

Private relationship

Private relationships (often called as personal relationships) refer to close connections between people, formed by emotional bonds and interactions. E.g. Husband-Wife relation, Father-Son relation etc. Ethics in private relationship deals with which values should guide these relationships.

The values in private relationships can be love between the family, trust and honesty between siblings, spouses, fidelity in a marriage, respect for elders etc.

Public relationship

Public relations involve relation between individual in public sphere. Public relationships are more instrumental such as organisational colleagues, politicians, teachers, etc.

Here the values are integrity, accountability, transparency and so on.

Impact of ethics in private relationship vis-a-vis public relationship

  • A person who has love and affection for his family will also develop compassion and empathy in public sphere. It will aid in understanding the issues of public and he will work for the greater good of people.
  • Honesty is a virtue between two people in private relationship. This manifests as integrity and probity in public relationship. There will be lesser scope for corrupt practices and civil servants will be accountable to public.
  • In private and public relationships trust is an important factor for instance trust on family members, public trust on the government machinery etc. So, transparency, emotional intelligence are the factors which strengthen the relationships.
  • Gandhiji never shied away from doing the right thing even from his young age, He didn’t copy in a dictation when there was a class inspection and upheld truth and honesty. Years later, during freedom struggle he never shied away from taking tough decisions. Be it going to prison or stopping non-cooperation movement post Chauri Chaura incident.

There is an overlap between private and public virtues and ethics. Hence the private ethics manifests itself into public arena as well.

Conclusion

An individual must find balance between private and public relations and solve any conflict of interest in case it arises. The right intermingling ethics of private relationship and public relationship from a perspective of civil servant can lead to transparency, good governance and public welfare in society.


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