Topic: Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money laundering and its prevention.
6. Recent Mumbai cyber-attacks point to the need to rethink what constitutes a force and what a justified response can be. In this context analyse issues in contextualizing cyber-attack. (250 words)
Reference: The Hindu
Why the question:
Recent Mumbai cyberattacks point to the need to rethink what constitutes a force and what a justified response can be.
Key Demand of the question:
Analyse the issues in contextualizing cyber-attack in detail.
Analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.
Structure of the answer:
Start with a brief background of cyber-attacks and their impact.
Discuss the issues in contextualizing cyberattacks; Changing definitions: The definition of combat and combatants undergoes fast mutation and excluded cyber-attacks for E.g. Lieber Code of 1863: Defines a combatant as “So soon as a man is armed by a sovereign and takes the soldier’s oath of fidelity, he is a belligerent.”
The 1899 Hague Convention: Clarity of what constitutes a regular force.
- Force should be commanded by a person responsible for his subordinates.
- It must have a distinctive emblem recognizable at a distance.
- It must carry arms openly.
- It must conduct operations in accordance with laws and customs of war.
Present India’s stand. India has given its view of the right to self-defence In a February 24, 2021, UN Arria Formula meeting on ‘Upholding the collective security system of the UN Charter.
India seems to have made its intentions clear at the UN meet, but this is a game that two can play; if not regulated globally, it could lead to a wild West situation.