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[Insights Secure STHIR– 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 8 April 2021

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary—Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.

1. Access to justice for the deprived is a constitutional decree to ensure fair treatment under our legal system.  In this context, analyse the success of Lok Adalat in India. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article presents to us an analysis of successes and failures of Lok Adalat.

Key Demand of the question:

One must analyse in detail the success of the idea of Lok Adalat in the Indian setup of judiciary in presenting access to justice for the deprived.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what Lok Adalats are.

Body:

First talk about the constitutional status of Lok Adalats. Briefly discuss the History and Evolution of Lok Adalats in India.

Discuss the provisions given in the constitution with respect to access to justice for the deprived.

Present the merits and demerits of the system, weigh the successes achieved.

Account for challenges and shortcoming if any.

Conclusion:

Conclude with their importance.

 

Topic: Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

2. Account for land degradation in India. Also, highlight the steps taken to check growing land degradation in India. (250 words)

Reference:  Geography of India by Majid Hussain

Why the question:

The question is based on the theme of land degradation and its spatial aspects in the country.

Key Demand of the question:

One must discuss the state of land degradation in India and highlight the steps taken to check growing land degradation in India.

Directive:

Account – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you are in agreement with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Explain shortly what you understand by land degradation.

Body:

Land degradation is defined as the long term/temporary loss of ecosystem functions and

Productivity caused by disturbances from which land cannot recover unaided. It can be caused by natural as well as anthropogenic factors.

Give the current status of land degradation and reasons behind the same in India.

Enumerate the steps taken to check growing land degradation in India.

Conclusion:

Conclude by highlighting the steps, which should be taken towards the same.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

3. Myanmar crisis is India’s opportunity to develop long-term refugee policy. Analyse. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The column in Indian express presents to us the ongoing Myanmar refugee crisis and emphasizes on the urgency and need to come up with a concrete long term refugee policy.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the need to develop a long term refugee policy for the country.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief background of the ongoing Myanmar refugee crisis.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Discuss what constitutes Refugees, why they are a cause of concern.

Account for the existing provisions and policies associated to them.

Give example of the refugee crisis owing to the Myanmar crisis.

Discuss the need for adopting a long term refugee policy that addresses associated concers.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions.

 

Topic: GS-2: Issues relating to poverty and hunger.

GS-4: Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.

4. Explain in what way attitude and Behaviour can be a game changer in addressing the problems of food wastage in India. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

According to the Food Waste Index Report 2021 published by the United Nations Environment Programme, 50 kg of food is thrown away per person every year in Indian homes. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the possible role that attitude and behaviour of people can play in addressing the problems of food wastage in India.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with socking facts related to food wastage in India such as quote the statistics of the report.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Firstly discuss the causes for food wastage in India. Nearly 40 per cent of the food produced in India is wasted every year due to fragmented food systems and inefficient supply chains — a figure estimated by the Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO). This is the loss that occurs even before the food reaches the consumer.

Highlight the effects of problem of food waste in the country. s per the Food Waste Index Report 2021, a staggering 50 kg of food is thrown away per person every year in Indian homes. This excess food waste usually ends up in landfills, creating potent greenhouse gases which have dire environmental implications. Meanwhile, we continue to be green washed into amassing more “organic” and “sustainable” products than we really need.

Discuss the role of attitude and behaviour of individuals in addressing the issue.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

5. Climate justice is vital for India for realizing its green commitment to ensure its developmental and global targets of climate change. Explain. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article explains that along with comparable levels of commitments, there need to be equally comparable metrics for well-being.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the importance of climate justice for India to realize its green commitments and ensure developmental and global targets of climate change.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the definition of climate justice.

Body:

Background to the concept of climate justice: In 2015, at the UN General Assembly when the Sustainable Development Agenda 2030 was adopted and at the Paris Conference, Prime Minister Narendra Modi stressed a reframing of climate change to climate justice.

The Paris Agreement explicitly recognise this justice by acknowledging that peaking will take longer for such countries and is to be achieved in the context of sustainable development.

Unfortunately, this balance is now being upset for a common target and timetable.

Explain the issues with achieving climate justice.

Conclusion:

Conclude with the importance of recognising the need for a new framework and new understanding for climate justice.

 

Topic: Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money laundering and its prevention.

6.  Recent Mumbai cyber-attacks point to the need to rethink what constitutes a force and what a justified response can be. In this context analyse   issues in contextualizing cyber-attack. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

Recent Mumbai cyberattacks point to the need to rethink what constitutes a force and what a justified response can be.

Key Demand of the question:

Analyse the issues in contextualizing cyber-attack in detail.

 Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with a brief background of cyber-attacks and their impact.

Body:

Discuss the issues in contextualizing cyberattacks; Changing definitions: The definition of combat and combatants undergoes fast mutation and excluded cyber-attacks for E.g. Lieber Code of 1863: Defines a combatant as “So soon as a man is armed by a sovereign and takes the soldier’s oath of fidelity, he is a belligerent.”

The 1899 Hague Convention: Clarity of what constitutes a regular force.

  • Force should be commanded by a person responsible for his subordinates.
  • It must have a distinctive emblem recognizable at a distance.
  • It must carry arms openly.
  • It must conduct operations in accordance with laws and customs of war.

Present India’s stand. India has given its view of the right to self-defence In a February 24, 2021, UN Arria Formula meeting on ‘Upholding the collective security system of the UN Charter.

Conclusion:

India seems to have made its intentions clear at the UN meet, but this is a game that two can play; if not regulated globally, it could lead to a wild­ West situation.

 

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

7. Do you think the interlinking of river in India is a sustainable water management practice? Analyse with suitable examples. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The article presents the case of Ken-Betwa river linking project.  

Key Demand of the question:

One is expected to analyse if interlinking of river in India is a sustainable water management practice.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with importance of water management practice in the country.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

What is River Inter-interlinking? – The National River Linking Project (NRLP) formally known as the National Perspective Plan, envisages the transfer of water from water ‘surplus’ basins where there is flooding, to water ‘deficit’ basins where there is drought/scarcity, through inter-basin water transfer projects.

Briefly present the history behind River Interlinking in the country.

Present the scope of the project and then critically evaluate the concerns posed by it using suitable example.

Suggest solutions like – Local solutions (like better irrigation practice) and watershed management, should be focused on. The government should alternatively consider the National Waterways Project (NWP) which “eliminates” friction between states over the sharing of river waters since it uses only the excess flood water that goes into the sea unutilized. The necessity and feasibility of river-interlinking should be seen on case to case basis, with adequate emphasis on easing out federal issues.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a fair and balanced opinion.  


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