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[Insights Secure STHIR– 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 2 April 2021

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

1.  The concentration of health workforce in India needs to be improved to upsurge the efficiency of delivery of health care services at several levels. Analyse . (250 words)

Reference:  Financial Express

Why the question:

The article highlights the need for a big investment in health workforce in the country.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain the need to improve the concentration of health workforce in India so as to upsurge the efficiency of delivery of health care services at several levels.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly provide for some stats related to status of health workers in India.

Body:

The density of health workforce in India is not even half of the 44.5 health workers per 10,000 persons as recommended by the WHO.

Health workers were globally applauded for their tireless and assiduous services during the Covid-19 crisis—not merely for their role in dispensing healthcare and saving lives, but also for enormously stretched working hours, dealing with constrained resources, contracting infections, and sustaining unnecessary and unwarranted violence.

Explain their inevitability.

Discuss in detail the challenges.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions to address the problems.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: India and its neighborhood- relations.

2. should India strive for “double peace”, both inside Afghanistan and in the region? Analyse.  (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

External Affairs Minister S. Jaishankar’s comment that India supports talks between the Afghan government and the Taliban signals a subtle shift in India’s approach towards the Afghan crisis.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the need for India to strive for double peace both inside Afghanistan as well as for  the entire region.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief background of the India-Afghan relations.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Discuss Heart of Asia-Istanbul Process (HoA-IP).

Explain the past dealings with Taliban, discuss Biden’s Afghanistan plan.

Discuss India’s strategy in Afghanistan. The question that bothers India and other stakeholders in the region is how to help Afghanistan end the violence without total submission to the Taliban.

Suggest solutions.

Conclusion:

Afghanistan Government which is currently negotiating on weaker terms may get a stronger backing if India is actively engaged in talks. Therefore, India must use its regional influence as well as its deep ties with both the U.S. and Russia, strive for what Mr. Jaishankar called “double peace”, both inside Afghanistan and in the region.

 

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

3. Critically analyse the recommendations of the Fifteenth Finance Commission with regard to local governments. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article presents a brief critique of recommendations of the Fifteenth Finance Commission with regard to local governments.

Key Demand of the question:

Critically analyse the recommendations of the Fifteenth Finance Commission with regard to local governments.

Directive:

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with few lines on Fifteenth Finance Commission and its recommendations.

Body:

Mention recommendations with respect to local govt. – The performance­-linked grants was introduced by the 13th Finance Commission – earmarked 35% of local grants specifying six conditions for panchayats and nine for urban local governments and covered a wide range of reforms: from the establishment of an independent ombudsman to notifying standards for service sectors such as drinking water and solid waste management.

Discuss the Positive aspects of 15th FC recommendations.

Account for the criticisms of 15th FC recommendations.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a fair and balanced opinion.

 

Topic: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

4. Discuss the major implications of a paradigm shift in the United States (US) foreign policy on India. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The article analyses the changes in the foreign policy of the US.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain the major implications of a paradigm shift in the United States (US) foreign policy on India.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with recent happenings in the US foreign policy.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

No longer based on the antiquated friend-or-foe classification: under which transgressions by a “friend” or an “ally” were overlooked if the country was helpful to US self-interests.

Change in character of “smart sanctions”: Directed both against the countries and against individuals, firms, and institutions for alleged transgressions.

Discuss the impact of India.

Conclusion:

Conclude that whether cooperation, competition, or confrontation dominates the nature of the engagement will depend on the specifics, not whether India is a friend or a foe of the US.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

5. Do you think the government of India should facilitate the development of a burgeoning Corporate Bond market? If so, explain why? (250 words)

Reference:  Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is based on the theme of corporate bond market.

Key Demand of the question:

One is

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Explain what is the corporate bond market?

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Discuss the concept of corporate bond market first in detail.

In India, the Government bond market has experienced a steady growth over the years due to the need to finance the fiscal deficit. The Government bond market, which is around 39.5 per cent of GDP in end-2010 in India compares favorably to most other Asian countries. The corporate bond market on the other hand is just 1.6 per cent of GDP in end-2010 and small in relation to the economy’s size. From 2008 to 2010 corporate bond market in India in value terms grew from $7.85 billion to $24.99 billion.

 In comparison to other countries such as South Korea ($380.62 billion) and China ($ 522.09 billion), the Indian corporate bond market appears to be under-developed. The under development of the corporate bond market in India is not incidental and is mainly attributable to the structure of the Indian financial system and regulatory structure.

Currently corporates and business get majority (almost all) of the lending from banks. Banks are exposed to numerous other risks. If bank’s credit is exposed to a bad company (say kingfisher) than any default by that company (in repayment) can cause harm to depositor, who otherwise wouldn’t have opted to get exposed to this bad company. 

Comment on the aspects of facilitation of it by the govt.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic: GS-2: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

GS-3: Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

6. The fact that more than 415 people die on Indian roads every day calls for creating a model for improving road safety in India. Comment. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The article talks about the road safety in India.  

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the need for creating a model for improving road safety in India.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with some facts related to road safety in India.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Some steps taken so far for ensuring road safety in India – Introduced harsh penalties under the new provisions of the Motor Vehicles Act. Campaigns by the government: E.g. In ‘Mann ki Baat’ Prime Minister made a special reference to the govt.’s concern on road crashes and called people to become active stakeholders in road safety etc.

Then present the need for a model for improving road safety in India.

Conclusion:

Conclude that the model will help usher in a welcome culture of traffic discipline, smooth aesthetic flow in lanes, and responsible citizen road-behaviour.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.

7. How does Attitude influence our thought and behaviour? Explain with example. (250 words)

Reference:  Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question is based on the theme of Attitude and its influence on our behaviour.

Key Demand of the question:

Analyse how Attitude influence our thought and behaviour.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the definition of Attitude.

Body:

An attitude is “a relatively enduring organization of beliefs, feelings, and behavioural tendencies towards socially significant objects, groups, events or symbols”. Since, attitude also includes pre-disposition to behave in certain ways, therefore our attitude can be regarded as the predictor of our behaviour in relation to the attitude object.

Such questions are best explained with examples.

Conclusion:

Conclude by highlighting its significance.


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