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Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 29 March 2021

NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.

 


General Studies – 1


 

1.Give an account of India’s contribution in Bangladesh Liberation War of 1971 and examine its impact on India -Bangladesh ties from past to present.(250 words)

Reference: Indian Express

Introduction:

Pakistan was made of West and East Pakistan after August 14,1947. The eastern province gained its independence in March 1971 and Bangladesh was born. Bangladesh’s independence has been considered India’s most successful neighbourhood intervention.

Body:

India was compelled to intervene in the Bangladesh War of 1971 due to various strategic, domestic, economic and humanitarian factors.

  • Strategic:
    • Having a hostile West Pakistan and East Pakistan on both sides of its borders was a strategic concern for India.
    • This was compounded by the strain in Sino-Indian relations which culminated in the war of 1962.
    • Unprovoked military aggression by Pakistan on the North-West India in 1972 needed to be responded in a stringent manner.
    • Therefore, the intervention in 1971 was necessary to safeguard the long term strategic interests.
  • Domestic:
    • The constant influx of migrants from East Pakistan was creating various problems in the Border States.
    • The resources were limited and there was constant struggle between locals and refugees over the use of these resources.
    • Besides there were various other ethnic and social problems due to this inflow of migrants.
  • Economic:
    • The country was spending huge resources to absorb these refugees.
    • Being a closed economy, India was not in a position to continue spending resources for long and hence a long term solution to the problem was needed.
    • Beside, having a hostile East Pakistan was hindering the development of north-eastern part of the country due to limited connectivity.
  • Humanitarian:
    • Lastly the atrocities committed on the people of East Pakistan forced India to intervene in the conflict on humanitarian ground to prevent a large scale crisis.

India’s role in liberation of Bangladesh:

  • Indian government allowed Awami league leaders to form government in exile
  • Gave military training to Mukti Bahini Sena on Indian soil.
  • Provided food, shelter, clothing and medical aid to refugees in spite of tremendous strain on their resources.
  • In December 1971, Indian armed forces directly undertook the operation for liberation of Bangladesh which led to Indo-Pakistan war of 1971.
  • India observed international refugee law and allowed refugees regardless of religion or language. It internationalised their tragedy.

Aftermath of War:

Shimla agreement:

  • Shimla Agreement was signed between India (Indira Gandhi) and Pakistan (zulfikar Ali Bhutto)
  • Main agenda at Shimla was to deal with the aftermath of the 1971 War and usher in durable peace between India and Pakistan.
  • The following principles of the agreement also show that it was a peace treaty
    • A mutual commitment to the peaceful resolution of all issues through direct bilateral approaches
    • To build the foundations of a cooperative relationship with special focus on people to people contacts
    • To uphold the inviolability of the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir, which is a most important CBM between India and Pakistan, and a key to durable peace.
  • Even though the agreement was in the interests of bringing peace in the relations of both the countries it adversely impacted the future of Kashmir and despite being in a winning position India could not use its diplomacy to the mark.

Bilateral relations:

  • India and Bangladesh today enjoy one of the best periods of their relationship, with positive development in the areas of diplomatic, political, economic and security relations.
  • Bilateral trade was a little over $9 billion in FY 2017-18 and Bangladeshi exports increased by 42.91%, reaching $1.25 billion in FY 2018-2019.
  • The India-Bangladesh border is one of India’s most secured.
  • By signing of the Land Boundary Agreement in 2015, the two neighbours amicably resolved a long-outstanding issue.
  • In 2018, in addition to the 660 MW of power imported by Bangladesh, Indian export of electricity increased by another 500 MW.
  • Train services on the Dhaka-Kolkata and Kolkata-Khulna are doing well, while a third, on the Agartala-Akhaura route, is under construction.
  • Today, Bangladesh contributes 50% of India’s health tourism revenue.
  • India and Bangladesh share 4096.7 km. of border, which is the longest land boundary that India shares with any of its neighbours. The India-Bangladesh Land Boundary Agreement (LBA) came into force following the exchange of instruments of ratification in June 2015
  • Relations between the two border guarding forces are at their best right now.
  • India and Bangladesh share 54 common rivers. A bilateral Joint Rivers Commission (JRC) is working since June 1972 to maintain liaison between the two countries to maximize benefits from common river systems.
  • India and Bangladesh share the historical legacy of cooperation and support during the Liberation War of 1971.Various Joint exercises of Army (Exercise Sampriti) and Navy (Exercise Milan) take place between the two countries.

Conclusion:

India’s humanitarian intervention in Bangladesh has shaped South Asia, made it a responsible power in the region. India’s links with Bangladesh are civilisational, cultural, social and economic. India played the great role in emergence of independent Bangladesh and was the first country to recognise Bangladesh as separate state. India and Bangladesh today enjoy one of the best periods of their relationship, with positive development in the areas of diplomatic, political, economic and security relations. The shared colonial legacy, history and socio-cultural bonds demand that the political leadership of the two countries inject momentum into India-Bangladesh relations.

 


General Studies – 2


 

2.Discuss the factors that have led to deterioration in Parliament’s functioning in India. Suggest what needs to be done. (250 Words)

Reference: The Hindu

Introduction:

Through its oversight function, Parliament holds the government accountable and ensures that policies are efficient and in keeping with the needs of citizens.  In addition, parliamentary oversight is essential to prevent arbitrary and unconstitutional action by the government.

The Budget session of Parliament ended recently, two weeks ahead of the original plan, as many political leaders are busy with campaigning for the forthcoming State Assembly elections.

Body:

Erosion of Parliamentary oversight:

  • the fiscal year 2020-21 saw the Lok Sabha sitting for 34 days (and the Rajya Sabha for 33), the lowest ever.
  • The casualty was proper legislative scrutiny of proposed legislation as well as government functioning and finances.
  • During the session, 13 Bills were introduced, and not even one of them was referred to a parliamentary committee for examination.
  • Many high impact Bills were introduced and passed within a few days.
  • The Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi (Amendment) Bill, 2021, which is the Bill to change the governance mechanism of Delhi — shifting governance from the legislature and the Chief Minister to the Lieutenant Governor — was introduced on March 15 in the Lok Sabha, passed by that House on March 22 and by Rajya Sabha on the March 24.
  • Another Bill, the Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Amendment Bill, 2021, amends the Mines and Minerals Act, 1957 to remove end-use restrictions on mines and ease conditions for captive mines; this Bill was introduced on March 15 and passed by both Houses within a week.
  • A Bill — The National Bank for Financing Infrastructure and Development (NaBFID) Bill, 2021 — to create a new government infrastructure finance institution and permit private ones in this sector was passed within three days of introduction.
  • The Insurance (Amendment) Bill, 2021, the Bill to increase the limit of foreign direct investment in insurance companies from 49% to 74% also took just a week between introduction and passing by both Houses.
  • In all, 13 Bills were introduced in this session, and eight of them were passed within the session.
  • Importance bills were passed without being referred to Parliamentary Committees.
  • The percentage of Bills referred to Parliamentary committees declined from 60% and 71% in the 14th Lok Sabha (2004-09) and the 15th Lok Sabha, respectively, to 27% in the 16th Lok Sabha and just 11% in the current one.
  • When bills are not sent to committees, then we mostly get to see the political aspect of the debate taking place.
  • The Finance Bills, over the last few years, have contained several unconnected items such as restructuring of tribunals, introduction of electoral bonds, and amendments to the foreign contribution act.
  • Disruption of parliamentary proceedings has become the norm which further erodes parliamentary oversight as it reduces time for debate.

Reasons for erosion of Parliamentary oversight:

  • Covid-19 pandemic was the reason given by the government for the cancellation of zero hour, last year.
  • Urgency to pass bills to achieve reforms invites guillotine closure. Ex: Farms Bills, Abrogation of Article 370.
  • Lack of Leader of Opposition and effective opposition.
  • Single party dominance in the Lok Sabha.
  • Discussion on matters of controversy and public importance: By virtue of their very nature, controversial topics appear to be those matters that have an adverse effect on a region, a State, or the country as a whole and dominate the contemporaneous news cycle. There have been a number of instances where matters of public importance have been raised by members by means of incessant disruptions, rather than through permissible devices with the leave of the Speaker or the Chairman.
  • Grandstanding by the leaders and members of the opposition: Most disruptions have been initiated by members of the opposition parties. This is because the transaction of business in the Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha is, in some sense, as is only to be expected, driven by the government and subject to the interplay between various political groups and their associated ideologies
  • Privileging Party over Member: The spate of large-scale disruptions may also be attributable to the privileging of the political party over the individual parliamentarian in the democratic setup. The anti-defection law, which is codified under the Tenth Schedule of the Indian Constitution and which endeavours to prevent the breach of faith of the electorate by an MP is a key manifestation of such privileging.
  • Disruptions may help ruling party evade responsibility: The maximum number of disruptions have been found to take place in the Question Hour and the Zero Hour. While these disruptions are largely attributable to the behaviour of members of the opposition, they may also be a consequence of executive action.
  • Lack of dedicated time for unlisted discussion: Disruptions also get triggered due to lack of adequate time for raising questions and objections in respect of matters that are not listed for discussion in a particular, or during a particular session.
  • Scarce resort to disciplinary powers: Another systemic reason why disruptions are not effectively prevented relates to the scarce resort to disciplinary powers by the Speaker of the Lok Sabha and the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha. As a result, most members engaging in disorderly conduct are neither deterred nor restrained from engaging in such conduct.

Implications:

  • Government taking ordinance route
  • Affects the governance of executive as important legislations gets delayed
  • Wastage of public money
  • Ineffectiveness of representative democracy
  • opportunities of holding government accountable are being lost

Way forward:

  • The normal modalities of Question Hour and Zero Hour must be restored immediately when the Pandemic situation improves.
  • According to the National Commission to Review the Working of the Constitution (NCRWC), DRSCs should be periodically reviewed so that the committees which have outlived their utility can be replaced with new ones.
  • Given the increasing complexity in matters of economy and technological advancement there is a need for setting up new parliamentary committees.
  • Major reports of all Committees should be discussed in Parliament especially in cases where there is disagreement between a Committee and the government.
  • Have a calendar of sittings announced at the beginning of each year so that members can plan better for the whole year.
  • A deep understanding of parliamentary history and traditions and, the constitutional role and responsibilities of the Indian legislature is necessary.
  • Law makers must think about institutional reforms needed for strengthening the overall role of parliament.
  • The National Commission to Review the Working of the Constitution recommended that the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha should meet at least 120 and 100 days a year respectively.

Conclusion:

A considerable amount of legislative work gets done in these smaller units of MPs from both Houses, across political parties. In most of the Committees, public is directly or indirectly associated when memoranda containing suggestions are received, on-the-spot studies are conducted and oral evidence is taken which helps the Committees in arriving at the conclusions. Thus, Parliamentary Committees acts as vibrant link between the Parliament, the Executive and the general public.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

3.Account for the major irrigation challenges faced by Indian farmers and suggest what policy measures and reforms are needed to resolve the same. (250 Words)

Reference: Indian Express

 

Introduction:

Irrigation is the process of applying water to the crops artificially to fulfil their water requirements. Nutrients may also be applied to the crops through irrigation. The various sources of water for irrigation are wells, ponds, lakes, canals, tube-wells, and even dams. Irrigation offers moisture required for growth and development, germination, and other related functions.

Body:

Types of Irrigation:

There are different types of irrigation practised for improving crop yield. These types of irrigation systems are practised based on the different types of soils, climates, crops and resources. The main types of irrigation followed by farmers include:

  • Surface Irrigation: In this system, no irrigation pump is involved. Here, water is distributed across the land by gravity.
  • Localized irrigation: In this system, water is applied to each plant through a network of pipes under low pressure.
  • Sprinkler irrigation: Water is distributed from a central location by overhead high-pressure sprinklers or from sprinklers from the moving platform.
  • Drip Irrigation: In this type, drops of water are delivered near the roots of the plants. This type of irrigation is rarely used as it requires more maintenance and
  • Centre Pivot Irrigation: In this, the water is distributed by a sprinkler system moving in a circular pattern.
  • Sub-irrigation: Water is distributed through a system of pumping stations gates, ditches and canals by raising the water table.
  • Manual Irrigation: This a labour intensive and time-consuming system of irrigation. Here, the water is distributed through watering cans by manual labour.

Benefits of Irrigation:

  • Insufficient and uncertain rainfall adversely affects agriculture. Droughts and famines are caused due to low productivity. Irrigation helps to increase productivity even in low rainfall.
  • The productivity on irrigated land is higher as compared to the un-irrigated land.
  • Multiple cropping is not possible in India because the rainy season is specific in most of the regions. However, the climate supports cultivation throughout the year. Irrigation facilities make it possible to grow more than one crop in most of the areas of the country.
  • Irrigation has helped to bring most of the fallow land under cultivation.
  • Irrigation has stabilized the output and yield levels.
  • Irrigation increases the availability of water supply, which in turn increases the income of the farmers.

Major Irrigation challenges:

  • Delays in completion of projects: In most of the projects, there have been delay in construction of field channels and water courses, land levelling and land shaping.
  • Inter-state Water disputes: Irrigation is a state subject in India. As a result, difference with regard to storage, priorities and use of water arise between different states. Narrow regional outlook brings inter-state rivalries over distribution of water supply.
  • Regional disparities in irrigation development: The Ninth Five Year Plan Document estimated that the water resource development in North Eastern region through major, medium and minor schemes is only at the level of 28.6 per cent whereas in the Northern region it has reached about 95.3 per cent.
  • Water-logging and salinity: Introduction of irrigation has led to the problem of water logging and salinity in some of the states.
  • Increasing cost of irrigation: The cost of providing irrigation have been increasing over the years from the first five-year plant to tenth five-year plan.
  • Decline in water table: There has been a steady decline in water table in the recent period in several parts of the country, especially in the western dry region, on account over exploitation of ground water and insufficient recharge from rain-water.

Measures needed:

  • Large public and private investment for expanding the irrigation system to accelerate agricultural growth and to meet the needs of food security;
  • More efficiency in managing the irrigation system;
  • Speedy exploitation of irrigation potential from major and medium sources;
  • Completion of on-going projects, improvement in the utilisation of irrigation potential and expansion of rural electrification in the eastern region and replacement of high-cost diesel pump sets;
  • Ensuring a conjunctive use of surface and ground water;
  • The original Gadgil formula, which, earmarked 10 per cent of the total resource to the State Plans for major and medium irrigation and power projects should be revived;
  • A major part of saving of fertiliser subsidy be given to States as grant for irrigation expansion; Suitable incentives be extended for advancing hi-tech irrigation systems like the microprocessor-based drip irrigation technology that has proven ability to save 25 per cent chemical fertilisers, halve the water used and nearly double the yields;
  • Farmers stakes in irrigation work be raised by conferring on them some degree of. co-ownership the irrigation system; and
  • A comprehensive watershed management plan need be formulated and effectively implemented.

Conclusion:

The farmers should be acquainted with the type of soil moisture, quality of irrigation water, frequency of irrigation for the proper implementation of irrigation systems.

Case study of best irrigation practices across India:

  • The Punjab government, along with the World Bank and J-PAL, has started some pilots with an innovative policy of “Paani Bachao Paise Kamao” to encourage rational use of water among farmers. Under the initiative, meters are installed on farmers’ pumps, and if they save water/power compared to what they have been using (taken as entitlements) they get paid for those savings — this is credited directly into their bank accounts.
  • Jain Irrigation, for instance, has set up drip irrigation pilots for paddy in Karnal (Haryana) and Tamil Nadu and for sugarcane in Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. The results of these pilots indicate while it takes 3,065 litres of water to produce 1 kg of paddy grain (yield level 7.75 t/ha) under traditional flood irrigation, under drip, it can be reduced to just 842 litres. The benefit cost ratio of drip with fertigation in case of sugarcane in Karnataka is observed to be 2.64.
  • An extension to this is the “Family Drip System” innovated by the largest drip irrigation company in the world, the Israel-based — Netafim. The company has also launched its largest demonstration project in Asia at Ramthal, Karnataka.
  • Technologies like Direct Seeded Rice (DSR) and System of Rice Intensification (SRI) can also save 25-30 per cent of water compared to traditional flood irrigation.

 

 

 

4.“Actions to reduce emissions in different sectors could be the foundation of a stronger economy and a healthier population”, in the context of the statement discuss the possible effect net zero emission can have on economic growth. (250 words )

Reference: Indian Express

Introduction:

India is one of the top four carbon emitters today although its historic contribution is very low. The International Energy Agency predicts that much of India’s future emissions will come from things that have not yet been built — transport infrastructure, industry, and buildings — pointing to the opportunity to build cleaner. Many states such as Sikkim, Karnataka have already started work in this regard. Net-zero carbon emissions can lead to stronger economies despite an initial set back.

Body:

Benefits of net zero emissions on economic growth in India

  • As India moves to cleaner sources of electricity, water consumption by power plants will decrease from more than 2.5 billion cubic metres to less than 1 billion cubic metres per year in 2050. Scare resources will be available for other purposes.
  • Actions to reduce carbon dioxide will also reduce other pollution. This in turn will lead to healthier human capital, increasing the productive capacity of people.
  •  A strong set of climate actions across multiple sectors can generate 24 million jobs in just 15 years. For example, more ambitious policies to promote electric vehicles along with cleaner electricity and hydrogen electrolysis can create jobs in the auto manufacturing industry and in the electricity and construction sectors.
  • Sectors that lose out due to net-zero transition will be offset by new sectors. For instance, hydrogen fuel, cleaner battery technologies will replace carbon-based technologies. Economic Survey 2019 had noted that India has potential to become Detroit of Electric vehicles.
  • Net-zero carbon policies would lead to significant fuel savings and dramatically reduce the country’s crude oil import bill in the long run.
  • The numerous disasters caused by climate change and global warming in itself leads to nearly $2 billion in losses for Indian economy every year. Net zero emissions can lessen the impact of climate change and frequency of disasters.

Challenges of transitioning into zero carbon economy:

  • The catch is that 25 per cent of the Centre’s tax revenue comes from the energy sector, so weaning away from fossil fuels will also deplete the government’s coffers.
  • Job gains might not occur in the same locations as job losses. Women, whose participation in the workforce has been harder hit in the pandemic, may not easily be able to access certain new jobs.
  • Most new jobs are expected to be non-unionised, often lacking safety nets. Carbon tax revenues may need to be recycled back to poorer households who spend a large fraction of their income on energy.

Way Forward:

  • One way to offset energy sector loss is through a carbon tax on industry, slowly phased in from a small amount roughly equivalent to the existing coal cess (or GST compensation cess) to reach Rs 2,500 per tonne of carbon dioxide by the middle of the century.
  • Just as we need strong climate policies, we also need strong social policies and local institutions to ensure that the clean energy transition is fair and just.
  • Flattening the emissions curve will not happen by itself. They need to be accelerated with investments of finance and technology

Conclusion:

A net-zero emissions future need not be a zero-sum game. Strong environmental policies can create prosperity and well-being. With imaginative policies, robust institutions, and international finance, India will be able to declare its freedom from polluting fossil fuels in the hundredth year of its independence.

 

 

5.Highlight the risks associated with increasing dependence of digital economy on satellite constellations and analyse the need for a comprehensive national space-weather law in the country. (250 words)

Reference: Live Mint

Introduction:

By 2030, the global space industry could add almost 50,000 new commercial satellites to the existing 5,000 satellites. The increasing dependence of the digital economy on satellite constellations is spurring investment in this area. Threats of collisions and space debris are already mounting.

India needs legislation to enable a ‘whole-of-government’ approach that would allow and spur the country to secure its vital interests against the vagaries of space weather.

Body:

Risks associated with dependency between digital economy and satellite constellations:

  • Major threat to satellite constellations is that of extreme space weather events, and this cannot be addressed by space and digital players alone. Governments need to collaborate together on this.
  • India’s economy is expected to become increasingly dependent on space- and ground-based commercial, civilian and military assets. Space weather-caused glitches could threaten these assets and compromise operations.
  • Geomagnetic storms, coronal mass ejections, and other phenomena that emit radiation and highly energetic particles that disturb satellites as well as ground infrastructure must be monitored to protect space assets that predict weather and give insights into security around the borders.
  • India is executing Gaganyaan programme and aspires to set up an Indian space station by 2030, we must deploy across-the-board space-weather monitoring, forecasting and response systems designed to safeguard deep-space assets and protect our gaganauts.

Need for a comprehensive national space weather law:

  • India needs legislation like America’s to issues cross-ministerial directions. Last October, the US Congress passed an Act that directs civilian and military agencies to reinforce national space weather forecasting abilities. Similar law is needed for inter-departmental coordination in India.
  • This will help India fulfil its blue-water navy aspiration, operate an indigenous satellite navigation system, secure road, rail, energy, telecom, shipping and aviation infrastructure, respond to natural disasters, and ward off national security threats—all of which will depend on a comprehensive national space-weather law.
  • India is swiftly progressing with its capital-intensive planetary exploration and human space-flight projects.
  • Consequently, it is imperative for the government to develop and adopt space weather forecasts before initiating outer space activities.
  • India already has scientists who observe the sun and its inherent physical behaviour, its solar storms and coronal mass ejections, and its surface and ‘helio’-seismological activities. But without a national policy backed by legislation, the scientific community would find it difficult to meet the strategic demands of the conjoined space and digital economies.

Conclusion:

A model lies in India’s whole-of-government approach on disaster response and humanitarian assistance, as seen in the way natural disasters like earthquakes are tackled and preparatory work is done for cyclones, floods and tsunamis. The enactment of a space weather law, like India’s 2005 Disaster Management Act, could help the country protect its digital and telecom systems that extend to outer space from destructive solar storms and intense solar and galactic radiation whiplashes.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

6.Analyse the role that social and emotional learning play in the development of child.(250 words)

Reference: The Hindu

Social and emotional learning is the process through which children and adults develop the skills, attitudes, and values necessary to acquire social and emotional competence. Social and emotional competence is the ability to understand, manage, and express the social and emotional aspects of one’s life in ways that enable the successful management of life tasks such as learning, forming relationships, solving everyday problems, and adapting to the complex demands of growth and development. It includes self-awareness, control of impulsivity, working cooperatively, and caring about oneself and others

Body:

Role that social and emotional learning play in the development of child:

  • Emotional development and social skills are essential for school readiness.
  • Examples of such abilities include paying attention to adult figures, transitioning easily from one activity to the next, and cooperating with other kids.
  • It helps them to know and can manage themselves
  • Understand the perspectives of others and relate effectively with them
  • Make sound choices about personal and social decisions
  • Teaches Cooperation: It gives a child the opportunity to interact and play with other kids. This is one of the best ways to teach them how to relate to others.
  • Covid has also affected the holistic development and capacity of learning in children by creating a social and emotional impact on the children. Studies indicate that stress levels have increased, and children and their families have been finding it hard to cope with the current situations.
  • Preliminary findings from a recent study by ChildFund India, covering approximately 2,000 children from marginalised communities in the age group of 6-14, from 10 States suggest that around 73 per cent children were feeling sad and 8 per cent were feeling anxious because they were not able to meet friends and teachers, access or/and understand online learning sessions and missing active face-to-face teaching learning.
  • both character education and social and emotional education aspire to teach our students to be good citizens with positive values and to interact effectively and behave constructively.

Outcomes of social:

  • More positive attitudes toward oneself, others, and tasks including enhanced self-efficacy, confidence, persistence, empathy, connection and commitment to school, and a sense of purpose
  • More positive social behaviors and relationships with peers and adults
  • Reduced conduct problems and risk-taking behavior
  • Decreased emotional distress
  • Improved test scores, grades, and attendance

Conclusion:

The social and emotional education of children may be provided through a variety of diverse efforts such as classroom instruction, extracurricular activities, a supportive school climate, and involvement in community service.

 

 

7.Explain significance of tolerance and compassion in the Indian context. How effectively can they be used in the process of decision making in public administration? Explain. (250 Words)

Reference:  Lexicon Publications.

 

Introduction:

Compassion is understanding or empathy for the suffering of others. Tolerance is respect, acceptance and appreciation for those whose opinions, practices, race religion, nationality etc. are different from one’s own. These two qualities are very important for a civil servant in multicultural country like India.

Body:

The attribute of being compassionate is of immense value:

  • Understand needs of marginalized and vulnerable sections of society.
  • Undertake faster approach and measures to address the issues of society.
  • Unbiased approach in service delivery and distribution of government facilities.
  • Respecting the affirmative action towards the disadvantaged and implementing them with positive attitude.
  • Making oneself accessible to all citizens and seeking their feedback.
  • Understanding the needs and expectation of people. For Eg: Compassion of Civil servants in handling citizens and societal fabric together during covid is exemplary.

The attribute of being tolerant is very important:

  • Freedom from Bigotry, Phobias like Xenophobia, Homophobia, Theophobia etc.
  • It helps in developing qualities like respect towards others, knowledge, openness, communication between diverse sections in society.
  • Upholding natural rights i.e. Human rights, Democracy, Multiculturalism, Pluralism etc.
  • More importantly protecting the constitutional principles of Fundamental Rights which forms basic structure of constitution.
  • Prevent tendency of intimidation, coercion, oppression etc. For Eg: The tolerance of Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam towards different sections of society was transformed into love so much that he was called People’s President.
  • Compassion and tolerance of Mohandas Gandhi was the defining feature that strengthened his resolve to use Ahimsa and Satyagraha as means to attain Swaraj.

Conclusion:

Compassion and tolerance are not a sign of weakness, but a sign of strength. The responsibility of and compassion and tolerance lies with those who have the wider vision.


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