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[Insights Secure STHIR– 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 26 March 2021

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Role of women

1. “There is a need to shift from tokenism and ensure women a central rather than a peripheral role in the police.” Discuss. (250 words)

Reference: Tribune India  

Why the question:

The editorial talks about the key role that women can play in Police.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the need to shift from tokenism and ensure women a central rather than a peripheral role in the police.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

The role of women in the police has been steadily increasing, though at a slow pace. We acknowledge the hitherto unrecognized but steady contribution of our women police personnel, who apart from performing their professional obligations; have also been championing the cause of women’s empowerment. The induction of women in the police has helped in empowering them and reducing crime against them.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

  • Need for a gender-diverse police force: enhanced role of women in police – create a safe and secure environment for women, enhance wellbeing of others, perform the unique role of women etc.
  • Concerns related to representation of women in police: Low representation: Only 13% of total state police force is women, Lack of women in leadership and cutting-edge positions, Marginal role in overall law enforcement, Gender-specific issues are overlooked and neglected etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with suitable way forward.  

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.

2.The Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi (Amendment) Bill, 2021 needs to fit in with constitution for healthier governance in the Union territory. Elucidate. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The question is in the backdrop of recently passed bill of the Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi (Amendment) Bill, 2021.

Key Demand of the question:

One must explain in what way the NCR of Delhi bill is not in congruence with the constitution leading to dissonance with constitution.

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the background of the Bill.

Body:

Present in detail the critical analysis of the Government of NCT of Delhi (Amendment) Bill, 2021.

Contents of the Bill: Amendments to Article 239AA – Re-positioning the Government: Expression “Government” referred to in any law to be made by Legislative Assembly in Delhi shall mean “Lieutenant Governor”. Check on executive action.

Present the criticisms against the Bill – Violation of separation of power, Undemocratic precedence, May induce administrative chaos, Violation of Doctrine of pith and substance etc.

Support your arguments with suitable observations of the Supreme Court.

 Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

3. Precise implementation of reservation policies in India is hampered due to the multiple Constitutional amendments, state-level legislation and legal uncertainties and infirmities about court judgments. Critically analyse. (250 words)

Reference:  Business-standard.com

Why the question:

The question is premised on the recent observation made by the apex court – A more divisive society and economic disasters ahead if reservations above 50 per cent are deemed legal by the Supreme Court.

Key Demand of the question:

One is

Directive:

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief background of coming of reservation system in the country.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

·         Explain the evolution of Reservation Policy in India.

·        Then discuss the Issues with Reservation Policy in India – Overlapping, Violation of ceiling provision, Complex implementation, Issues in identifying creamy layer, Politically and emotionally sensitive issue etc.

  • Discuss the policies of the government in this direction from past to present.

Conclusion:

Conclude that India needs to gradually wean itself off all forms of reservations while providing adequate financial support to those who are socially and educationally backward.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic:Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

4. What are  Amartya Sen and Bhagwati models of development? Discuss in detail and bring out the differences with suitable examples. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article explains how the political emphasis on welfare interventions is insufficient to address the emerging developmental issues in the State of Tamil Nadu.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the Amartya Sen and Bhagwati models of development.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with Sen Bhagwati Debate currently being witnessed.

Body:

The answer body must explain the viewpoints of the two economists –  Sen is a Nobel Prize winner in economics. In the book ‘An Uncertain Glory: India and its Contradictions’, Sen and Drèze prescribe state-led redistributive efforts as the solution to India’s problems. Sen believes that India should invest more in its social infrastructure to boost the productivity of its people and thereby raise growth. Investing in health and education to improve human capabilities is central to Sen’s scheme of things.

Jagdish N. Bhagwati is a University Professor of Economics, Law, and International Relations at Columbia University and former Adviser to the Director-General of GATT. In ‘Why Growth Matters: How Economic Growth in India Reduced Poverty and the Lessons for Other Developing Countries’, Bhagwati and Panagariya hold up growth as the panacea for all of India’s ills.

Compare and contrast the two.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of the two.

 

Topic: GS-2: Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.

 GS-3: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

5. India needs a stout tax system to augment the utilization of financial resources and minimize the mistrust in the aspects of fiscal federalism. Elaborate. (250 words)

Reference:  Live Mint

Why the question:

The article presents an analysis of trends in fiscal federalism in India.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the need for a robust tax system to strengthen the utilization of financial resources and minimize the mistrust in the aspects of fiscal federalism.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief context of the question.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

  • Trends in fiscal federalism in India; Widening scope of devolutions: Number of taxes included in the divisible pool has increased since 1951, and the States have been allocated a growing share of the taxes collected in the divisible pool. In 2000, as a result of a constitutional amendment, all taxes collected by the Union government were made shareable with states.
  • Issues with the fiscal federalism in India – Lack of adequate devolution, Stagnant tax revenues.
  • Suggest solutions to address the issues.

Conclusion:

Conclude that a buoyant tax system: can ease the battle for resources in our federal system, and hopefully minimize the mistrust that has grown in recent years between the Centre and states. 

 

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

6. Account for new threats associated with water pollution and indiscriminate exploitation of natural resources. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The editorial explains that while we are still in the grip of the COVID-19 pandemic, which is airborne, we have forgotten that another such blight could well come from contaminated water.

Key Demand of the question:

One is expected to highlight the new threats associated with water pollution and indiscriminate exploitation of natural resources.

Directive:

Account – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you are in agreement with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Over 70% of India’s surface and groundwater is contaminated by human and other waste and is likely to carry viruses. Indiscriminate human activity is often the reason for environmental degradation and pandemics. The practice of keeping animals locked together for mass production of meat produces an artificial environment that can birth mutations in erstwhile dormant viruses.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

  • Threats of water pollution and indiscriminate exploitation of natural resources; Polluted water sources as a source of viruses, Artificial environments as hubs of mutation, Discharge of pollutants in the natural sources, Non-renewable in nature, growing population pressure etc.
  • Then explain the challenges in checking pollution of water; cost of purifiers, wastage, doing away with essential minerals etc.

Conclusion:

Suggest way forward.

 

Topic: Food processing Industry

7. Explain the Scope and Significance of Food Processing Industries in India. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian economy by Uma Kapila

Why the question:

The question is straightforward from the static portions of GS paper III.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain the Scope and Significance of Food Processing Industries in India.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

The food processing industry in India is increasingly seen as a potential source for driving the rural economy as it brings about synergy between the consumer, industry and the farmer.

Body:

To start with, explain the importance of food processing industry. Food processing activity is still at a nascent stage in India with low penetration. List down the importance of food processing industry  – Holds the potential of reducing enormous wastage of agricultural produce in the absence of processing technologies and cold chain facility, is labour-intensive industry, lead to increase in farm income etc. Discuss the conditions favorable for food processing. Highlight the importance of it.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of it to Indian economy.


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