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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 22 March 2021


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.

1. What is the concept of Right to reject? In what way Right to reject a candidate in elections promises systemic political reforms in India? Elucidate. (250 words)

Reference:  The Print

Why the question:

The Supreme Court has sought responses from the Centre and the Election Commission of India (EC) on a PIL seeking that an election result should be nullified if NOTA (‘None of the above’ option) gets the most votes.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the concept of Right to reject and explain in what way Right to reject a candidate in elections promises systemic political reforms in India.

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the definition of right to reject.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Briefly explain the evolution of NOTA system in India.

Discuss the benefits of right to reject a candidate; Empower voters to express their discontent, Bring Systemic Changes in Political culture, Right to reject will check corruption, criminalization, casteism, communalism, linguisim, and regionalism etc.

Then move onto tracing the progress made on nota leading to right to reject.

Explain in what way Right to reject a candidate in elections promises systemic political reforms in India.

Conclusion:

Conclude that the existing NOTA system is not the same as the right to reject. The current PIL over NOTA, thus is part of a wider debate about the voters’ ‘right to reject’ — and the form that it should take. It is a necessary precondition to ensure Good governance, which is the motivating factor behind the right to reject.

Introduction:

Right to Reject is a condition when Rejection/Negative Votes win majority, it results in re-election. The Right to reject empowers electors to not choose any of the candidates during an election. This choice is opted by the voter when he/she feels that none of the candidates in a candidacy deserves to be elected. Under this system, when there is a majority percentage of negative/neutral votes, the election results are nullified and a new election is conducted. This re-election is termed as a run-off election.

Body:

Background:

Supreme Court recently issued notices to the Centre and the Election Commission of India (ECI) on a petition filed in November 2020 to nullify election results and hold fresh polls if NOTA secures maximum votes. The petitioner, a BJP leader, has claimed merely having a NOTA button in voting machines does not fully enforce the principle of “right to reject”.

India is one of the countries having a negative voting system. Before the Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs) were introduced, voting was done via ballot papers. During this period, the voters had a choice to put the ballot paper without marking against any candidates. This is to enable voters to reject all candidates. Such votes were considered as NOTAs.

The Supreme Court, in September 2013, upheld the right of voters to disapprove all candidates contesting the elections, saying it would go a long way in cleansing the political system of the country. The apex court directed the Election Commission to have an option of ‘None of the above’ (NOTA) on the electronic voting machines (EVMs) and ballot papers in a major electoral reform.

Provision of NOTA:

  • It was introduced in India following the 2013 Supreme Court directive in the People’s Union for Civil Liberties v. Union of India judgment.
  • India became the 14th country to institute negative voting.
  • However, NOTA in India does not provide for a ‘right to reject’.
  • The candidate with the maximum votes wins the election irrespective of the number of NOTA votes polled.
  • The EVMs have the NOTA option at the end of the candidates’ list.
  • Earlier, in order to cast a negative ballot, a voter had to inform the presiding officer at the polling booth.
  • A NOTA vote doesn’t require the involvement of the presiding officer.

Right to reject:

  • The ‘right to reject’ was first proposed by the Law Commission in 1999.
  • Similarly, the Election Commission endorsed ‘Right to Reject’, first in 2001, under James Lyngdoh [the then CEC], and then in 2004 under  Krishnamurthy [the then CEC], in its Proposed Electoral Reforms.
  • Besides, the ‘Background Paper on Electoral Reforms’,prepared by the Ministry of Law in 2010, had proposed that if certain percentage of the vote was negative, then election result should be nullified and new election held.

Need for Right to Reject:

In 2009, 162 out of 543 MPs had declared criminal cases against them, while in the current Parliament, there are 233 out of 539. Twenty-nine per cent MPs are charged with heinous offences, including rape and murder.

Current limitations of NOTA:

  • NOTA in India does not provide for a ‘right to reject’. The candidate with the maximum votes wins the election irrespective of the number of NOTA votes polled.
  • The NOTA votes have not been accounted while calculating votes polled by candidates for making them eligible (1/6th of valid votes) for getting back their security deposits.
  • An Association of Democratic Reforms analysis says that since 2013 till March 2018, NOTA has secured a total of 1.33 crores votes from all assemblies and Lok Sabha polls combined.
  • Election Commission currently has no plenary power to call a fresh election even if NOTA secures highest votes.

Way Ahead:

  • rejecting the contesting candidates and electing new ones if NOTA gets the maximum votes is not just necessary for free and fair elections, but also essential for de-criminalisation of politics.
  • A direction not to allow candidates who secure votes less than NOTA to recontest is also necessary.
  • Maharashtra State Election Commission (MSEC) in June 2018 made an order for local body polls that fresh elections should be held if NOTA ‘emerges winner’.
  • Haryana’s SEC issued a similar notification on 22 November 2018, but went a step further and modified the law to make all those candidates who individually secure less votes than NOTA ineligible from re-filing their nominations to contest in the follow-up elections.
  • Election Commission of India should follow suit to call a fresh election if NOTA secures highest votes.
  • To give greater sanctity to NOTA and even order a fresh election, Rule 64 of Conduct of Election Rules will have to be amended and can be done by the law ministry. It will not require Parliament sanction.
  • To start off with, the candidates who lose to NOTA should not be allowed to contest elections for a defined period of time.
  • While NOTA is definitely providing a voice to dissent, it needs to be accompanied with efforts to raise voter awareness to prevent the misuse of this measure.

Conclusion:

NOTA emanates from our fundamental right of ‘Right to liberty’ and ‘Freedom of Expression’ as it gives a way for the voter to register her consent or discontent for candidates chosen by the political parties. NOTA as an electoral option will become a meaningful means of negative voting only if it becomes a ‘right to reject’ rather than being a symbolic instrument to express resentment as it is now.

 

Topic: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

2.  Account for the role of geopolitical forces in India-USA defence partnerships. (250 words)

Reference:  Hindustan Times

Why the question:

The article explains the centrality of defence in India-US ties.

Key Demand of the question:

One must discuss the role of geopolitical forces in India-USA defence partnerships.

Directive:

Account – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you are in agreement with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly present background of India- U.S. defence co-operations so far.

Body:

India and the U.S. have been involved in a number of bilateral and multilateral military exercises.

The foundational agreements, LEMOA, COMCASA and BECA have also been signed between India and the U.S.

Recently the Leaders’ Summit of India, U.S., Japan and Australia was held under the Quadrilateral Framework.

Discuss the significance of India-US defence cooperation.

Explain in detail the role of geopolitical forces in India-USA defence partnerships.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance.

Introduction:

In recent times, India and USA have strengthened their defence partnership accounting to nearly $15 billion since 2014. The signing of BECA agreement during the 2+2 dialogue shows the strategic convergence of India and USA’s world view. This is especially true with a rising China that threatens to revise the world order.

Body:

Role of geopolitical forces in India-USA defence partnerships

  • DTTI: India and the United States have launched a Defence Technology and Trade Initiative (DTTI) aimed at simplifying technology transfer policies and exploring possibilities of co-development and co-production to invest the defence relationship with strategic value.
    • It aims to move past the buyer-seller relationship, that currently dominates Indo-Russia defence deals.
  • Defence partnership: USA’s Defence secretary said that it will operationalise India’s ‘Major Defence Partner’ status and continue to build upon existing strong defence cooperation to ensure the US and Indian militaries can collaborate to address shared interests.
    • This allows US to sell high technology aircrafts and drones like the Guardian Sea Drones.
  • Foundational Agreements: All four foundational agreements have been signed which includes, Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement (BECA), Communications Compatibility and Security Agreement COMCASA, The General Security of Military Information Agreement (GSOMIA), Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement (LEMOA).
    • Further, the signing of BECA and the four agreements will fast-forward the integration of the Indo-Pacific strategies of their two countries.
  • With logistic memorandum agreement that allows refuelling of each other’s vessels, India and USA will be able to keep a close watch on the movements of Chinese warships in the Indian Ocean. It can counter the String of Pearls strategy of China.
  • Moreover, its signing comes at a time when India is locked in one of its most hostile standoffs with China along their disputed border in the Himalayan region and also increased Chinese hegemony in the disputed south China sea.
  • 2+2 Dialogue: The foreign and defence ministers of India-USA meet every year for 2+2 dialogue where major security aspects are discussed.
    • This is all the more important when China’s aggression has increased and Russia has become anti-west and aligning with China.
    • India’s 2+2 with USA as well as Japan and Australia, is in sync with increasing formalization of QUAD, which can be seen in the recent joining of Australia in the Malabar naval exercises.
  • Defence deals: Advanced technology aircraft such as Chinook, Apache and Hercules have been obtained from USA. There is no such matching technology with any other nation.

Conclusion:

With the recent geopolitics, India is compelled to move closer to the USA. Yet India prides itself in its strategic autonomy and non-alignment as foreign policy. The defence partnership between India and USA must aim to ensure rules-based world order and to ensure security and peace against hegemonic tendencies.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

3. Considering the low growth associated with IT policy, can we conclude that India is not in a position for continuing with Inflation targeting? Critically analyse. (250 words)

Reference:  Financial ExpressIndian Express

Why the question:

The article explains – Three decades after the start of the inflation targeting (IT) policy in New Zealand (1990), a question worth asking is whether it has succeeded in its primary objective of reducing inflation.

Key Demand of the question:

Analyse in the given conditions whether India is in a position of continuing with inflation targeting.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with basics of Inflation and related policies in India.

Body:

Firstly, explain the major tools to control Inflation: Monetary Tools –  Inflation Targeting through Monetary Policy Committee in India. Fiscal Tools – through the enactment of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act (FRBM).

Then trace the methods of Inflation targeting in India from past to present in the recent times.

Discuss the Issues with Inflation targeting in India such as – Decline in the growth due to high repo rates: from 8% (pre- IT) to 5% (post IT) etc.   

Conclusion:

Conclude that considering the low growth associated with IT policy, we can conclude that India is not in a position for continuing with Inflation targeting.

Introduction:

Inflation Targeting(IT) is a central banking policy that revolves around adjusting monetary policy to achieve a specified annual rate of inflation. The principle of inflation targeting is based on the belief that long-term economic growth is best achieved by maintaining price stability, and price stability is achieved by controlling inflation. Inflation targeting in India was not responsible for the decline in inflation. It contributed to a decline in GDP growth because of excessively high real policy rates.

Body:

Background:

  • The RBI has announced a formal review of the policy instrument now after six years of the Urjit Patel report (2014) on inflation and the use of inflation targeting.
  • It was formally adopted in 2016. At the first meeting of the RBI Monetary Policy Committee in October 2016, it was also formally announced that the MPC considered a real repo rate of 1.25 per cent as the neutral real policy rate for the Indian economy.
  • The primary goal of IT was to contain inflation at around 4 per cent, within the allowable range of 2 to 6 per cent.

Inflation Targeting (IT): Efficacy in India

  • Fiscal deficits are surely the cause of inflation in India, notwithstanding global evidence to the contrary.
    • For three consecutive years preceding the FRBM announcement, the consolidated Centre plus state deficits registered 10.9 per cent (in 2001), 10.4 and 10.9 per cent.
    • For the seven-year 1999-2005 period, consolidated fiscal deficits averaged 9.4 per cent of GDP.
    • Yet, we must acknowledge, and accept, that these years represented the golden period of Indian inflation — without FRBM and without IT.
  • At the time of the Patel report, inflation was raging and it is important to analyse why inflation catapulted to an annual average of 9.2 per cent between 2006 and 2013. This had nothing to do with the lack of inflation targeting or the enforcement of “low” fiscal deficits.
  • The lowest inflation in Indian history occurred during 1999-2005. After registering 13.3 per cent in 1998, inflation in India averaged only 3.9 per cent over the next seven years.
  • Inflation in India entered the prescribed band of 2% to 6% two years before inflation targeting was adopted in 2016-17.
    • In fact, inflation had fallen steadily since 2011-12, halving by 2015-16.
    • This by itself suggests that there is a mechanism driving inflation other than what is imagined in inflation targeting.

The above situation shows that inflation targeting, as a policy has not worked the way it was expected.

Conclusion:

Inflation control is a legitimate objective of economic policy given the correlation between inflation and macro-economic stability. Inflation targeting is needed, in a nation where there are 21% poor people. However, this must be tweaked sufficiently to match the needs of an economy such as India.

 

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

4.In what way persistent high inflation in the recent times has undermined RBI’s effort to revive growth in the country? Analyse. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express 

Why the question:

Recently, India’s growth rate had decelerated sharply to a six-year low. The rate of Inflation remained persistently high until Covid disruption made worse situation for government as well as RBI in the recent times.

Key Demand of the question:

Analyse in detail how persistent high inflation in the recent times has undermined RBI’s effort to revive growth in the country.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with some key data or stats showing persistent inflation in the country.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Firstly, discuss the underlying factors of inflation.

Then move on to discuss the concerns before RBI ; for central government and RBI, it is not just a matter of core inflation but also maintain enough liquidity in the market. Now, even the core inflation rate has continued to climb all through the year and is now threatening to breach the levels set for headline inflation. The ongoing inflation spiral is being fuelled by supply chain disruptions, excessive margins and indirect taxes. Increase of repo rate is not sufficed to raise indirect taxes, decrease fuel prices etc. Capacity utilisation in firms is low and they are laying off employees to cut back costs.

Suggest what needs to be done.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions to address the issue.

Introduction:

Persistently high levels of inflation in India during a recession has raised concern among several economists. It could emerge as the next big hurdle in India’s path to economic recovery. Retail inflation, measured by the Consumer Price Index (CPI), jumped to 5.03 per cent in February. It is the highest retail inflation recorded in three months. Retail inflation is once again rising in India after cooling down for a few months. In February, retail inflation increased sharply due to rising food and energy prices.

Body:

Current scenario of Economy in India:

  • India’s economic growth turned positive in the third quarter as the recovery momentum continued to improve. The country’s GDP growth in the third quarter of FY21 improved to 0.4 per cent after contracting sharply in the two previous quarters.
  • Although the recovery momentum has improved with the country vaccination drive and reopening of business activities, economists suggest that key economic drivers like investment and exports remain weak.
  • The rising cost of fuel and energy has made matters worse as it has increased the price of most commodities and services. Though there has been no increase in petrol and diesel prices this month, fuel rates are already very high, contributing to inflationary pressure.
  • Economists opine that if the trend of high fuel prices continues, it could have an adverse impact on inflation, growth and trade balance.
  • Therefore, India’s recovery is still at a nascent stage and citizens may not be able to deal with higher inflationary pressure at the moment.
  • It may be noted that persistently high levels of inflation could impact economic growth as rising prices of essential goods and services will force households to cut spending on discretionary items.

Causes for inflation in India:

Inflation can take place as a result of a rise in aggregate demand or a failure of aggregate supply or both.

  • Increase in public expenditure: Public expenditure has risen from 18.6% of GDP in 1961 to around 28% in 2012- 13. Around, 40% of the government expenditure in India is on non-developmental activities like defence, law and order, etc.
  • Deficit financing: Deficit financing means financing of budget deficits either by borrowing from the banks or by printing of more currency. The Government of India has frequently resorted to deficit financing in order to meet its developmental expenditure. The budgetary deficit was ₹ 20,000 crores in the eighth plan, but the actual deficit was around ₹ 33,000 crores. In the ninth, tenth and eleventh plans, the Government decided not to raise money through deficit financing.
  • Erratic agricultural growth: Agriculture is mainly dependent on monsoons and thus, crop failures have been a regular feature of agriculture. During times of scarcity of food grains, not only do the prices of food articles increase, but also the general price levels.
  • Inadequate rise in industrial production: There is a huge demand for industrial good due to increase in money supply in the economy but the rise in industrial growth has been inadequate there by raising the prices of industrial products. This has led to cost-push inflation.
  • Large scale tax evasion and avoidance: Failure of the Government to bring the increasing income of the people within the ambit of taxation.
  • Black marketing and hoarding of essential commodities; Unused capacity in industries

Consequences of inflation:

  • Inflation causes decrease in the real value of money and other monetary items over time.
  • Inflation causes uncertainty over future and this may discourage investment and savings.
  • High inflation may lead to shortages of goods if consumers begin hording out of concern that prices will increase in the future.

To tackle the inflation, there are host of direct and indirect measures. Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) controls the policy rates which indirectly affects the inflation.

Recent Policy adopted by RBI:

  • Banks are giving out more loans than they are getting deposits; Indians are withdrawing more cash as the nation goes to polls within a fortnight; and the government has tightened its purse strings at the fiscal year-end to meet its target.
  • The result is a growing deficit of funds within the banking system, which RBI is trying to fill through all possible tools.
  • RBI added a new one by doing a forex swap auction earlier this week, which released rupee liquidity of ₹34,561 crore.
  • Forex Swap is the exercise where the dollars with banks will be swapped with rupee by RBI. This is being done in order to increase liquidity and also control the likelihood of rupee appreciation.

Way forward:

  • Bridging the liquidity gap is necessary as it would work against RBI’s intention to soften interest rates
  • The central bank needs to keep infusing liquidity if it wants its benign policy to reflect in market rates.
  • After a rate cut in the previous policy, RBI cannot afford to allow market rates or even bank lending rates to rise.

Conclusion:

RBI’s liquidity management needs a deft touch, even as it uses all of the tools in its arsenal to make liquidity neutral in line with its policy stance.

 

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

5.What is the nature and extent of unemployment problem in India? Discuss the underlying reasons and suggest measures that need to be undertaken to address the issues. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian economy by Uma Kapila

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper III and aims to assess the nature and extent of unemployment problem in India.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the nature and extent of unemployment problem in India and account for the underlying reasons and suggest measures that need to be undertaken to address the issues.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the definition of unemployment or present some shocking facts related to unemployment in India.

Body:

Unemployment is found both in its rural and urban areas. There is seasonal and disguised unemployment in its rural areas. People here are dependent on agriculture. Certain months do not provide much work to the people depending upon agriculture.

Discuss the different types of unemployment and its prevalence.  Bring out the underlying reasons.

Suggest what needs to be done to address the challenges pertaining to it.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Unemployment has become a chronic problem of India and in the recent years the situation has only worsened. The National Sample Survey Office’s (NSSO’s) report, “State of Working India, 2018” data shows a record spike in unemployment in 2017-18. The overall unemployment was at a 45-year high, with youth between the ages of 15 and 29 facing higher rates of joblessness than others

Body:

Nature of unemployment:

Present unemployment problem in India is mostly structural in nature. Unemployment problem of the country can now be broadly classified into: Rural unemployment and Urban unemployment.

Rural Unemployment: In India the incidence of unemployment is more pronounced in the rural areas. Rural unemployment is again of two types: (i) Seasonal unemployment and (ii) Disguised or perennial unemployment.

Urban unemployment has following aspects: (i) Industrial unemployment; (ii) Educated or middle class unemployment; (iii) Technological Unemployment; (iv) Frictional Unemployment and (v) Vulnerable Employment;

State of Unemployment in India:

  • In the current pandemic situation, the world has been caught ill-prepared to deal with a crisis of high magnitude.
  • The unemployment rate in India rose to 7.2 percent in February 2019, the highest since September 2016, and also up from 5.9 percent in February 2018, according to the latest data compiled by the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE).
  • CMIE database on “Unemployment Rate in India” is based on the panel size of over 1,58,000 households in the country.
  • There has been a decline in the estimated Labour Participation Rate— the proportion of working-age people who are willing to work and are either actually working or are actively looking for work, in line with a fall in the unemployment rate.
  • The estimated labour participation rate also dropped from 43.57 in December 2017 to 42.47 in December 2018. The rate was at 45.15 in December 2016 and at 47.84 in September 2017, the data showed.
  • According to the Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) 2018, the unemployment rate among the urban 15-29-years-old was 23.7%.
  • This pervasive joblessness is mainly due to the poor training of the youth as only 7% of the people surveyed in the framework of the PLFS declared any formal or informal training.
  • Government’s periodic labour force survey carried out in 2017-18 revealed that unemployment in the country reached an all-time high rate of 6.1%.
  • At the heart of unemployment problem in India is the young, unemployed men aged from 15-29 which comprise 68% of all unemployed youths in the country.
  • Adding to this are the ill-effects of the pandemic that have been essentially skewed against the youth (15-29 years) as they face a trilemma of unemployment, disruption in education, and struggling education system.

The reasons for issue of unemployment in contemporary India:

  • The labour force is the sum of the employed and those unemployed who are seeking employment.
  • A shrinking of the labour force is most unusual in an economy with a growing population, and thus a growing working age cohort.
  • Low education and lack of skills lead to loss of many job opportunities.
  • Discouraged-worker effect: A section of those hitherto willing to work may have simply dropped out of an already challenged labour market.
  • Demonetization has caused demoralisation among a section of the already unemployed who may have given up all hope of finding employment.
  • About 90% of Indian Workforce is in the unorganized sector which was majorly affected during Demonetization and GST introduction.
  • Declining Capital formation which is not backed by Public and Private Investment.
  • Low female LFPR to the tunes of 24% also adds to high unemployment rate.
  • Automation and IR4.0 is a looming threat to many jobs which have repeated work or sequential work.
  • Socially disadvantaged groups do not get enough exposure in the job market like the general castes and Other Backward Classes.
  • Labour laws in India are complex and relatively strict. Employment protection legislation is restrictive, compared with other emerging economies and OECD countries. Thus, corporates in India tend to rely more on temporary contract labour, stay small or substitute labour for capital to avoid strict labour laws.

Way Forward:

  • Increase public spending in education:
    • At 3.8% of GDP, public spending on education in India is lower than countries like Brazil and Malaysia.
    • The focus of the government needs to shift to spending on enhancing the quality of education and vocational training.
  • Similarly, allowing foreign investment in sectors like legal and accountancy services will create employment as more foreign firms will move to India.
  • Infrastructure investment can also be utilised as an engine of job-creation.
  • Investing in people through healthcare, quality education, jobs and skills helps build human capital, which is key to supporting economic growth, ending extreme poverty, and creating more inclusive societies.
  • Educated unemployment:
    • Besides promoting technical education, the government needs to focus more on creation of jobs and demand for workers since industries are unable to create sufficient job opportunities for all the technically educated people
    • Policies should ensure that the education systems prepare young people for the skill demands of employers through outreach programmes, training, apprenticeships, and access to job-search assistance measures.
    • More businesses should recognise the opportunity, and need, to invest in young people so that they can help in developing the qualities necessary for education and future employment.
    • NGOs should engage collectively in policy advocacy on youth They should also partner with companies to develop skills and training programmes to tackle youth unemployment.
    • Singapore has launched certain programmes to establish partnerships between domestic and foreign universities to promote tertiary education. India could learn from such initiatives.
    • New age sectors like defence and aerospace, education and healthcare, and burgeoning green sectors like solar energy and wind, present another massive opportunity to identify ‘upcoming jobs’ and prepare talent accordingly. India’s ambition to create more than one million new jobs in the green energy sector by 2022 is encouraging.
  • Educated unemployment:
    • There should be cluster development to support job creation in micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs). Most of the unorganised sector employment is in MSMEs, which tend to be concentrated in specific geographic locations.
    • Private sector leaders should build capacity among unskilled and semi-skilled workers to ensure sustainability of renewable energy projects and provide opportunities to rural communities.
    • Government officials should create public training programmes to prepare the poor and less educated people especially semi-skilled and unskilled for employment in the clean-energy sector.
    • People need to be made self employed by providing training in skills and latest technologies for agriculture and other avenues especially in rural areas.
    • Women in rural areas who are left behind by men due to migration need to look into other sources of livelihood other than agriculture like animal husbandry etc.

Conclusion:

India has one of the youngest populations in an aging world. By 2020, the median age in India will be just 28. Demographics can change the pace and pattern of economic growth. While China’s spectacular growth has already benefited from a demographic dividend, India is yet to do so.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.

6. Discuss how the attitude of people influences their conduct? Enumerate positive and negative attributes of attitude held by people in India. (250 words)

Reference:  Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications.

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper IV, theme – Attitude.  

Key Demand of the question:

One is expected to elaborate upon the fact that attitude has a bigger role in deciding one’s conduct along with the positive and negative attributes of attitude held by people in India.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the definition of Attitude in general and its importance.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Discuss the way in which attitude influence conduct of people –

Attitude is a learned/acquired predisposition or state of mind to behave/react to a given object. Object means all those living and non-living things that we face. Attitude has three aspects in its content i.e. Affect, Behaviour and Cognition. Explain then how these 3 components influence the conduct of people.

Then move onto enumerate positive and negative attributes of attitude in India at all the levels – Individual, societal and government level.

Conclusion:

Conclude by hinting at its relevance to civil services; the civil servants require more of a behavioural competence to approach towards a situation. This has been the contentious issue with the young civil servants. The growing complexities of issue in the governance process, newly evolved problems need appropriate orientation, knowledge with civil servants to deal with such situations.

Introduction:

Attitude refers to a set of emotions, beliefs, and behaviours toward a particular object, person, thing, or event. Attitudes are often the result of experience or upbringing, and they can have a powerful influence over behavior.

Body:

Attitude and its influence on Conduct/behaviour:

  • One’s attitude and behaviour are closely related to each other.
  • Attitude actually influences one’s behaviour. However, one is not aware of it when this is happening.
  • Everyone has attitudes which are vastly shaped by past experiences in their life.
  • Everyone experiences different situations and are influenced by different kinds of people compared to others.
  • As a result, everyone’s attitude is shaped differently and everyone seems to act differently in a particular situation.
  • Our attitude also influences those around us and vice-a-versa.
  • Having a positive attitude makes you productive, deal with any problem effectively and look at failures as a means to introspect and improve oneself rather than losing all hope and giving up.
  • Whereas having a negative attitude will have a completely opposite effect compared to above.
  • However, it has been observed that there is more than one kind of attitudes each influencing our behaviour in a particular way.
  • For example, if a person might have an attitude to help poor people, but his/her behaviour may not be in the direction.
  • On the other hand, if a person has a negative attitude towards some other person, he may not express it directly, rather he may not show any interest to join him in a party, or to share a common platform- with that person.

positive and negative attributes of attitude held by people in India:

Individual level:

  • Positive: Non-violence, Tolerance, Modesty, hardworking nature etc.
  • Negative: Rigidity in adopting the changes according to the time, Low adherence to the laws,

Societal level:

  • Positive: Non-violence, Tolerance, Community living, Egalitarianism, Pluralism, Diversity
  • Negative: Patriarchy and Misogyny, False sense of pride, Aversion to change and blindly following outdated rituals and practices in name of culture, practice of Caste system,

Government level:

  • Positive: Non-violence, Tolerance, equality, Democratic, Compassion towards weaker section,
  • Negative: Redtapism, bureaucratic attitude, Corruption etc.

Note: The list is not exhaustive. One can add more attributes.

Conclusion:

Dalai Lama says that “If you can cultivate the right attitude, your enemies are your best spiritual teachers because their presence provides you with the opportunity to enhance and develop tolerance, patience and understanding.” Our attitude is what influences all our actions. It is only the right attitude, which gets us good results.

 

Topic: Case Study – Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.

7. You are posted as a District Education Officer (DEO) in a Maoist affected district. You have been specifically given the responsibility to work on  the literacy mission. After reading the education reports and doing field visits, you find that the number of out of school children has increased drastically and the motivation among students and teachers is also low. While certain basic infrastructure is already in place, the major hurdle in attracting students to these schools include the attitude of inhabitants towards education and the security risks involved in sending children to schools. Given the situation, answer the following questions: (250 words)

(a) Analyse the reasons behind such an attitude.

(b) As a DEO, what are the steps that you would take in order to increase the school attendance and change the prevalent attitude of inhabitants towards education?. 

Reference:  Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications.

Why the question:

The case study is based on the theme of “Attitude and its importance”.

Key Demand of the question:

One must identify the key ethical issues in the case study and suggest solutions to address the same.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief background of the case in question.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Brief case analysis in the introduction including stakeholders as well as issues faced in education. The given case presents a dilemma of development in violence affected areas. For example – education in such areas are not just dependent on the availability of whole infrastructure and affordability and distance of school from home. Ensuring safety is equally important. Further, this is a case where the output, in form of infrastructure is already there, but the outcome in form of education is missing.

  • Analyse the reasons for such an attitude.
  • Discuss the steps that should be taken by the DEO. Suggest effective measures that can resolve the issue both shot term and long term.

Conclusion:

These measures when dovetailed with good governance and efficient utilization of funds will ensure attitudinal and behavioral shift towards education.

Introduction:

In the above case study, the attitude of children, their parents and teachers reflects the prejudices present in the society affected by Maoist activities towards education. Though education is one of the most effective tools to fight against Maoism, it cannot be forced upon. Legal measures coupled with social measures for attitudinal change is the key to overcome such inhibitions towards education.

Body:

  • Reasons behind such attitude:
    1. Anti-government sentiments: poor implementation of land reforms and forest policy greatly damaged rural economy led to anti-government sentiments among the population resulting in boycotting of state sponsored education.
    2. Security issues: Maoists equipped with arms and ammunitions are causing the great hindrance towards education.
    3. No follow up from administration: Ineffective administrative support in providing the essential services has resulted in the lack of trust on government. This is also reflecting in education sector.
    4. Confusion over tackling Maoism as a social issue or as security threat: this often side-lines education as tool to bring behavioural change against Maoism.
    5. Lack of consensus between centre and state in tackling the issues often led to neglect of education

 

  • Steps taken by me as a DEO, in order to increase the school attendance and active participation from both teachers and students
    1. Introducing residential schools: In order to overcome the security threats while travelling from faraway places, residential schools with efficient infrastructural facilities can act as catalyst.
    2. Ensuring safety and security through effective coordination with security personnel to increase the trust among population. Also teaching self-defines techniques to students and teachers might help reduce dropout rate.
    3. Creating awareness among parents and help them understand the importance of education.
    4. Professional training for unemployed youth which can indirectly help students to understand the importance of education as means of better job prospects and improved life conditions.
    5. Introducing different ideas about outside world through movies and theatre activities to help the students broaden the understanding on various topics which in turn might help to arose interest among the children towards education.
    6. Interaction with children from other areas: with increased digital disruption, it will be an easy option to connect students from other places to share their experiences thus helping the students in Maoist affected areas to create a positive attitude towards education.

Conclusion:

As Nelson Mandela said, “Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world”. By educating children and channelizing their energy in positive direction, we can wage an effective war against Maoism as well as we can direct the youth towards development and prosperity through attitudinal change. However, such efforts should be carried out with patience and perseverance with clear understanding of ground realities.


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