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InstaLinks help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically. 

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Table of Contents:

GS Paper 1:

1. Tomar king Anangpal II.


GS Paper 2:

1. Right to counsel in custody.


GS Paper 3:

1. International Day of Forests.

2. Himachal Pradesh’s water crisis.

3. Why the Centre moved court over WhatsApp’s new privacy policy?


Facts for Prelims:

1. Jaapi.

2. Xorai.


GS Paper  :  1


Topics Covered: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

Tomar king Anangpal II:


The government has recently formed a committee to popularise the legacy of 11th-century Tomar king, Anangpal II.

Who was Anangpal II?

  1. Belonged to the Tomar dynasty that ruled parts of present-day Delhi and Haryana between the 8th and 12th centuries.
  2. Anangpal Tomar II was succeeded by his grandson Prithviraj Chauhan, who was defeated by the Ghurid forces in the Battle of Tarain (present-day Haryana) after which the Delhi Sultanate was established in 1192.
  3. The Tomar dynasty shifted its capital in the 8th century), to Dhillikapuri (Delhi) during the reign of Anangpal II.
  4. He gave Delhi its present name and also repopulated it.
  5. He built Lal Kot fort and Anangtal Baoli.



Prelims Link:

  1. About Tomar Kingdom.
  2. Important Kings and their contributions.
  3. Their capitals.
  4. Important battles and outcomes. 

Sources: Indian Express.


GS Paper  :  2


Topics Covered: Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

Right to counsel in custody:


Arrested Mumbai policeman Sachin Waze has sought his lawyer’s presence during questioning, while the NIA has argued that this insistence is hampering the probe.

Is access to a lawyer the right of an accused?

In India, the safeguards available to a person in such circumstances are enshrined in the Constitution.

  • Article 20 (3) states: “No person accused of any offence shall be compelled to be a witness against himself”.
  • Article 22 states that a person cannot be denied the right to consult and to be defended by a legal practitioner of his choice. This includes provisions that grant an accused the “right to consult” a lawyer.
  • Section 41D of the Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC) states that an accused is entitled to “meet an advocate of his choice during interrogation, though not throughout interrogation”.

Supreme Court judgments:

In the D K Basu case of 1997:

The Court considered the guiding principles to be followed by investigating agencies in cases of arrest or detention.

  • The judgment states that “an arrestee may be permitted to meet his lawyer during interrogation, though not throughout the interrogation”.
  • The Supreme Court stressed the safeguards for accused, but also spoke of “difficulties in detection of crimes”, especially in cases of “hardcore criminals”, and ruled that a lawyer cannot be permitted to remain present throughout the interrogation.

In Senior Intelligence Officer vs Jugal Kishore Sharma (2011):

It allowed the accused’s lawyer to “watch the proceedings from a distance or from beyond a glass partition”, but said “he will not be within the hearing distance and it will not be open to the respondent to have consultations with him in course of the interrogation”.

However, in many criminal cases, it is left to the discretion of the court that has remanded an accused to the custody of the police, to decide on whether the lawyer can be permitted to meet the person for a stipulated time in private when interrogation is not in progress.


Prelims Link:

  1. What is the right to counsel?
  2. Constitutional provisions in this regard.
  3. Relevant Supreme Court judgments.
  4. Rights of an accused.

Mains Link:

Discuss the issues associated with rights of an individual in custody to counsel.

Sources: Indian Express.


GS Paper  :  3


Topics Covered: Conservation related issues.

International Day of Forests:


The United Nations observes March 21 as the International Day of Forests, commemorating the green cover around the world and reiterating its importance.

  • The theme for 2021 is “Forest restoration: a path to recovery and well-being”.

Significance of the theme:

This year’s theme aims to emphasise how restoration and sustainable management of forests can help address climate change and biodiversity crisis. It can also help produce goods and services for sustainable development, fostering an economic activity that creates jobs and improves lives.

  • Themes of the International Day of Forests are aimed to fit into the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration (2021-2030), which calls for the protection and revival of ecosystems around the world.

Key facts:

  • The United Nations General Assembly proclaimed March 21 as the International Day of Forests (IDF) in 2012.
  • The Day is celebrated by the United Nations Forum on Forests and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), in collaboration with governments, the Collaborative Partnership on Forests and other relevant organisations in the field.


Prelims Link:

  1. About the international day of forests.
  2. Celebrated by?
  3. Themes.
  4. State of forest cover in India- latest findings.

Mains Link:

Discuss the significance of forests in the growth of a country’s economy.

Sources: Indian Express.


Topics Covered: Conservation related issues.

Himachal Pradesh’s water crisis:


Himachal Pradesh is likely to face an acute water scarcity this summer. Many water schemes may reach the brink of closure. The state might have to go through the toughest times because of drinking water shortage.

Why is the state with perennial sources of water staring at a water crisis?

  1. Less snow and rain this winter.
  2. This has affected groundwater as well as other downhill water sources such as springs, wells, bawries, lakes, rivulets, streams and rivers.
  3. Demand for water has been growing due to increasing population in the state, with people now relying more on piped water supply schemes rather than traditional sources such as springs and bawries.


Water shortage is also likely to cause crop losses and reduced fodder availablity.

What are the proposed solutions?

  1. Installation of hand-pumps and borewells has been stopped in view of depleting water table.
  2. Water harvesting tanks will be built throughout the state.
  3. In future, the Jal Shakti department will try to explore the option of “snow harvesting” in the higher reaches.


Prelims Link:

Important rivers and tributaries in Himachal Pradesh.

Mains Link:

Discuss why despite being in the Himalayan region Himachal Pradesh is going through a water crisis.

Sources: Indian Express.


Topics Covered: Cyber security related issues.

Why the Centre moved court over WhatsApp’s new privacy policy?


The Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology has asked the Delhi High Court to step in and restrain WhatsApp from rolling out its new privacy policy.

Why does the IT Ministry want the high court to restrain WhatsApp?

Supreme Court judgments had placed a responsibility upon the Centre to come out with a “regime on data protection and privacy”, which would “limit the ability of entities” such as WhatsApp to issue “privacy policies which do not align with appropriate standards of security and data protection”.  Therefore, WhatsApp must be stopped from rolling out the services.

The IT Ministry has listed major violations of the current IT rules that the new privacy policy of WhatsApp, if rolled out, could entail. They are:

  1. WhatsApp failed to specify the type of sensitive data being collected by it.
  2. WhatsApp has failed to provide the user an option to review or amend the users’ information being collected by it.
  3. The policy fails to provide users an option to withdraw consent on data sharing retrospectively.
  4. It also fails to guarantee non-disclosure by third parties.

Key Features of the Policy:

  1. Information Sharing with Third Party Services: When users rely on third-party services or other Facebook Company Products that are integrated with our Services, those third-party services may receive information about what you or others share with them.
  2. Hardware Information: WhatsApp collects information from devices such as battery level, signal strength, app version, browser information, mobile network, connection information (including phone number, mobile operator or ISP) among others.
  3. Deleting the Account: If someone only deletes the WhatsApp app from their device without using the in-app delete my account feature, then that user’s information will remain stored with the platform.
  4. Data Storage: WhatsApp mentions that it uses Facebook’s global infrastructure and data centers including those in the United States to store user data. It also states that the data in some cases will be transferred to the United States or other parts where Facebook’s affiliate companies are based.
  5. Location: Even if a user does not use their location-relation features, Whatsapp collects IP addresses and other information like phone number area codes to estimate your general location (city, country).
  6. Payment Services: WhatsApp says that if anyone uses their payments services they will process additional information about you, including payment account and transaction information.

Other Issues and concerns:

  1. The new Whatsapp policy contradicts the recommendations of the Srikrishna Committee report, which forms the basis of the Data Protection Bill 2019.
  2. The principle of Data Localisation, which aims to put curbs on the transfer of personal data outside the country, may come in conflict with WhatsApp’s new privacy policy.
  3. With the updated privacy policy, WhatsApp can now share one’s metadata, essentially everything beyond the conversation’s actual text.
  4. If users disagree with the messaging platform’s updated privacy policy, they will have to quit WhatsApp when the new terms of service are set to come into effect.

Sources: Indian Express.


Topics Covered: Conservation related issues.

Ken-Betwa Interlinking Project Dam:


Chief Ministers of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh have signed a historic agreement to implement the Ken Betwa Link Project (KBLP).

 About Ken- Betwa project:

Conceived as a two-part project, this is the country’s first river interlinking project.

It is perceived as a model plan for similar interstate river transfer missions.

  • The project aims to transfer surplus water from the Ken river in MP to Betwa in UP to irrigate the drought-prone Bundelkhand region spread across the districts of two states mainly Jhansi, Banda, Lalitpur and Mahoba districts of UP and Tikamgarh, Panna and Chhatarpur districts of MP.

Key facts:

  1. Ken and Betwa rivers originate in MP and are the tributaries of Yamuna.
  2. Ken meets with Yamuna in Banda district of UP and with Betwa in Hamirpur district of UP.
  3. Rajghat, Paricha and Matatila dams are over Betwa river.
  4. Ken River passes through Panna tiger reserve.

Benefits of interlinking:

  • Enhances water and food security.
  • Proper utilisation of water.
  • Boost to agriculture.
  • Disaster mitigation.
  • Boost to transportation.


Prelims Link:

  1. About the Project.
  2. Ken and Betwa- tributaries and basin states.

Mains Link:

Discuss the significance of the project.

Sources: the Hindu.


Facts for Prelims:


It is a conical hat made of bamboo and covered with dried tokou (a palm tree found in rainforests of Upper Assam) leaves. While it is most often used in official functions to felicitate guests, the landscape of rural Assam features a more utilitarian version, which farmers wear to protect themselves from the harsh weather, both sun and rain, while working in the fields.


Made of bell-metal, the xorai — essentially a tray with a stand at the bottom, with or without a cover — can be found in every Assamese household. While it is primarily used as an offering tray during prayers, or to serve tamale-paan (betel-nut) to guests, a xorai is also presented along with the jaapi and gamosa while felicitating someone. The bulk of xorais in Assam are made in the state’s bell metal hub Sarthebari in Bajali district.


Articles to be covered tomorrow:

  1. Corrective voice from top court against stereotyping women.


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