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[Insights Secure STHIR– 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 16 March 2021

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

1. Discuss the challenges in implementation of the recent policy of providing reservation to economically weaker sections (EWS). Do you think the reservation should be based on economic criteria instead of caste? Explain. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The question is about evaluation the basis of reservation.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the challenges in implementation of the recent policy of providing reservation to economically weaker sections (EWS). And explain what should be the criteria for reservations.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with setting the context of the question. Like the 103rd constitutional amendment has added provision for reservation to EWS category recently. According to the amendment, people who fall in the following category can avail the benefits (Now write the criteria for reservation briefly in points)

Body:

Talk about the aspects involved in EWS reservations and discuss the challenges in implementation of the move. Discuss in detail the SC directions in Indira Sawhney case that are relevant to the answer.

2ndpara: you have to take the stand. And discuss the pros and cons of reservation on the basis of economic criteria.

Conclusion:

Conclude with how reservation is not a panacea for the vulnerability of the socially and economically weaker section and suggest some alternatives like focus on elementary education, vocational training, and building entrepreneurship skills in youth etc.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

2. Haryana’s legislation that mandates reservation to locals in private jobs opens up debates on the growing job crunch, threats of sub-nationalism and a diminishing role of states in the job creation matrix. Critically analyse. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The question is based on the premise of job reservations for the locals and the questions arising thereof.

Key Demand of the question:

One must discuss in what way the Haryana’s legislation opens up debates on the growing job crunch, threats of sub-nationalism and a diminishing role of states in the job creation matrix.

Directive:

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief narration of the context of the question.

Body:

The Haryana government has recently passed legislation that mandates companies in Haryana to provide jobs to local Haryanvis first, before hiring people from outside the State.

Explain first the root causes for Haryana legislation – Political factors, Economic factors, Social Progress, Provision of infrastructure etc.

Explain the factors that control the Jobs. And then discuss the concerns associated in detail.

Conclusion:

There is a need for instituting a level playing field much greater fiscal freedom provided to the States; otherwise, the potent combination of widening inter-­State inequality, a ‘rich States get richer’ economic development model, may fuel nativist sub nationalism in other states too.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Land reforms in India.

3.  Any revision or reform of a country’s land laws can still be an intensely political process, as reforming land policies serves to change relationships within and between communities, as well as between communities and the state. Comment with respect to independent India. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian economy by Uma Kapila

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper I, part Modern Indian history.

Key Demand of the question:

This question focuses on the challenges which are associated with implementation of land reforms in intra and inter communities.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by bringing out broad changes and challenges that place in bringing or implementing of land reforms.

Body:

First part of the body should comment on the changes that take place inter and Intra communities which serves as a challenge to land reforms.

Relevant examples must be given by referring to relative failure of land reforms in post independent India.

The next part should address how land reforms can change the relationship between the communities and the state. The challenges it poses. Again, relevant examples must be cited to boost your answers.

Conclusion:

Conclusion should give a way forward and end the answer on positive note, on how despite the challenges with required political will the land reforms can be achieved and the challenges associated with it can be addressed.

 

Topic: Major crops-cropping patterns in various parts of the country, – different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers.

4. An approach that takes into account peculiarities and constraints of states, investment in infrastructure and links farmer producer groups with markets can put agriculture on a high growth trajectory.  Comment. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The question is premised on the theme of of agri sector farm income related reforms.  

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in what way an approach that takes into account peculiarities and constraints of states, investment in infrastructure and links farmer producer groups with markets can put agriculture on a high growth trajectory. 

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain what is being asked in the question with suitable data to justify facts.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Need for growth in Indian agriculture – benefit of large workforce, Linkage with socio-economic indicators, for the development of economy as a whole, triggering a multiplier effect in the economy, triggering a demand-led growth etc.

Then move on to present a roadmap for enhanced growth in Indian agriculture; Improve access to infrastructure, Diversification to high value agricultural products, Provide price incentives and favorable terms of trade etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude that following the above roadmap will help put agriculture on a higher growth trajectory, augment farmers’ incomes, and promote sustainable development of agriculture.

 

Topic: basics of cyber security

5. Highlight the extent of cyber threat in India and the world faces and account for the need for affirmative counter-measures. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article explains how the threat posed to key Indian entities by antagonistic forces such as China is beginning to merit critical attention in all the right quarters.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the extent of cyber threat in India and the world faces and account for the need for affirmative counter-measures.

Directive:

Account – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you are in agreement with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with some statistics/data related to cyber readiness of the country.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

First, briefly present the Institutional system for cyber security in India.

Then move onto discuss the extent of cybersecurity threat such as – State-sponsored cyber offensive, Critical infrastructure targeting, Cyber espionage etc.

Then present the case of China and threats posed by it.

Conclusion:

Suggest solutions to address the issue and conclude with way forward.

 

Topic: Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

6. With changing the nature of wars, it’s time for the military to change into a future force while taking note of the rapidly changing technological landscape. Elaborate.  (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article highlights the Confluence technology and a whole-of-government approach that is needed to drive new strategies and tactics.

Key Demand of the question:

Account for the need of Military to acquire and adapt to the rapidly changing technological landscape.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Explain the need to understand changing nature of wars first. Discuss how technology has been transforming the character of war.

Body:

Discuss the various factors that contribute to the changed nature of war in the current times such as – Blurred definitions, Based on political domination, use of cutting­-edge technology, Decline of Westphalia terms etc.

Explain what the contribution of technology is and what needs to be done.

Breaking of civilian-military silos: Most important political trend affecting armed conflict in the 21st century will be in the relationship between civilians and those who fight on their behalf. Expediting speed of decision-making besides shedding legacy system (organized campaigns, orchestrated by domain ­led central staff1): To prepare for accelerated future wars, democracies need to master the ‘hybridised effect’ of warfare.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Case study – Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

7. You are the Head of a film production company, which has not been doing well financially for some time. Your company is now relying on its forthcoming movie, which is about to be released shortly. The movie has a cast of reliable actors and even before its release; trade pundits have predicted that the movie will be a hit. However, you face a conundrum as one of the actors in the movie is a citizen of a neighboring country with which relations have been disturbed and a war like situation exists. While the political atmosphere was different when the movie was being filmed, now there is a widespread public demand, with a local political party at the forefront, for replacing the actor from the movie or a ban on the release of the movie itself, if the actor is not replaced. While you are aware of the mood of the nation and the public repercussions of releasing the movie in its present form, you also know that it is not feasible to replace him at this stage as he has a substantial role in the movie. There is also a section in the film fraternity that does not want you to compromise in the wake of threat by the local party as it compromises freedom of speech and expression as well as artistic creativity.

 What are the options available to you? Evaluate each of the options and state their merits and demerits. What course of action would you take and why?. (250 words)

Reference:  Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude

Why the question:

The question is a case study based on the theme of ethics across borders.  

Key Demand of the question:

Analyse the case at hand, discuss the nuances in detail and address the demands of the question that follows.

Directive:

Evaluate – When you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming a personal opinion here.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with identification of the stakeholders involved and the ethical concerns/issues underlying.

Body:

State the options available to you as a head of the company.

Evaluate the merits and demerits of the available options.

 State your course of action, with reasons.

Conclusion:

It is important to take a stand as art transcends national boundaries and hiring actors who belong to other countries is not a yardstick for measuring patriotism and nationalism. Moreover such actions at home may also adversely affect Indian artists working in the neighboring country.


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