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[Insights Secure STHIR– 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 15 March 2021

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Social empowerment,

1. The LGTBQ community needs an anti-discrimination law that empowers them to build productive lives and relationships irrespective of gender identity or sexual orientation and place the onus to change on state and society and not the individual. Evaluate. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

Recently, in response to the backsliding of LGBTIQ rights in some EU countries, notably Poland and Hungary, the European Parliament has declared the European Union an “LGBTIQ Freedom Zone”. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the needs of an anti-discrimination law for the LGTBQ community that empowers them to build productive lives and relationships irrespective of gender identity or sexual orientation.

Directive:

Evaluate – When you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming a personal opinion here.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

One can start with the recent happenings in the EU zone.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

  • Discuss first the Global Scenario of LGBTIQ Community.
  • Then move onto present the status of LGBT Community in India. Even after section 377 of IPC was removed by the Supreme Court in Navtej Singh Johar v. Union of India, 2018 case, there is a wide gap in implementing a policy for the LGBTIQ community and making a better environment for them.
  • Discuss in detail the challenges being faced by them.
  • Support your argument with related legal developments.
  • Suggest solutions.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: e-governance

2. e-governance can be an harbinger of financial inclusiveness and social transformation in India. Comment. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Governance by Lakshmikant

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper II, theme e-governance.

Key Demand of the question:

One is expected to discuss in what way e-governance can be an harbinger of financial inclusiveness and social transformation in India,

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Introduce by defining and linking e-Governance and inclusive growth. E-Governance is the application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to the processes of government functioning in order to bring about ‘Simple, Moral, Accountable, Responsive and Transparent’ (SMART) governance.

Body:

The answer body must explain in what way e-governance cana be an harbinger of financial inclusion and social transformation.

Discuss the dimensions using examples like – its role in various sectors such as Agriculture, farming, small scale industries, Rural India etc.  

List down the merits it can bring – Financial literacy and inclusion, better quality of employment and the social transformation aspects like – affordable and quality education, Health, betterment of the weaker sections etc.

Conclusion:

One can conclude with the efforts of the government in this direction and suggest way forward.

 

Topic: Citizens’ Charters

3. “Citizens’ Charters” initiative is a response to the quest for solving the problems which a citizen encounters while dealing with the organisations providing public services. Discuss. (250 words)

Reference:  Times of India

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper II, theme citizen’s charter.  

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the concept of citizen’s charter and its importance.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with definition of Citizen’s charter- First introduced in early 1990’s; they represented a landmark shift in the delivery of public services.

Body:

Basically a set of commitments made by an organization regarding the standards of service which it delivers. It comprises of the Vision and Mission Statement of the organization, stating the outcomes desired and the broad strategy to achieve these goals and outcomes. Clearly states what subjects it deals with and the service areas it broadly covers.

The Right of Citizens for Time Bound Delivery of Goods and Services and Redressal of their Grievances Bill, 2011 (Citizens Charter) seeks to create a mechanism to ensure timely delivery of goods and services to citizens. It requires every public authority to publish a CC within six months of the commencement of the Act and levies a penalty of up to Rs 50,000 for failure to render services.

Present its principles, merits and shortcomings.

Conclusion:

Conclude by highlighting its importance.

 

Topic: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

4. The changing perception of China and the US in Southeast Asia calls for the re-calibration of India’s Act East policy. Do you agree? Examine. (250 words)

Reference:  Times of India

Why the question:

A recent survey of Southeast Asian perception of China by Singapore-based Institute of Southeast Asian Studies reveals interesting facts that may have implications for our Act East policy and help our policy makers calibrate their approach towards the region.  Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the statement “The changing perception of China and the US in Southeast Asia calls for the re-calibration of India’s Act East policy” and present a close examination of the same.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

You can start with the findings of the report – State of Southeast Asia 2021 survey: tracking the trust and distrust ratings of major powers in the region.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Talk about declining perception of China: Juxtaposing trend about China as simultaneously the most influential and most distrusted power in the region.  Then quote the reasons – China’s charm offensive towards Southeast Asia through its offensive cloud and ground diplomacy. Mask and Vaccine diplomacy failed to fill the trust deficit due to the Chinese bellicosity of island-building and land grabbing and allowing the Coast Guards to use weapons against foreign ships.

Risk of Spillover effect: Indonesia warned heightened the risk of “spillover conflict” in Indonesia’s territorial waters around the Natuna Islands. Percentage of those who distrust China increased from 51.5% in 2019 to 60.4% in 2020 and 63%. 5% believe that “China’s economic and military power could be used to threaten Southeast Asian countries’ interest and sovereignty, including the use of economic tools and tourism to punish their foreign policy choices.”

Rise in the stature of the US: Southeast Asians’ trust in the US has improved, increasing from 30.3% in 2020 to 48.4% in 2021. Together with the EU, the US enjoys the strongest confidence to provide leadership in maintaining the rules-based order, upholding international law and championing the global free trade agenda.

Conclusion:

Conclude that under such a perception shift, it’s up to Indian foreign policy makers to decide how they would calibrate their approaches in reaching out to Southeast Asia in the coming days.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

5. To ensure Climate Justice, India has to leverage its green commitment to guarantee carbon and policy space for its developmental goals. Elucidate with suitable examples. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The question is from the article – Working towards climate justice in a non-ideal world.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in what way to ensure Climate Justice, India has to leverage its green commitment to guarantee carbon and policy space for its developmental goals.

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief background of the World efforts for climate justice.

Body:

Start by explaining what actions have been taken to control greenhouse gas emissions-  all the countries are being told to commit to net-zero (Green House Gas emissions) by 2050. China committed to reaching the target by 2060, but they have been strictly told to be there a decade earlier.

Present the Indian dimension – highlight the efforts, challenges and shortcomings.

Suggest upon the importance of it.

Conclusion:

Conclude that Climate justice is very important for India. It needs to influence its green and pro-nature commitment to ensure carbon and policy space for its developmental and global aspirations. India’s diplomatic and negotiating efforts must be quickly geared to that end.

 

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

6. Need for a dedicated law for National security screening of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) as Foreign Exchange Management Act (FEMA) fails to comprehensively address national security concerns. Analyse. (250 words)

 

Why the question:

The article explains that there is no clear law for national security screening of inward FDI in India. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Analyse the need for a dedicated law for National security screening and its concerns pertaining to the national security aspects.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with some relevant data such as – As per some media reports, India may ease restrictions on FDI by Chinese companies. They will be allowed to invest up to 25 percent in a company through an automatic route. Last year India tightened its FDI policy. It was aimed at preventing an opportunistic takeover of Indian firms, hit by COVID-19 pandemic induced lockdown.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

  • Firstly explain how India regulates foreign investments?
  • Explain the objectives of FEMA, Shortcoming of FEMA especially the fact that National security is unrelated to FEMA. Therefore, India needs a separate law for national security screening of inward FDI just like many other western countries.
  • Present the different types of legitimate threats from foreign acquisitions.

Conclusion:

Suggest that National security and capital control are separate and independent policy objectives. Separate legislation for national security screening of inward FDI will be prudent.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics – in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

7. Discuss the role that Colleges and higher educational institutions can play in imparting values to our society. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The article brings to us the important role that colleges must play in bringing values in the society.  

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the role that Colleges and higher educational institutions can play in imparting values to our society

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with definition of values and their general importance in any society.

Body:

The prime concern of education is to evolve the good, the true and the divine in man so as to establish a moral life in the world.

Since education is a powerful instrument of social change and human progress, it is also a powerful tool to cultivate values in an individual. Therefore all the educational institutes have greater responsibility to impart learning and cultivation of values through education.

Discuss impact of such value inculcation on the society.

Give examples to better substantiate your answer.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance.


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