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[Insights Secure STHIR– 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 11 March 2021

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General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Representation of People Act

1. Discuss the virtues and shortcomings of the concept of “One nation, One election” for Indian polity. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian polity by Lakshmikant

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper II, part Indian polity and theme elections.  

Key Demand of the question:

One must evaluate the pros and cons of the concept of “One nation, One election” for Indian polity.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Explain first what is ‘One Nation, One Election’.

Body:

It refers to holding elections to Lok Sabha, State Legislative Assemblies, Panchayats and Urban local bodies simultaneously, once in five year.

Discuss the concerns with existing election system (frequent elections); Massive expenditure, Policy paralysis, Impact on delivery of essential services, Burden on crucial manpower , pressure on political parties etc. 

Then talk about the benefits of simultaneous elections such as – Governance and consistency, Reduced Expenditure of Money and Administration, Continuity in policies and programmes, Efficiency of Governance etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance.

 

Topic: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

2. Discuss the possible benefits and associated concerns with India’s membership of the Quad.  (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article evaluates the possible benefits and associated concerns with India’s membership of the Quad. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Evaluate the possible benefits and associated concerns with India’s membership of the Quad.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief background of Quad.

Body:

The Quad was born out of the crisis that followed the Tsunami in December 2004. India’s humanitarian and disaster relief effort in the Indian Ocean was coordinated with the three other naval powers engaged in similar efforts — U.S., Australia and Japan.

Since then the idea of the Indo-Pacific as a larger maritime strategic community, and the Quad as an effective instrument in it, has gained credence among the four nations.

Discuss the significance of it in detail; The Quad grouping primary objectives include connectivity, sustainable development, counter-terrorism, non-proliferation and maritime and cybersecurity, with a view to promoting peace, stability and prosperity in an increasingly inter-connected Indo-Pacific region.

Discuss the challenges too and suggest measures to overcome the dilemmas that lie before India owing to such concerns.

Conclusion:

Conclude with its importance for India.

 

Topic: Representation of People Act

3. Discuss the need for reforms in the electoral politics of India . (250 words)

Reference:  Indian polity by Lakshmikant

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper II, part Indian polity and theme elections. 

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the need for reforms in the electoral politics of India.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Talk about significance of elections to Indian democracy first.

Body:

India is a vibrant democracy with people electing their representatives at several levels beginning from local bodies & panchayats to the Parliament.

Elections in India (world’s second-most populous country) seek overwhelming popular participation, where electoral candidates try to woo the voters by promising long-term reforms, such as better governance, greater socioeconomic equity, poverty alleviation, etc.

However, corrupt politicians with criminal records, caste- and religion-based politics, and allegations of vote-buying; have defeated the very purpose of such democratic process.

Discuss in detail the issues and then suggest reforms accordingly.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

4. In the current Covid times discuss India’s prioritization strategy regarding vaccination and related experience so far with the immunization of health care workers (HCW). (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The article talks about the vaccination drive in the current Covid times that India has undertaken.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss India’s prioritization strategy regarding vaccination and related experience so far with the immunization of health care workers (HCW).

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief background of the context in question.

Body:

Explain how Global COVID-19 vaccine trackers point to the relatively low population level full vaccination coverage in India, 0.28 per cent currently. India’s achievements in COVID-19 vaccination are indeed large in terms of absolute numbers being vaccinated but should not bring a false sense of security of achieving herd immunity quickly enough, which is a function of both coverage and vaccine efficacy.

Explain the key focus areas, which can help India achieve the desired comprehensive coverage and vaccine equity.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Major crops-cropping patterns in various parts of the country, – different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers.

5. Explain the major constraints being faced by our farmers and account for the need of an agricultural regulatory system that would help and aid farmers to achieve better productivity, competitiveness, and income.  (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The question is in the backdrop of World Bank’s enabling the Business of Agriculture (EBA) 2019 report.

Key Demand of the question:

Present the major constraints being faced by our farmers and account for the need of an agricultural regulatory system that would help and aid farmers to achieve better productivity, competitiveness, and income.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Explain briefly the context of the question.

Body:

Discuss the constraints first – The small landholding farmers across India face various constraints in carrying out farming activities. They include constraints in accessing agricultural inputs, markets, finance, human resources, and information, which are critical for increasing farmers’ competitiveness.

The existing institutional set up that controls farm production often fails to ease these constraints for the farmers.

Explain the need for regulatory framework. Discuss what needs to be done.

Conclusion:

Governments must enact laws and regulations that influence farmers’ access to agricultural inputs, cost of production, farmers’ participation in agricultural markets and value chains, the competitiveness of farmers, and private investment in the farming sector.

 

Topic: Disaster and disaster management.

6. The incidents of fire disaster cannot be called fate as it is lack of preparedness at various regulatory and organizational levels. Elucidate. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The Editorial explains that Safety training and technological fixes can cut the massive death toll from fires each year.

Key Demand of the question:

The answer must talk about the lacunae in the fire safety measures in the country and suggest way forward to address the same.

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

One can start with some shocking fact related to fire incidents in the country.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Explain in what way fire incidents are not mere accidents in our country.

Discuss the causes of Fire Accidents in India; Violation of safety norms and lack of standardization and regulation, High rise buildings are more prone to fire accidents, unclear provisions of fire safety audits etc.

Then suggest what need to be done to ensure preparedness to such incidents.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

7. India needs to reassure that some protectionism clauses are not permanent and must insulate the Indo-US relationship from disagreements over tariffs and non-tariff barriers.  Comment. (250 words)

Reference:  Business Standard 

Why the question:

The opinion from Business standard talks about dealing with Tariff complaints. The World Trade Organization’s (WTO’s) India review shows protectionism has alienated partners.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain how India needs to reassure that some protectionism clauses are not permanent and must insulate the Indo-US relationship from disagreements over tariffs and non-tariff barriers. 

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief highlights of the report in support of the answer.

Body:

Explain first the Key concerns about India’s trade protectionism policy:

  • Non-tariff barrier: lack of clarity in agricultural policy (food-grain policy in particular) was raised by Australia and New Zealand.
  • Absence of reform in sugar procurement as a key concern was raised by Brazil.
  • Tariff barrier: Rise in simple average MFN applied tariff rate from 13.5% in 2015 to 17.6% in 2019.
  • Rising duties on smartphones and assistance for domestic producers in steel by
  • Anti-dumping and safeguard measures in spite of a bilateral free trade agreement by South Korea.
  • Lack of trade openness and integration into global value chains by the European Union.
  • Frequent tariff changes disrupted planned investment by Taiwan in India.

Suggest what should be India’s way ahead to address the above concerns.

Conclusion:

Thus, conclude that India needs to reassure that some protectionism clauses are not permanent and must insulate the Indo-US relationship from disagreements over tariffs and non-tariff barriers.


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