Print Friendly, PDF & Email

SECURE SYNOPSIS: 9 March 2021


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: GS-1: women issues,

GS-2: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

1. LPG subsidy is a critical social investment to free-up women’s productive time and reduces public health burden. Do you agree with the statement? analyse. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article talks about importance of LPG subsidy and its linkages with women’s productive time and health.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in what way LPG subsidy is a critical social investment to free-up women’s productive time and reduces public health burden. To realize these goals, there is a need to balance LPG subsidies and ensure sustained clean fuel consumption in poorer households.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In the introduction present the scenario in the Indian society about usage of LPG and traditional cooking fuel. Use some data/statistics.

Body:

Explain first in what way LPG connections can be revolutionary in freeing women for productive time and reduce the public health concerns.

Talk about the Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana, PMUY. It helped expand LPG coverage to > 85% of households, in comparison to less than a third in 2011.The government is again offering one crore new connections under Ujjwala 2.0 in FY22.

Present the associated issues and suggest solutions to address the same.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction

Since 2014, the Government of India committed to promoting clean cooking, mostly through offering two large subsidies linked to liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The lives of many women have changed, with their cooking becoming healthier and faster.

Yet, as per recent NSSO report, only 48 per cent of rural households had used LPG for cooking.

Body

LPG subsidy in India

India’s two large LPG subsidies are for connection and consumption.

  • Consumption subsidies have been offered for many years but since 2014 are called PAHAL (or DBTL) and administered through a cash transfer mechanism that reduces the net price of an LPG cylinder.
  • Since 2016 an ambitious push to improve uptake of LPG by the poor began with the introduction of the Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana (PMUY). This scheme, a connection subsidy, targeted “the health of women and children,” and built gender considerations into its design, as the subsidy must be received in a female beneficiary’s bank account.

LPG Subsidy: Benefits to women

  • Saving time: New research examining the impact of LPG subsidies in Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand from a gender perspective found that women who cooked on LPG saved on average about one hour per day compared to cooking on biomass.
  • Breaking stereotypes: Men were more likely to cook if LPG was available: 70 per cent of households having LPG connection said that a male member cooked at least one meal in the last 30 days, against the 58 per cent of households who did not have an LPG connection.
  • Ujjwala Scheme has provided LPG gas connection to 8 crore women, giving them respite from drudgery of indoor pollution and mortality.
  • Increased productivity: The connections are given in the name of women beneficiaries to reduce their dependence on fossil fuels and conventional fuel like cow dung for cooking food, thus reducing the effort needed in collected firewood.

Challenges in the LPG subsidy dispersion

  • Lower consumption of LPG, particularly amongst the rural poor is limited by affordability constraints.
  • PMUY only partially absorbs the cost of acquiring an LPG connection but does not provide a free stove or first refill.
  • Most poor households not using LPG still cannot afford upfront connection costs, and at the unsubsidised price the on-going consumption costs are high.
  • Households reduce the use of LPG by using it in combination and competition with biomass, often collected for “free” by women and children.
  • This limits the benefits experienced when compared to women who only use LPG, and would also imply huge subsidies to displace biomass entirely.

Conclusion

India’s commitment to promote LPG has been admirable and many countries could learn from efforts to better target the expansion of LPG towards poor women in rural areas via PMUY. The latter has worked well in allowing many low-income households to access LPG for the first time and has provided 80.3 million LPG connections to poor households since its launch in 2016.

There is still a journey ahead in terms of making clean cooking subsidies better targeted towards those families who really need it. But, with half of women in rural areas still using traditional fuels, it is also clear that we need government policies and support measures beyond just LPG subsidies.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Scheduled and tribal areas

2. “Sixth schedule of the Indian constitution has been successful in protecting the tribal culture and inclusivity”. Analyse. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian polity by Lakshmikant

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper II, part Indian polity.

Key Demand of the question:

The question aims to analyse the success and achievements of sixth schedule of the Indian constitution.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Sixth Schedule in the Indian Constitution established Autonomous District Councils (ADC) in four northeastern states, namely Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram. These ADCs envisage protecting and preserving tribal culture.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Talk about the origin of sixth schedule, The Sixth Schedule was originally intended for the predominantly tribal areas (tribal population over 90%) of undivided Assam, which was categorized as “excluded areas” under the Government of India Act, 1935 and was under the direct control of the Governor.

Then discuss the concerns associated and assess the success of it till date.

Conclusion:

Special constitutional protections are indeed required for marginalized sections to ensure that historical wrongs done to them are reversed and not repeated, but it has denied justice to the non-tribals, who have lived in ADCs for generations but ended up marginalized.

Introduction

Article 244 in Part X of the Constitution envisages a special system of administration for certain areas designated as ‘scheduled areas’ and ‘tribal areas’. The Sixth Schedule of the Constitution, deals with the administration of the tribal areas in the four north-eastern states of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram.

Body

The rationality behind the special arrangements in respect of only these four states lies in the following:

  • The tribes in Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram have not assimilated much the life and ways of the other people in these states.
  • These areas have hitherto been anthropological specimens. The tribal people in other parts of India have more or less adopted the culture of the majority of the people in whose midst they live.
  • The tribes in Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram, on the other hand, still have their roots in their own culture, customs and civilization.
  • These areas are, therefore, treated differently by the Constitution and sizeable amount of autonomy has been given to these people for self-government.

Sixth Schedule areas: Role in protecting tribal culture

  • The rationale behind the creation of Autonomous District Councils is the belief that relationship to the land is the basis of tribal or indigenous identity.
    • The culture and identity of indigenous people can be preserved by ensuring their control over land and natural resources, as these factors to a large extent determine the lifestyle and culture of the indigenous people.
  • Under the Sixth Schedule, autonomous districts and councils have a varying degree of autonomy to frame laws to protect the interests of the tribal.
    • Eg: The Bodoland Territorial Council can make laws on 39 additional subjects such as culture, education, health and agriculture, labour and employment, land and revenue among others.
  • The District Council and the Regional Council under the Sixth Schedule have real power to make laws, possibility on the various legislative subjects, receiving grants-in-aids from the Consolidated Fund of India to meet the costs of schemes for development, health care, education, roads and regulatory powers to state control.
  • The mandate towards Devolution, de concentration and divestment determine the protection of their customs, better economic development and most importantly ethnic security.
  • Furthermore, the Sixth Schedule has certain features that can be implanted in any governance model for tribal areas, particularly concepts of constitutional and legislative subjects that are exclusive to local governments.

Issues related to sixth schedule areas

  • There are frequent conflicts of interest between the District Councils and the state legislatures. For example, in Meghalaya, despite the formation of the State, the whole of the State continues to be under the Sixth Schedule causing frequent conflicts with the State Government.
  • Various tribal communities with different cultures and customs within one autonomous council for example Bodo Council and Chakma Council in Assam.
  • Inflow of migrants has caused demographic imbalances and increased social tensions.
  • The tribal elite have appropriated all the power and common citizens left helpless.
  • Competition among local officials, police and communities has chocked the development and has increased resentment among the people.
  • These areas lack political mobilization ie. Mainstream parties having regionalism, localism and communism as political ideology which has drag down the developmental work. People here have low political participation.
  • In case of conflict between the District Councils and the State Legislature, the state enjoys the superiority, but then it is alleged that autonomous councils are mere platform for aspiring politicians who nurture ambitions to contest assembly polls in the future.
  • However, there are certain issues due to which the sixth schedule has ended up creating multiple power centers instead of bringing in a genuine process of democratization or autonomy in the region such as Conflict of Power, governor functioning and disparity among autonomous bodies and local bodies.
  • Thus, despite autonomy, development benefits have not reached the people and caused isolation in the region.
  • Newly created Union Territory like Ladakh is also demanding sixth schedule status on par with Bodoland Territorial council.

Conclusion

Though issues persist, the Sixth Schedule mandating the state to devolve certain political, administrative and fiscal powers to local governments elected by the communities due to which, it has been quite successful in countering the so-called Separatist movements, of which some have become active insurgencies, as a key issue in North-East

 

Topic: Union territories

3. “The creation of union territories is an expression of India’s geography”, Discuss in the light of recent creation of the union territory of Ladakh and J&K. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian polity by Lakshmikant

Why the question:

The question is amidst the recent state of affairs being witnessed in the erstwhile state of J&K which has been bifurcated into two UTs.

Key Demand of the question:

One must discuss in detail the relevance and context of Indian geography and the formation of UTs.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In short discuss about the UTs in India. The constitutional status and provisions associated with them.

Body:

Explain in short, the reasons for which the union territories came into existence in India.

Explain the reasons behind the creation of each union territory

Evaluate how it helped in geographical continuity and state in what way they are an Expression of India’s geography. Discuss the impact of having UTs in general on various aspects of the country.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance.

Introduction:

A union territory is a type of administrative division in the Republic of India. Unlike the states of India, which have their own governments, union territories are usually federal territories governed directly by the central Government of India.

The Central government on August 5 did away with the special status awarded to Jammu and Kashmir by abrogating certain provisions of Article 370 of the Indian Constitution. The government also introduced the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Bill in the Rajya Sabha, bifurcating the State into two Union Territories (UT) — Jammu and Kashmir, and Ladakh. The UT of Jammu and Kashmir will have a legislature, similar to Delhi and Puducherry, while the UT of Ladakh will not, mirroring UTs like Chandigarh and Daman and Diu.

Body:

UTs- the history:

  • After independence in 1947, States were divided into 4 lists: Part A, Part B, Part C and Part D.
  • In 1956, States reorganization act was passed and mostly states mentioned in Part C and Part D were either merged into states mentioned in Part A and Part B and left were termed as union territories.
  • So, in 1956, Andaman and Nicobar, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Tripura and Laccadive minicoy and amindivi island (later collectively becomes Lakshadweep) were 6 union territories of India.
  • Then, Goa, Daman and Diu, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Puducherry ceded to Indian. Some Union territories like Himachal Pradesh, Manipur and Tripura later gained statehood.
  • So, now only 7 union territories remain Delhi, Andaman and Nicobar, Lakshadweep, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, Puducherry and Chandigarh.

Reasons behind creation of UTs:

  • Small population and land size: The union territories (except Delhi) has very small populations and land size comparing to a state hence, running legislative assembly and a council of ministers for them will cost additional burden to exchequer.
  • Strategic locations: Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar Islands are far west and east end of our country and they are quite far from mainland hence it is easier to govern them directly through Central government because they are very strategically important for India and in case of any emergency, Indian government can directly act there.
  • Protection of indigenous cultures: Some of the union territories have different culture than surrounding state like Dadra and nagar haveli, Daman and Diu (Portuguese), Puducherry (French) and most recently Ladakh.
  • Administrative importance: Delhi and Chandigarh are two union territories which are important as administrative capital of India and administrative capital of Haryana and Punjab. So, control of these union territories is important for Indian government.
  • Security situation and general backwardness: Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh are located on the borders neighbouring Pakistan and China. Having faced aggressions from both nations and constant terror incidents, the state was economically lagging despite natural resources.

Constitutional status:

  • Article 1 (1) of the Indian constitution says that India shall be a “Union of States”, which are elaborated under Parts V (The Union) and VI (The States) of the constitution.
  • Article 1 (3) says the territory of India comprises the territories of the states, the union territories and other territories that may be acquired.
  • The concept of union territories was not in the original version of the constitution, but was added by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956.
  • citizenship (part II), fundamental rights (part III), Directive Principles of State Policy (part IV), Judiciary role, the Union Territories (part VIII), Article 245, etc. are applicable to union territories as it refers specifically to Territories of India.
  • The executive power of Union (i.e. union of states only) rests with President of India. President of India is also chief administrator of union territories per Article 239.
  • As per Article 240 (2), supreme power is accorded to the President in regulating the affairs of the all the union territories except Chandigarh, NCT and Puducherry, including powers to override the laws made by Parliament and the constitution of India.
  • Union territories with their own elected legislatures and governments: Puducherry, National Capital Territory of Delhi, Jammu and Kashmir (proposed from 31 October 2019),

Conclusion:

The Parliament has the power to redraw the political map of India. Over the years, the UTs are formed keeping in mind the geographical and other strategic factors. The direct control of the Union Government will help the socio-politico and economic developments of the UTs.

 

Topic: GS-2: Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.

GS-3: basics of cyber security

4. What do you understand by lateral surveillance? How can it be used in addressing cybercrimes in our country? Discuss (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

‘Citizen Watch’ gets a new meaning after the notification on the IT Rules, 2021 — the promotion of lateral surveillance.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the concept of lateral surveillance and its role in addressing cybercrimes in our country.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with definition of lateral surveillance.

Body:

A form of surveillance, which enables citizens to “watch over” one another, is called lateral surveillance. The conventional understanding of the term, surveillance, is its use in the hierarchical sense, i.e. the vertical relationship between the person watching and the person being watched, which is usually the state and its citizenry. Lateral or social or peer-to-peer surveillance differs from typical surveillance.

Discuss its utility in addressing cybercrimes. Give examples. Present case study if possible.  

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance.

 INTRODUCTION

The surveillance in which citizens watch over one another is called lateral surveillance. The Indian Cyber Crime Coordination Centre (I4C), under the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA), launched the Cyber Crime Volunteers Program. It aims to allow citizens to register themselves as “Cyber Crime Volunteers’’ in the role of “Unlawful Content Flaggers”.

BODY

As per the official website of the National Cyber Crime Reporting Portal the programme will help law enforcement agencies in identifying, reporting and in the removal of illegal/unlawful online content.

Main Features of lateral surveillance:

  1. It is different from typical surveillance. In the typical surveillance, there is a vertical relationship between those being watched (citizenry) and those who are watching (the state).
  2. The lateral surveillance specifically ensures that the imbalance of power no longer exists.
  3. It is a form of community policing.
  4. The United States had the neighbourhood watch scheme. It increased community policing in the 1970s. With the introduction of technology and the development of applications such as Citizen and Next door, monitoring of people and their behaviour has become easier.
  5. This is a form of surveillance, which enables citizens to “watch over” one another is called lateral surveillance. The conventional understanding of the term, surveillance, is its use in the hierarchical sense,
  6. The vertical relationship between the person watching and the person being watched, which is usually the state and its citizenry. Lateral or social or peer-to-peer surveillance differs from typical surveillance.
  7. While surveillance of any kind shows an imbalance of power between the person who surveils, and the one under surveillance, lateral surveillance specifically ensures that the imbalance of power no longer exists.
  8. Informal watching of communities by their members has been an age-old part of society, and its members view it as a harmless activity. The problem arises when it is organised and state-sponsored.

The state-sponsored lateral surveillance has been implemented in India earlier as well. For example, the C-Plan App in Uttar Pradesh launched for keeping a tab on anti-social elements. It is designed to receive inputs from certain identified individuals in villages across the State.

Concerns

  1.  Cause for Lateral Surveillance: Wherever the state identifies that it “cannot be everywhere”, it deploys this mechanism. The problem arises when it is organised and state-sponsored.
  2. Hurts Privacy: Lateral surveillance is used to further emotional objectives such as community building and strengthening relationships with neighbours where emotional and social factors act as a driving force, thus creating a situation where privacy may be undermined for the betterment of the community.
  3. Social Discriminatory: Surveillance technologies not only act as a tool for social control but also as a tool for social exclusion. Lateral surveillance thus makes it easier to discriminate between those who conform to the social norms of the majority.
  4. Culture of Distrust: State-sponsored lateral surveillance is harmful as it creates a culture of ‘hate’, ‘fear’ and ‘constant suspicion’ against an ‘enemy’. This culture places a duty on people to ‘keep an eye out’ for ‘their own safety’ and this heightens the fear of crime in society.
  5. Widen Faultlines in Society: Such perceived threats have a tendency to increase intolerance, prejudice, xenophobia and casteism in our society, while also violating the fundamental right to privacy, and, consequently, the expression of free speech and behaviour.

CONCLUSION

With the introduction of ‘Citizen Watch’ technology and development of applications such as Citizen and Next-door, monitoring of people and their behaviour has become easier.

The government and private sector institutions alike collect swathes of data for supposedly ‘public functions’. Specifically in the sphere of crime prevention, much like the cyber-crime prevention programme, there has been a transition in the outlook from a ‘punishing state’ to a ‘preventive state’.

State-sponsored lateral surveillance is harmful as it creates a culture of ‘hate’, ‘fear’ and ‘constant suspicion’ against an ‘enemy’. Wherever the state identifies that it “cannot be everywhere”, it deploys this mechanism.

Such perceived threats have a tendency to increase intolerance, prejudice, xenophobia and casteism in our society, while also violating the fundamental right to privacy, and, consequently, the unfettered expression of free speech and behaviour.

 

 

Topic: GS-2: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

 GS-3: Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

5. A sound vehicle scrapping policy can certainly shore up demand across sectors in the country. Elucidate (250 words)

Reference:  Economic Times

Why the question:

The question is amidst recent move of scrapping policy brought out by the government in the country.  

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the merits of such a policy and explain in what way it can shore up demand across sectors in the country.

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the details of the policy.

Body:

Explain that vehicle scrappage policy intention previewed in the Union budget speech is sensible. It can well boost fuel efficiency, reduce the oil import bill and stem environmental pollution too. But, in tandem, we do need to put in place proactive policy for organized scrapping of steel, and incentivize regular vehicular maintenance to enforce pollution norms rather than go by vehicular age stipulation to have them off the roads.

Present merits and demerits.

Conclusion:

Conclude that a sound vehicle scrapping policy can certainly shore up demand across sectors, gainfully rev up fuel efficiency, plus have fiscal benefits in the form of reduced oil imports, and also purposefully tackle environmental externalities going forward.

 INRODUCTION

With over a quarter of a billion registered vehicles nationally, it is time India had a modern vehicle scrapping industry. It can well boost fuel efficiency, reduce the oil import bill and stem environmental pollution too.

BODY

India will have over two crore old vehicles nearing the end of their lives by 2025. These, along with other unfit vehicles, will cause huge pollution and environmental damage.

A recent steel ministry report did point out that while we have a large steel scrap sector with volumes over 25 million tonnes per annum, it is wholly unorganised and does not even have industry status.

It clearly implies inefficient misallocation of resources when we can recycle 100% of steel and boost resource use efficiency.

But, in tandem, we do need to put in place proactive policy for organised scrapping of steel, and incentivise regular vehicular maintenance to enforce pollution norms rather than go by vehicular age stipulation to have them off the roads.

Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) has released a report titled “What to do with old vehicles: Towards effective scrappage policy and infrastructure”, which suggests parameters of an effective vehicle scrapping policy for India

Suggestions by the Report:

  1. Safe disposal and material recovery should be the critical parameters of an effective vehicle scrapping policy.
  2. The policy must leverage the opportunities to maximise emissions gains from the replacement of end-of-life vehicles and recover material from the wasted clunkers (dilapidated vehicle or machine) for reuse and recycling.
  3. There is a need to link economic recovery and fiscal stimulus with the replacement of older heavy-duty vehicles with BS-VI vehicles.
  4. The scrappage scheme should incentivise replacement with EVs for personal cars and two-wheelers.
  5. Vehicles should not contain toxic metals like lead, mercury, cadmium or hexavalent chromium other than specified conditions.
  6. There should be efforts to includeExtended Producer Responsibility (EPR) and making the rules legally binding.
  7. Environmentally sound vehicle scrappage infrastructure should be scaled up country-wide for safe disposal of waste and for material recovery for recycling like steel, aluminium and plastics.
  8. India needs a well-designed scrappage policy to lower emissions, reduce environmental damages and recover material from clunkers as part of post-Covid-19 efforts towards a green India.

CONCLUSION

The way forward is to provide incentives, or, at least, remove tax discrimination. We need to incentivise investments in modern depollution zero-discharge systems. Besides, a mandatory 15- or 20-year vehicular operational life norm may be thoroughly suboptimal pan-India.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: GS-1: Women issues ,

GS-3: Government Budgeting.

6. “Gender budgeting can ensure that tax and spending policies transparently and adequately include provisions for women’s access to opportunity in education and the workplace”, Comment. (250 words)

Reference:  Financial Express

Why the question:

The article brings out the correlation between gender budgeting and access to opportunity and education for women.

Key Demand of the question:

One must discuss the significance of gender budgeting and its positive impact on women empowerment in the country.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by explaining what Gender Budgeting is.

Body:

Explain the nuances of Gender budgeting.

Present positives of ensuring gender budgeting, as countries around the world struggle to grow their economies grappling with ageing populations, and buffeted by trade shocks, social unrest, weather-related disasters and now, the worst peacetime crisis in a century–tapping into the huge potential of women is unambiguously a win-win for both women’s empowerment and inclusive global economic growth.

Elaborate on how gender equity can lead to inclusive and stronger global economic growth.

Give examples.

Conclusion:

Conclude that the empowerment of women is an important channel by which we can obtain stronger, more inclusive, and more resilient growth.

 INTRODUCTION

Gender Budgeting is concerned with gender sensitive formulation of legislation, programmes and schemes; allocation of resources; implementation and execution; audit and impact assessment of programmes and schemes; and follow-up corrective action to address gender disparities.

BODY

Need for Gender Budgeting

  • Women have been affected disproportionately by the pandemic because they work predominantly in sectors such as restaurants and hospitality that have been hit hardest by the lockdowns, and as the main caregivers at home they have had to drop out of the labour market as schools closed.
  • In developing countries, women are over-represented in the informal sector where they face lower pay, less job security and lower social protection.
  • Girls have dropped out more from school to help in households and there is a disturbing fact that violence against women and girls has intensified since the outbreak of the pandemic
  • Even as the pandemic demonstrated excellent contributions of women as leaders, health professionals, first-responders and care givers, it is concerning that women have been hit “disproportionately hard” by this crisis.
  • With female labour force participation falling in many countries during the pandemic, targeted policies such as hiring subsidies may be needed to swiftly bring about the reintegration of female workers into the labour force.
  • Less than 20 percent of board seats in banks and banking supervision agencies, and account for fewer than 2 percent of bank CEO
  • The COVID-19 pandemic threatens to roll back years of hard-won economic and social gains for women and as nations struggle to grow their economies, tapping into the huge potential of women is clearly a “win-win” for both women’s empowerment and inclusive global economic growth

Gender budgeting as solution

Gender budgeting efforts have encompassed four sequential phases:

  • knowledge building and networking,
  • institutionalizing the process,
  • capacity building, and
  • Enhancing accountability.

Gender budgeting is not confined to an accounting exercise. The gender budgeting framework has helped the gender-neutral ministries to design new programs for women.

CONCLUSION

A powerful tool for achieving gender mainstreaming so as to ensure that benefits of development reach women as much as men.

Quoting Swami Vivekananda, “there is no chance for the welfare of the world unless the condition of woman is improved. It is not possible for a bird to fly on only one wing.”

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Case study

7. You are representing India in an international bidding for oil exploration in a country. Other, richer countries are also bidding for the project. You are sure that your bid of exploration is better as well as cheaper than that of others, and that you will definitely win the bid. A day before the auction, you come to know that other countries are employing every means, including bribing the authorities for being successful. Some of the officials of the home country have also contacted you and made some demands in exchange for assurance of India winning the bid. You are aware of the criticality of this bid in terms of domestic economic and strategic implications.  What will be your course of action in the above situation? Justify with merits and demerits. (250 words)

Reference:  Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude

Why the question:

The question is premised on the concept of ethical dilemma.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the nuances in the case and present the right course of action according to you.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief introduction of the case at hand.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

  • Identify the ethical dilemmas that you face.
  • Highlight the importance of ethical concerns in international transactions Vis a vis domestic interests.
  • Then mention the course of action that you would follow. Justify it by taking into account the merits and demerits of the decision.

Conclusion:

Conclude with fair and balanced solutions to the issues concerned.

Introduction

The case involves India’s economic and strategic interests especially with respect to energy security. As India being a net importer of Crude Oil, this bid becomes crucial for India’s growth and developmental plans. Many stakeholders at official levels are involved, making it a high-stake project.

Body

Stakeholders

  • Myself as India’s representative for bidding
  • Other nations participating in the bid
  • Home country where oil exploration is being done
  • All the officials involved in the home country
  • Officials in India
  • India’s energy security

Ethical issues involved

  • Collusion of officials in home country to extract personal gains.
  • Bribery by other nations to outdo India defying professional ethics.
  • Business ethics being violated.
  • Unfair auctioning not based on merit.
  • Dilemma as either option will transgress rightful procedure in auction.

Course of action

Since I have knowledge of improper procedure being made including bribery, I would first notify Indian authorities and the management chain responsible for handling the project. So that they can communicate and register their protest with the nations concerned.

I would inform about the home country officials who have tried to contact me in exchange for demands of their own. I would advise the higher management about the collusion and wait for their direction. In case they ask me to go ahead with the auction, with help of officials of the home country, I would recuse myself of the duty and responsibility.

This is because I do not want to be privy to a project that is not based on transparent and objective process. This can be detrimental to my career and reputation and I would not allow my ethical conscience to party to this.

The demerits of my action can be harmful for India’s interest, especially energy security and relations with the home country. However, it can be set right if both parties involved take necessary actions on submission of my complaint.

Conclusion

Wrong does not cease to be wrong if majority share in it. Especially in a project involving international stakeholders, it is important to follow norms and conventions. Transparency and objectivity are most important values of public service and one is expected to uphold this.


  • Join our Official Telegram Channel HERE for Motivation and Fast Updates
  • Subscribe to our YouTube Channel HERE to watch Motivational and New analysis videos