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[Insights Secure STHIR– 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 25 February 2021

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Basic Structure, Amendment of constitution

1. Examine the limitations in amending any part of the Indian constitution. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian polity by Lakshmikant

Why the question:

The question is based on the basic structure concept and the amend ability of Indian constitution.

Key Demand of the question:

One is expected to discuss the limitations in amending any part of the Indian constitution.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In the introduction explain what is meant by amend ability of Indian constitution. Amending the Constitution of India is the process of making changes to the nation’s fundamental law or supreme law. The procedure of amendment in the constitution is laid down in Part XX (Article 368) of the Constitution of India. This procedure ensures the sanctity of the Constitution of India and keeps a check on arbitrary power of the Parliament of India.

Body:

Explain that the Constitution can be amended any number of times by the Parliament; but only in the manner provided. There is no such limit provided in the constitution of India which allows it to enact only certain number of amendments in a year.

In other words, Parliament is free to enact any number of constitutional amendments in any given year. Although Parliament must preserve the basic framework of the Constitution, there is no other limitation placed upon the amending power, meaning that there is no provision of the Constitution that cannot be amended.

Discuss then the procedure and the limitations thereof.

Conclusion:

Conclude by highlighting the significance of these limitations set by our constitutional makers.

 

Topic: Fundamental duties,

2. Rights without duties will lead to lawlessness. Examine the statement in context of the relevance of fundamental duties in present times. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian polity by Lakshmikant

Why the question:

The question aims to examine the importance of fundamental duties enshrined in the Indian constitution.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain how Rights without duties will lead to lawlessness while asserting the importance of fundamental rights.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with definition of fundamental duties.

Body:

The Fundamental Duties are defined as the moral obligations of all citizens to help promote a spirit of patriotism and to uphold the unity of India. The idea for Fundamental Duties has been taken from erstwhile USSR.

Explain that the Fundamental duties establish democratic balance by making the people conscious of their duties equally as they are conscious of their rights.

Discuss in what way they balance out rights and thus help maintain law in the country.

Give suitable examples from the recent times to justify the statement.

Conclusion:

Conclude that while the state has a great deal of responsibility in providing for their protection through appropriate legislative instruments, the responsibility to protect torchbearers of transparency vests on each one of us.

 

Topic: GS-2: Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.

GS-4: challenges of corruption.

3. “Corruption undermines the credibility of the public sector, erodes trust in governments and their ability to steer a country to achieve high economic growth and shared prosperity, In this context discuss how India can make progress in the fight against corruption. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

Odisha Chief Minister Naveen Patnaik took everyone by surprise recently when he declared that all State government officials and functionaries of the Biju Janata Dal, including himself, would henceforth be mandatorily required to file their property returns with the Lok Ayukta at the end of every year.

Key Demand of the question:

The answer is about the fight against corruption in India.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Best way to address such questions is by quoting some stunning fact/data related to corruption.

Body:

First discuss the evils of corruption and its historical presence in India.

Explain that tackling corruption and abuse of the system is vital to restoring people’s trust and recovering from the current economic crisis. Public sector corruption results in poorer public services, while in the private sector the cost is passed on to consumers who end up paying more for their goods and services.

Then explain the existing methods to fight against corruption.

Suggest that Public declaration of assets of all political and bureaucratic functionaries from the Panchayat to the party president level makes sense because this fundamentally seeks to promote transparency between the citizens and those in power at every level by reducing the information asymmetry.

Discuss more measures.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

4. Surmounting investments in human and physical digital infrastructure will provide India an opportunity to shine in global market for digital information-technology services. Comment. (250 words)

Reference:  Financial Express

Why the question:

The article highlights India’s need to focus on digital infrastructure and benefits that it can accrue.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in what way investments in human and physical digital infrastructure will provide India an opportunity to shine in global market for digital information-technology services.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with some data on importance of digital infrastructure to the growth and development of the country.

Body:

Explain that Infrastructure investment in digital technology—increased access to mobile broadband, fibre-optic cable connections, and power-supply expansion—combined with the expansion of low-cost smartphones has enabled millions of Indians to connect to the internet for the first time. The number of enterprises and households that now have access to a computer has increased dramatically, and internet consumption is growing in double digits. This digital transformation has been accompanied by a growing wave of technological entrepreneurship.

Present the advantages it will fetch India in the global market.

Conclusion:

Conclude by highlighting the fact that such a transformation will not come with certain challenges and suggest policy measures in this direction.

 

Topic: Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

5. Analyze the government initiatives to reduce India’s energy import dependence in the backdrop of recent rise in the petroleum and oil prices also suggest measures for the same. (250 words)

Reference:  The HinduIndian Express

Why the question:

Speaking on the increase in petrol and diesel prices, Prime Minister had emphasized the need to reduce India’s energy import dependence and the need to adopt cleaner sources of energy.

Key Demand of the question:

Analyze the government initiatives to reduce India’s energy import dependence.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Explain facts of India’s energy import dependence.

Body:

Briefly explain India’s energy import dependence with some facts.

Then move on to explain the government initiatives in this directions such as – The formulation of fuel efficiency standards for passenger vehicles was one of the earliest measures in this direction. It aimed to reduce fuel consumption by the vehicles while also ensuring lesser pollution.

Heavy-duty vehicles, which consume nearly 60% of the diesel used in the country, are also now subject to fuel efficiency standards.

Talk about National Electric Mobility Mission Plan, FAME scheme, alternate fuels etc.

Suggest the gaps in the efforts.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

6. “Frequent transfers of public servants affect their morale and weaken administration”, do you agree? Explain and present your opinion with suitable justifications. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article analyzes the issue of frequent transfers of civil servants.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain how frequent transfers of public servants affect their morale and weaken administration.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by explaining how the issue of frequent transfers of civil servants is a significant issue across India.

Body:

Discuss first the effect of such transfers on Effect on public servants’ morale.

The analysis of the SUPREMO (Single User Platform Related to Employees Online) database of the Department of Personnel and Training, Government of India, shows that the average posting spell of civil servants in India is only about 15 months. This is despite an increase in the median tenure since 2014 at the national level.

Give examples such as – Ashok Khemka and Pradeep Kasni are two Haryana-based IAS officers whose cases symbolize the issue of frequent transfers. Mr. Khemka has been transferred more than 50 times in his career and Mr. Kasni 65 times.

Give solutions to address the problem.

Conclusion:

Conclude with what needs to be done.

 

Topic: Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics – in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

7. The lives of great leaders inspire us in many ways. Which leader has had a lasting impact on you and in what way? Explain one outstanding value that you have imbibed from him/her and its importance to being a civil servant. (250 words)

Reference:  Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question is based on the lives of great leaders and in what way they inspire us.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain one outstanding value that you have imbibed from any one leader and its importance to being a civil servant.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by explaining how Human values are paramount in living of a righteous and well balanced life i.e. physical, emotional social and intellectually. They serve as the guidepost to our own behavior in conflicting situations and aid in our adjustment to the external environment with reflecting our dominant interest to others.

Body:

In the answer body –

·   Describe which leader had a lasting impact on you and why.

• Mention the outstanding value of the leader that you have imbibed.

• Also explain the importance of those values in civil services.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of values that you imbibed.


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