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Insights SECURE SYNOPSIS: 22 February 2021


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Fundamental Rights

1. Explain the concept of Right to Privacy as a fundamental right in the light of Judgment of Supreme Court in K.S. Puttaswamy Vs. Union of India. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian polity by Lakshmikant , legalserviceindia.com

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper I, part Indian polity.

Key Demand of the question:

The answer must explain the concept of Right to privacy as a fundamental right and the significance of the judgment.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start briefly by stating what right to privacy is.

Body:

Firstly discuss the concept of Right to Privacy as a fundamental right.

Then explain the judgment in detail – The Supreme Court has ruled that there is a fundamental right to privacy under the Indian constitution, establishing that “The right to privacy is protected as an intrinsic part of the right to life and personal liberty”. The judgment is clear: privacy and human dignity are intrinsically linked.

Throw light on the importance of right to privacy.

Conclusion:

Conclude with relevance of the judgment.

Introduction:

On August 24th 2017, in Justice K. S. Puttaswamy (retd.) vs Union of India, a nine-judge Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court ruled that right to privacy is an intrinsic part of life and liberty under Article 21. This was a historic judgement that set precedent for further reforms.

Body

Right to Privacy as a Fundamental Right

  • Privacy is a constitutionally protected right emerging from the Right to life and liberty under Article 21.
  • It includes preservation of personal intimacies, sanctity of family, life, marriage, procreation and sexual orientation.
  • Privacy connotates the right to be left alone. It protects autonomy of the individual, safeguards individual’s right to control vital aspects of her/his life.
  • Privacy is not an absolute right but any invasion must stand the test of legality, need and proportionality.
  • Informational privacy is a facet of this right. Dangers can arise from both state and non-state actions. Eg: India is yet to pass Data protection bill.
  • A balance must be ensured between individual interests and legitimate state concerns.

Key features of Judgement

  • Expansion of fundamental rights: By guaranteeing it in Article 21 and including freedom from intrusion into one’s home, the right to choice of food, freedom of association etc.
  • Ensures dignity: As it is not possible for citizens to exercise liberty and dignity without privacy.
  • Defines firmer boundaries for the state: Now right to privacy cannot be curtailed or abrogated only by enacting a statute but can be done only by a constitutional amendment.
  • Increase responsibility of state to protect data: As any data breach in national programmes involving collection of personal data would have to be compensated unlike in a police state.
  • Judicial Review and self-correction reinforced: This judgement overrules its previous stand in 6 and 8-judge benches.
  • Remedy in the apex Court – Now citizen can directly approach Supreme Court or High Courts for violation of his fundamental right under Articles 32 and 226. Thus ensuring that the right is subject to reasonable restrictions of public health, morality and order only.
  • Preventing digital colonization by digital & e- commerce businesses – such as ensuring checks on accessibility of data harvested and taken to servers outside the country by Facebook and Google.

Way Forward

  • Increasing privacy consciousness in India which is low compared to western countries. Indian institutions like joint family, marriage celebrations etc. do not encourage privacy.
  • However, rapid changes in technology warrant people awareness about what to put in public realm.
  • Developing a national data protection framework which will hopefully also define the contours of personal privacy in a broader context beyond just data.
  • Balance individual’s privacy right with benefits of data mining and big data by clearly laying down a legal framework.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Fundamental Rights

2. Compare and contrast the fundamental rights of Indian constitution with the bill of rights enshrined in the US constitution. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian polity by Lakshmikant

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper I , part Indian polity.

Key Demand of the question:

The question is based on comparison of fundamental rights of Indian constitution with that of bill of rights of the US constitution.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with a brief background of the question’s context.

Body:

Explain first the details of the two; the constitution describes each of the roles and responsibilities of the arms of the government and citizens while the Bill of rights describes the rights and freedom of the people. The constitution limits the power of the government while the Bill of Rights grants authority to the people.

Present the differences and similarities.

Conclusion:

Conclude by throwing light on relevance of FRs to Indian setup and Bill of rights to US.

Introduction:

The Fundamental Rights is defined as the basic human rights of all citizens. These rights, defined in Part III of the Constitution, apply irrespective of race, place of birth, religion, caste, creed, or gender. They are enforceable by the courts, subject to specific restrictions.

The Bill of Rights is the first 10 Amendments to the Constitution. It spells out Americans’ rights in relation to their government. It guarantees civil rights and liberties to the individual—like freedom of speech, press, and religion. It sets rules for due process of law and reserves all powers not delegated to the Federal Government to the people or the States. And it specifies that “the enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.”

Body:

Differences between FRs and BORs:

  • Freedom of press is explicitly given under the First Amendment while in India it is implicit in freedom of speech and expression under Article 19(1)(a).
  • Petition to the Supreme Court is a fundamental right in India, whereas in the US, it is the government that is petitioned (in case of the US, the word “government” has a wider connotation and encompasses not only the executive, but also the higher judiciary).
  • Under the Second Amendment of the US Constitution, the right to bear arms is a fundamental right while in India the situation is totally different because not only is there no such fundamental right, arms in India is strictly regulated.
  • In the United States, no person’s life and liberty can be deprived without following the due process of law, in India on the other hand the life and personal liberty can be taken away only according to the procedure established by law.
  • India did away with the Right of Property as a fundamental right in the year 1978 but in the United States it still remains a fundamental right as no property can be taken away without just compensation.
  • Further, the 8th Amendment to the US Constitution says that bail shall not be denied to an accused, the imposed fine should not be excessive and inflicted punishment shall not be cruel. These rights are also made available to Indian people because of well-established precedents pronounced by the Supreme Court under Article 21.
  • Furthermore, the Ninth Amendment of the United States Constitution provides that absence of certain rights from the Constitution or statutes does not mean that people do not have these rights, this is in consonance with Locke’s theory. In India, there is no such article which means that Indians only enjoy the rights that are provided for in statute books, this is in line with the theories propounded by Austin and Bentham.

Similarities between FRs and BORs:

  • Two imperatives shaped India’s freedom struggle. The first was liberation from oppressive colonial rule. The British government was autocratic and repressive, treated Indians as subjects to be ruled rather than equal participants in government, and frequently resorted governing by arbitrary fiat rather than by the rule of law. Second imperative was the internal reforms to deal with social and economic inequality, caste system and untouchability.
  • In response, Indian articulated a vocabulary of civil rights that would allow them to express their aspirations, engage in political and cultural dissent, and create a public sphere that would form the basis of self-government.
  • Similarly, colonies of immigrants in second half of 18th century in North America, in the war of independence fought against British government for civil rights and economic rights.
  • Actually, Ideas of fundamental rights inspired from French revolution ideals of liberty, equality and fraternity. It took codified shape in US congress passed bill of rights. The core philosophy underlying fundamental rights was explained by Dr. Ambedkar in his last speech to the Constituent Assembly.
  • Ambedkar observed that liberty cannot be divorced from equality; equality cannot be divorced from liberty. Nor can liberty and equality be divorced from fraternity. Without equality, liberty would produce the supremacy of the few over the many. Equality without liberty would kill individual initiative. Without fraternity, liberty would produce the supremacy of the few over the many. Without fraternity, liberty and equality could not become a natural course of things. It would require a constable to enforce them.
  • Federal polity: Federal nature and written constitution demanded codified common minimum rights enforceable by law to maintain unitary balance of constitution. Fundamental rights proved helpful over the course of time to strengthen national unity and integrity. It helped to fight regionalism in India like right to move to any part of country and settle. Similarly, in US, it kept away forces of secessionism.
  • Belief in the freedom of religion is also part of philosophy behind fundamental rights in both countries. India and US share positive secularism which addresses religious plurality and peaceful coexistence of all the religions.
  • Individual centric nature of fundamental rights, priority of individual rights over community rights is another thread shared by bill of rights and fundamental rights.

Conclusion:

It is evident that many of the rights that are present in the Indian Constitution have been borrowed from the Constitution of the United States. In addition, some of the rights that were explicit in the US Constitution were brought in by way of various Supreme Court judgements.

 

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

3. ‘Fostering Multilingualism for Inclusion in Education and Society’ is the theme for this year’s International Mother Languages Day’. In this context discuss the importance of Mother tongue in personality development. (250 words)

Reference:  Times of India

Why the question:

The article talks about importance of mother tongue in personality development.  

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in detail how Mother tongue is critically important for cognitive, psychological and personality development, education and learning.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with importance of language in general.

Body:

Explain that Mother tongue, which one hears and gets familiar while in the womb, has a vital role in shaping our personality, thoughts and life.

Discuss the significance of mother tongue in personality development. Present the issues due to lack of emphasis on mother tongue such as – Difficult learning: Incomplete first language skills often make learning other languages more difficult. Cognitive conflict: when a child finds a discrepancy between what he thinks the world should be and what he finds it as, emanating from forced situation of learning in a second language etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by highlighting importance of mother tongue.

Introduction:

Mother tongue or mother language refers to the language which a person has grown up speaking from early childhood. India is a land of linguistic diversity and the languages differ in their dialects every 100 kms. There have been many arguments and dissatisfaction over having a single national language (Hindi) for entire country. The Vice president of India recently said that mother tongue vital for personality development of an individual and every country must encourage their children to study primarily in the mother tongue.

Body:

Every year, UNESCO celebrates 21st February as International Mother Language Day to promote mother tongue-based multilingual education. The day is also a reminder of how language connects us, empowers us and helps us to communicate our feelings to others. The world has over 7,000 languages whereas India alone has about 22 officially recognized languages, 1635 mother tongues, and 234 identifiable mother tongues.

Importance of Mother Tongue in personality development:

  • Mother tongue is the very first language that one hears, understands and gets familiar with. Thus, it plays important role in shaping feelings, emotions and thought processes.
  • Use of mother language helps one in getting comfortable with his/her cultural identity.
  • Maintaining mother languages is necessary for preserving cultural heritage and identity.
  • Dissemination of mother languages encourages linguistic diversity, thus inspires solidarity based on understanding, tolerance, and dialogue.
  • When languages disappear, the world loses a rich tapestry of cultural identity.
  • Opportunities, traditions, memory, unique modes of thinking and expression, valuable resources for ensuring a better future also get lost.

Challenges faced in preserving mother languages:

  • According to the UN, every two weeks, a language disappears and the world loses an entire cultural and intellectual heritage.
  • At least 43% of the estimated 6000 languages spoken in the world are endangered.
  • Only a few hundred languages have been genuinely given a place in education systems and public domain. Also, 40% of the global population does not have access to education in a language they speak or understand.
  • Less than a hundred languages are used in the digital world.
  • Apart from globalization, rush for learning foreign languages for better job opportunities is a major reason behind the disappearance of mother languages.

Way forward to preserve mother languages:

  • With the help of technology, every mother language can be maintained. Google’s Project Navlekha in India is an example. The project is aimed at increasing the online content in Indian local languages.
  • People should be made aware of the professional viability of pursuing degrees in native languages. With a degree in a native language, one can take up professions like Language Expert, Translators, and Tourist-Guide etc.
  • Also to maintain any native language, it is necessary that it is spoken. Use of native languages at homes, schools, and offices should be encouraged.
  • The Upper House of India has an arrangement for interpretation of 22 languages i.e. members are encouraged to speak in their native languages.
  • Countries like France, Germany, Italy, China have developed their mother languages as a powerful medium. Other countries need to learn from these to preserve their cultural and linguistic identity.

Conclusion:

It is our strength that we have many languages and dialects. All other languages are important. But one should respect, learn and understand their mother tongue. According a hegemonic role to the “most-spoken” language in the country may promote cultural homogenisation, but that is hardly desirable in a country with a diverse population, a plural ethos and is a cauldron of many languages and cultures. Further, national identity cannot be linked to any one language, as it is, by definition, something that transcends linguistic and regional differences. The need today is to respect, protect and nurture diversity of our nation so that unity is ensured.

 

Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

4. There is dire need for a concerted effort from local bodies, State and Central governments to sustainably address quality and inequality issues in WASH provision. Comment. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article presents to us a study into the cost of ensuring WASH (water, sanitation and hygiene) in healthcare facilities of India.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain the issues in WASH provisions in the country and discuss the need for a concerted effort from local bodies, State and Central governments to sustainably address quality and inequality issues in WASH provision.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Express what you understand by WASH provisions.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Brief background of the WASH situation in the country; A 2019 joint global baseline report by WHO and UNICEF had pointed out that globally, one in four healthcare facilities lacked basic water servicing and one in five had no sanitation service and 42% had no hygiene facilities at point of care.

Discuss the concerns with low coverage of WASH provisions in the country.

Explain that there is the need for a concerted effort from local bodies, State and Central governments to sustainably address quality and inequality issues in WASH provision.

There is the need to combine the WASH initiative with other national efforts to address health priorities.

Conclusion:

The intersection between WASH, infection prevention and control and antimicrobial resistance offers policy makers an opportunity to address multiple overlapping problems through interventions on WASH in healthcare facilities.

Introduction:

WASH is the collective term for Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene. Due to their interdependent nature, these three core issues are grouped together to represent a growing sector. While each a separate field of work, each is dependent on the presence of the other. For example, without toilets, water sources become contaminated; without clean water, basic hygiene practices are not possible.

The core activity of WASH emphasizes the teaching of basic sanitation and hygiene to communities and school children with a particular focus on girls’ education and gender equality, as a necessary complement to the success of water and sanitation infrastructure projects.

Body:

Impact of WASH:

  • A WHO document on WASH in healthcare facilities points out that 8,27,000 people in low- and middle-income countries die as a result of inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene each year.
  • Also, death of 2,97,000 children under five years can be prevented each year if better WASH could be provided.
  • On a positive note, a 2012 WHO report had calculated that for every dollar invested in sanitation, there was $5.50 to be gained in lower health costs, more productivity and fewer premature deaths.
  • The intersection between WASH, infection prevention and control and antimicrobial resistance is unique in that it offers policy makers an opportunity to address multiple overlapping problems through interventions on WASH in healthcare facilities
  • WASH is critical in the prevention and management of Neglected Tropical Diseases for intensified control or elimination

However, there are still many challenges to the WASH in India:

  • Highly expensive:
    • BMJ global estimates that improving WASH across the pubic healthcare facilities in India and maintaining this for a year would cost $354 million (Rs 2567,00,00,000 approximately) in capital costs and $289 million (Rs 2095,00,00,000 approximately) in recurrent expenses.
  • Accessibility issues:
    • A 2019 joint global baseline report by WHO and UNICEF had pointed out that globally, one in four healthcare facilities lacked basic water servicing and one in five had no sanitation service and 42% had no hygiene facilities at point of care.
    • The study further finds that the costliest interventions were providing clean water, linen reprocessing and sanitation while the least expensive were hand hygiene, medical device reprocessing and environmental surface cleaning.
  • Solid and Liquid waste management:
    • Just 6% of rural households use the recommended twin-pit system. The waste from the remainder of rural toilets could create a new sanitation nightmare — harmful to health and the environment, and even pushing a new generation into manual scavenging.
    • For the more than 70% of toilets without twin pits, a faecal sludge management system is desperately needed.
    • A 2018 survey of 30 cities and towns in Uttar Pradesh by the Centre for Science and Environment found that 87% of toilet waste is dumped into water bodies and farm lands.
    • In Bihar, some households throw sanitary pads in toilets, burn them or bury them under the ground as they do not have a formal arrangement to dispose solid wastes.
    • Most of the households surveyed in Manipur, Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal also do not have any arrangement to dump solid wastes. Ironically, these three states also have more than 80 per cent coverage of household toilets.
    • It is still a challenge for the SBM-G to manage black and grey water, especially, in areas near coast and areas having shallow groundwater.
  • States like Odisha, Goa, Tripura, Telangana are still lacking in IHHL (individual household latrine application) coverage.
  • Behavioural change failures:
    • The researchers from the Delhi-based think tank Centre for Science and Environment visited villages near Ganga in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh and found that Usage of toilets was very low because of wrong design of toilets and absence of water connection.
  • Small Sample size:
    • The survey covered 92040 households in 6136 villages across states and UTs of India. On an average, only 15 households have been covered per village, which, perhaps, is not enough to have a holistic view of sanitation status.
  • Swachhagrahis:
    • The SBM agents, who act as motivators for construction and usage of toilets in the states, are underutilized. It also came to pass that in few states there is a long list of vacancies for the post of Swachhagrahis.

Way forward:

  • Modules on WASH services and infection prevention and control procedures (IPC) should be included in pre-service training and as part of ongoing professional development of healthcare professionals.
  • In addition, health authorities should work more closely with communities, especially in rural areas, to promote demand for WASH services.
  • The twin pit has been promoted by the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation as well as the World Health Organization as an in-situ sanitation system which claims to bypass thorny issues such as caste purity, as owners will be dealing with manure, not excreta.
  • Governmental Initiatives of Swachhata Pakwada Campaigns should be promoted to raise awareness of sanitation and hygiene. Adequate Budgetary Allocation should be given to construct twin-pit toilets at villages, public toilets etc.
  • Teach them young: Children must be taught the importance of Sanitation and hygiene. Initiatives like Bal Swachhata Mission, Swachh Vidyalaya Abhiyan are pushing forward the objective.
  • Competition raising initiatives like Swachha Survekshan Abhiyan will help in boosting the spirit of cities and towns to improve the ODF status.
  • In places of water scarcity, trains etc. use of bio-toilets can be promoted.
  • Technology like mini-jetting machines, robots to clean the clogged pits as done in Hyderabad and Trivandrum should be emulated in other places to curb manual scavenging.
  • Swachhata Doots, NGOs and CSOs must be involved at the grassroots level to achieve 100% ODF by October 2nd, 2019.

Conclusion:

The success of the Swachh Bharat Mission is linked to the participation of the people. It depends on people changing their attitudes towards cleanliness, building and using toilets, and maintaining personal hygiene among other things. This means creating a ‘behavioural change’ in an individual is critical to help break old habits and norms.

 

Topic: GS-2: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

GS-3 – Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, Nano-technology, biotechnology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.

5. The issues with present models of the internet space can be resolved only by striking a fine balance between the existing California Libertarian and Chinese Authoritarian model. Do you agree? Analyse. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The article from Indian Express explains how the issues with present models of the internet space (the California Libertarian and Chinese Authoritarian models) are marred with inherent issues and should be kept in check with the rise of Big techs).

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the issues with present models of the internet space

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with what you understand by models of the internet space.

Body:

  • Explain first the two models – California Libertarian and Chinese Authoritarian models.
  • Discuss then the issues associated with it. Also, bring out the respective advantages.
  • Take hints from the article and suggest what model India should adopt.

Conclusion:

Thus, conclude that we need to grapple with the internal contradictions of California Libertarianism but also need to be wary that these contradictions do not become the pretext for legitimizing Chinese Authoritarianism.

Introduction:

As big tech companies gain enormous clout, which straddles multiple domains of economic and social life, regulators need to get their act together if they are serious about protecting users and preventing corporate abuse of power. Regulation in this space is slow and tech companies are able to flourish in the interim.

Body

There is an undeniable monopoly that big tech companies enjoy across sectors and regulatory gaps and consumer loyalty has enabled this unique situation to thrive. The consumer is not going to easily give up the convenience that this offers her; therefore, there is a need to create a network of regulatory measures and safeguards centered around the consumer. Regulation should be mindful of region-specific issues and adopt a mutli-disciplinary approach in order to have the most impact.

Internet space regulation

  • California Libertarian Model

It is a political philosophy with roots in the internet’s early hacker cyber punk culture in Silicon Valley in the early 1990s and in American libertarianism. The philosophy focuses on minimizing government regulation, censorship or anything else in the way of a “free” World Wide Web. In this case the word “free” is referring to the meaning of libre (no restrictions) not gratis (no cost).

Its principles are as follows:

  • The policy should always be considerate of civil liberties.
  • The policy should oppose government over-regulation.
  • The policy that provides rational, free market incentives is the best choice.
  • Chinese Authoritarian model: It is Digital authoritarianism, wherein the use of digital information technology by authoritarian regimes to survey, repress, and manipulate domestic and foreign populations — is reshaping the power balance between democracies and autocracies.
    • At the forefront of this phenomenon, China and Russia have developed and exported distinct technology-driven playbooks for authoritarian rule.
    • Beijing’s experience using digital tools for domestic censorship and surveillance has made it the supplier of choice for illiberal regimes looking to deploy their own surveillance systems.

Issues with both model of internet space regulation

  • First, many of the big tech companies were not, as they claimed, mere platforms, but began to curate and generate their own content, creating possible conflicts of interest.
  • Second, there is a suspicion that big tech companies were acquiring more monopoly power; this was not a world of free competition.
  • Third, the algorithms were not subject to accountability. They were, as Frank Pasquale put it, creating a black box society. There was an irony in an opaque algorithm being the instrument of a free, open and equitable society.
  • Fourth, while the companies had immense economic impact, their distributive implications were more mixed. They empowered new players, but they also seem to destroy lots of businesses.
  • Fifth, these companies seemed to display the ultimate hubris I.e Set themselves up almost as a sovereign power. This was most evident in the way they regulated speech, posing as arbiters of permissible speech without any real accountability or consistency of standards.
    • Eg: Banning Trump from Twitter, Australia Facebook issue where news sharing is banned.

India and internet space regulation

India will be one of the largest bases of internet and data users in the world. The argument will be that this should be leveraged to create iconic Indian companies and Indian value addition. India can create competition and be more self-reliant in this space.

  • Pushing back against big tech is not protectionism, because this pushback is to curb the unfair advantages they use to exploit an open Indian market.
  • India can also justifiably point out that in China keeping out tech companies did not make much of a difference to financial flows or investment in other areas.
  • It will be important to distinguish between regulations that are solving some real problems in this space, and regulation that is using this larger context to exercise more control.
  • There is need for better institutional structure to protect democracy and freedom from both untrammelled executive power and unaccountable corporate power.
  • The Joint Parliamentary Committee set up to review the Personal Data Protection Bill has called upon major tech players of Indian and international origin to appear before it and answer questions about their funding and management, obligations towards users, compliance with local and international law on free speech and data security, amongst others.

Way Forward

  • A comprehensive regulatory framework is the need of the hour, especially in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic which has caused a wide-scale adoption of technology and an increase in the use of app-based products and services.
  • This has also revealed the privacy issues in big tech and even first-time users are insisting on transparent processing and effective safeguards to preserve their data.
  • Any new regulation for governing internet and its usage must ensure level playing field for all companies and prevent domestic monopolies.
  • The above will be resolved if government shows a principled commitment to liberty, a manifest commitment to root out crony capitalism, an investment in science and technology commensurate with India’s challenges, and a general regulatory independence and credibility.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and nonpartisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker-sections.

6. What is the relationship between intolerance – prejudices – value judgment? Explain and suggest measures to inculcate tolerance.(250 words)

Reference:  Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question is from GS paper IV, based on the theme of value judgment.

Key Demand of the question:

The answer must discuss in detail the relationship between intolerance – prejudices – value judgment and discuss methods and measures of inculcating tolerance as a value.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define what you understand by tolerance.

Body:

Tolerance is a moral obligation or duty which involves respect for the individual as well as mutual respect and consideration between people. Tolerance between people makes it possible for conflicting claims of beliefs, values and ideas to coexistence as long as they fit within acceptable moral values.

Discuss the relationship between intolerance – prejudices – value judgment.

Give examples/case study to better explain the relationship.

List out methods that aid inculcation of tolerance as a value.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of tolerance as a key value.

Introduction:

Tolerance is the appreciation of diversity and the ability to live and let others live. It is the ability to exercise a fair and objective attitude towards those whose opinions, practices, religion, nationality, and so on differ from one’s own. As William Ury notes, “tolerance is not just agreeing with one another or remaining indifferent in the face of injustice, but rather showing respect for the essential humanity in every person.

Body

Tolerance is the positive and cordial effort to understand another’s beliefs, practices, and habits without necessarily sharing or accepting them.

Intolerance is the failure to appreciate and respect the practices, opinions and beliefs of another group. For instance, there is a high degree of intolerance between Israeli Jews and Palestinians who are at odds over issues of identity, security, self-determination, statehood, the right of return for refugees, the status of Jerusalem and many other issues. The result is continuing intergroup conflict and violence.

Prejudices are opinions formed beforehand without any reason knowledge or thought. In many countries today prejudice is still a big issue among different cultures people always tend to stereotype others just because of race, sex, colour or whatever the case may, be.

A value judgment is a judgment of the rightness or wrongness of something or someone, or of the usefulness of something or someone, based on a comparison or other relativity.

Relation between intolerance prejudice and value judgement

  • Prejudice and intolerance are actually theoretically different concepts – and not the opposite of each other. In fact, they coexist in most of us. Most often, our prejudices or deeply entrenched belief against some thoughts or ideology become a reason for intolerance.
    • Eg: The anti-Semitism against Jews by Nazis started with Prejudice that Nazis were Aryans and superior to Jews. In turn this led to value judgement of Jewish Religion ultimately leading to their extermination.
  • In the context of India, Prejudice against Dalits as being impure was the main reason for intolerance of other classes towards them. Oppression and exploitation were manifestation of negative value judgement of Dalits. In fact, the reason for manual scavenging being carried out majorly by scheduled caste community also stems from the negative value judgement.

Conclusion:

Tolerance is often learnt in subtle ways. Kids develop values by imitating the values of those they know the most. Parents can teach tolerance to their children and senior members of an organization can teach tolerance to their subordinates and vice versa by example. Talking to each other and respecting each other helps learn and teach about the values that each one of them has. Tolerance will lead to harmony in the society and truly create unity in diversity.

 

Topic: Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and nonpartisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker-sections.

7. Discuss how social persuasion can be an effective technique to overcome some of the social ills? (250 words)

Reference:  Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper IV, topic – social persuasion.

Key Demand of the question:

One must explain how social persuasion can be an effective technique to overcome some of the social ills.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with definition; Persuasion is a form of social influence in which an audience is intentionally encouraged to adopt an idea, attitude, or course of action by symbolic means.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Explain first the meaning, significance and utility of social persuasion.

Explain the underlying principles of persuasion.

Discuss how it can aid in overcoming social ills. One can give examples such as those of Swachh Bharat and other initiatives of the government that reflect social persuasion to overcome social ills.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of social persuasion.

Introduction:

Persuasion is symbolic process in which communicators try to convince other people through transmission of a message to change their attitudes or behaviours. Persuasion is the process of changing or reinforcing attitudes, beliefs or behaviour of a person.  Thus, Persuasion is one form of social influence on attitude.

Body:

People respond to persuasive messages in two ways: thoughtfully and mindlessly. When people are in thoughtful mode, the persuasiveness of the message is determined by merits of the message. When people respond to messages mindlessly, their brains are locked on automatic. Persuasion is mainly dependent upon the attractiveness of the speakers and reaction of the listeners. Persuasion is exclusively related with communication, learning, awareness and thought.

Role in Public life:

  • Effecting social change: To deal with issues like girl child education, inter caste marriage, temple entry for women, persuasion may be the only solution because change has to be brought keep intact the dignity and respect of all stake holders. g.: The advertisements for polio drops for children are a form of persuasion
  • Public policy formulation and implementation: Sometimes persuasion works better than coercion; success of the initiatives like Swachh Bharat Abhiyaan- cleanliness drives and Ujjwala give it up campaign can be attributed to persuasion.
  • Following rules: It helps in making people follow rules which bring inconvenience to them, like District collector visiting houses in the morning to persuade people for waste segregation before disposal.
  • Moral conditioning: Persuasion can bring change in attitude of people. In Delhi Metro various signboards on certain seats asks passengers to offer that seat to needy people. Similarly, regular announcements to keep the station clean persuade people to change their behaviour.
  • Incentivizing good behaviour: For instance, in income declaration scheme a window was open to declare black money with some fine and no legal action that incentivized people instead of penalizing them.

Conclusion:

Persuasion is an effective technique to influence a person’s principles, attitudes, intentions, motivations, or behaviours. Systematic persuasion is the process through which attitudes or beliefs are changed by appeals to logic and reason. Public servants will be benefited by Persuasion to drive across the message to the people easily leading to better governance and effective service delivery. Persuasion can bring a lasting change in people’s behaviour and is highly effective in implementation of public policies provided the tools are used in a right way.


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