Print Friendly, PDF & Email

SECURE SYNOPSIS: 19 February 2021


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Union and its territory

1. “The creation of union territories is a manifestation of India’s geography”, Discuss in the backdrop of recent creation of the union territory of Ladakh and J&K. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Polity by Lakshmikant

Why the question:

The question is based in the backdrop of creation of union territory of Ladakh and J&K.

Key Demand of the question:

Substantiate with suitable reasoning as to how the creation of union territories is a manifestation of India’s geography”.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In short discuss about the UTs in India.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

  • Explain in short, the reasons for which the union territories came into existence in India.
  • Explain the reasons behind the creation of each union territory.
  • Evaluate how it helped in geographical continuity and state in what way they are an Expression of India’s geography.
  • Discuss the impact of having UTs in general on various aspects of the country.

Conclusion:

Thus, conclude that the Parliament has the power to redraw the political map of India. Over the years, the UTs are formed keeping in mind the geographical and other strategic factors. The direct control of the Union Government will help the socio-politico and economic developments of the UTs.

Introduction:

A union territory is a type of administrative division in the Republic of India. Unlike the states of India, which have their own governments, union territories are usually federal territories governed directly by the central Government of India.

The Central government on August 5 did away with the special status awarded to Jammu and Kashmir by abrogating certain provisions of Article 370 of the Indian Constitution. The government also introduced the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Bill in the Rajya Sabha, bifurcating the State into two Union Territories (UT) — Jammu and Kashmir, and Ladakh. The UT of Jammu and Kashmir will have a legislature, similar to Delhi and Puducherry, while the UT of Ladakh will not, mirroring UTs like Chandigarh and Daman and Diu.

Body:

UTs- the history:

  • After independence in 1947, States were divided into 4 lists: Part A, Part B, Part C and Part D.
  • In 1956, States reorganization act was passed and mostly states mentioned in Part C and Part D were either merged into states mentioned in Part A and Part B and left were termed as union territories.
  • So, in 1956, Andaman and Nicobar, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Tripura and Laccadive minicoy and amindivi island (later collectively becomes Lakshadweep) were 6 union territories of India.
  • Then, Goa, Daman and Diu, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Puducherry ceded to Indian. Some Union territories like Himachal Pradesh, Manipur and Tripura later gained statehood.
  • So, now only 7 union territories remain Delhi, Andaman and Nicobar, Lakshadweep, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, Puducherry and Chandigarh.

Reasons behind creation of UTs:

  • Small population and land size: The union territories (except Delhi) has very small populations and land size comparing to a state hence, running legislative assembly and a council of ministers for them will cost additional burden to exchequer.
  • Strategic locations: Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar Islands are far west and east end of our country and they are quite far from mainland hence it is easier to govern them directly through Central government because they are very strategically important for India and in case of any emergency, Indian government can directly act there.
  • Protection of indigenous cultures: Some of the union territories have different culture than surrounding state like Dadra and nagar haveli, Daman and Diu (Portuguese), Puducherry (French) and most recently Ladakh.
  • Administrative importance: Delhi and Chandigarh are two union territories which are important as administrative capital of India and administrative capital of Haryana and Punjab. So, control of these union territories is important for Indian government.
  • Security situation and general backwardness: Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh are located on the borders neighbouring Pakistan and China. Having faced aggressions from both nations and constant terror incidents, the state was economically lagging despite natural resources.

Constitutional status:

  • Article 1 (1) of the Indian constitution says that India shall be a “Union of States”, which are elaborated under Parts V (The Union) and VI (The States) of the constitution.
  • Article 1 (3) says the territory of India comprises the territories of the states, the union territories and other territories that may be acquired.
  • The concept of union territories was not in the original version of the constitution, but was added by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956.
  • citizenship (part II), fundamental rights (part III), Directive Principles of State Policy (part IV), Judiciary role, the Union Territories (part VIII), Article 245, etc. are applicable to union territories as it refers specifically to Territories of India.
  • The executive power of Union (i.e. union of states only) rests with President of India. President of India is also chief administrator of union territories per Article 239.
  • As per Article 240 (2), supreme power is accorded to the President in regulating the affairs of the all the union territories except Chandigarh, NCT and Puducherry, including powers to override the laws made by Parliament and the constitution of India.
  • Union territories with their own elected legislatures and governments: Puducherry, National Capital Territory of Delhi, Jammu and Kashmir (proposed from 31 October 2019),

Conclusion:

The Parliament has the power to redraw the political map of India. Over the years, the UTs are formed keeping in mind the geographical and other strategic factors. The direct control of the Union Government will help the socio-politico and economic developments of the UTs.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Parliamentary system and federal system

2. Even though the States are sovereign in their prescribed legislative field, and their executive power is co-extensive with their legislative powers, it is clear that “the powers of the States are not coordinate with the Union”. Examine. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Polity by Lakshmikant

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper I, part Indian polity- Parliamentary system and federal system.

Key Demand of the question:

One has to present an analysis of the federal setup in the country and comment on how the powers of the States are not coordinate with the Union.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

One can start with the definition of Indian federalism and its importance in brief.

Body:

The answer body must explain in detail the federal setup of the country enshrined in the Indian constitution.

Explain the asymmetric federalism prevalent and followed in the country; the main forms of administrative units in India are the Centre and the States. But there are other forms, too, all set up to address specific local, historical and geographical contexts. Besides the Centre and the States, the country has Union Territories with a legislature and Union Territories without a legislature.

Give examples to substantiate like that of Jammu and Kashmir, Puducherry, and Delhi etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with uniqueness and importance of India’s federalism.

Introduction:

India is a federal state where the Centre and the State are the Cooperating units of the polity. Yet India is an asymmetrical federalism, with the balance of power tilting in the favour of the Centre. Article 256 deals with Union-state relation and State’s obligation while Article 365 mandates the state governments to follow and implement the directions of the Central government. Changing dynamics of party system is shaping the trajectory of Federalism from cooperative to confrontationalist.

Body:

Provisions that favor the Union Government:

  • No Territorial integrity: Centre can unilaterally change borders, without the state’s acceptance or initiative. Eg:
  • Status as a State: As in the case of Jammu Kashmir, states can be made into Union territories at the will of the Centre.
  • Article 355 enjoins the Union to “… ensure that the government of every State is carried on in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution”.
  • Example: When State governments raised concerns about the NPR, the Union insisted that States are under a constitutional duty to implement laws passed by Parliament.
  • Article 356 not a dead letter: Centre has the power to impose President’s rule under Article 356 if it’s laws are not complied by states.
  • Centrally sponsored Schemes: CSS is the biggest component of Central Assistance to state plans (CA), where states don’t have much flexibility.
  • Enforcement of International Treaties and Agreements. This provision enables the central government to fulfil its international obligations (Art. 253). The Lokpal and the Lokayuktas Bill, 2011 was introduced in the Parliament through the provisions of this particular article.
  • Article 200: Reservation of state Bills by Governor for President’s assent.
  • Article 256 mentions that the executive power of every state shall be so exercised as to ensure compliance with laws made by Parliament and any existing laws, which apply in that state, and the executive power of the Union shall extend to the giving of such directions to a state as may appear to the Government of India to be necessary for that purpose.

However, States are NOT mere administrative agencies

In the landmark S.R. Bommai judgment, Supreme Court said that States are not mere “appendages” of the Centre.

Legislative/Administrative:

  • Separation of Power: Schedule 7 of Constitution provides strict delineation of powers between center and state. (Except during emergencies which comes under judicial review)
  • Article 131 of the Constitution, which gives the Supreme Court exclusive jurisdiction to hear cases between states and the Centre. Eg: Chhattisgarh moved SC against NIA Act in Jan 2020.
  • Coalition governments: It has increased states’ bargaining power.

Financial:

  • GST Council: Majority decisions have been based on consensus till now, while states gave 2/3rd of votes.
  • Since 10th FC, state’s share has been continuously increasing till 14th FC by devolving 42%.

Other Areas:

  • NITI Aayog: Replacing the erstwhile Planning Commission, the Aayog is promoting bottom-up approach to development planning.
  • Sabka Saath Sabka Vikas involves State’s as equal partners of development
  • There is a move towards competitive and cooperative

Way Forward:

  • Strengthening of Inter-State Council: Over the year multiple committees have recommended strengthening of Interstate Council where the concurrent list subjects can be debated and discussed, balancing Centre state powers. There is far less institutional space to settle inter-state frictions therefore a constitutional institution like ISC can be a way forward.
  • Autonomy to states: Centre should form model laws with enough space for states to maneuver. Centre should give enough budgetary support to states so as to avoid budgetary burden. There should be least interference in the state subjects.
  • Democratic Decentralization of administration and strengthening governments at all levels in true spirit. Power should be decentralized based on the principle of subsidiarity.

 Conclusion:

While security concerns might warrant greater powers to the Union, on the development front (education, health etc.) the Centre should respect the autonomy of the other two levels of government and consciously avoid the tendency to centralize powers and functions. Its role should be limited in laying down policies, devolving funds and facilitating co-ordination leaving implementation entirely to States and Local Bodies. Implementation of Punchii Commission recommendations at the earliest is needed for unity of Centre and States.

 

Topic: India and its neighborhood- relations.

4. The recent disengagement process between India and China is a promising start towards restoring peace in the border areas. However, there are many other issues that needed to be resolved to establish lasting peace. Comment. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

Recently, India and China have decided to finally reach an agreement on disengagement at Pangong Lake, which has been at the heart of the recent LAC tensions.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain that India-China disengagement process on the border is ongoing. There is a need for the cost-benefit analysis of this disengagement process.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief background of the happenings across the India-china border.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Major Issues Associated with Disengagement Process such as – the current disengagement is limited to two places on the Line of Actual Control (LAC) in Ladakh viz. north bank of Pangong lake and Kailash range to the south of Pangong. Unresolved Issue of Depsang Plains, Issue Regarding Creation of Buffer Zone etc.

Suggest what needs to be done.

Way forward on the lines that – Clubbing Depsang Issue with current negotiations, Extending Counteraction, Playing Taiwan card, defence reforms etc.

Conclusion:

Thus, conclude that the current disengagement process is a welcome move because heightened tensions between the two nuclear-armed Asian powers serve no useful purpose for anyone. However, the success of the new disengagement plan will finally depend on whether it is implemented on the ground in letter and in spirit.

Introduction:

After nine months of uncertainty in Ladakh, high levels of tension and every possibility of a breakout of armed exchanges on the Line of Actual Control (LAC), comes an announcement of disengagement by both China and India.

Body:

  • India and China have agreed to a temporary moratorium on patrolling in the disputed areas north and south of the Pangong lake.
  • The withdrawal of armoured elements, including tanks that have been in dangerously close proximity, began on February 10th
  • All frontline personnel will subsequently be withdrawn over the next two to three weeks. North of the lake, China’s troops will return to their base at Sirijap, east of Finger 8, while India’s troops will similarly return to their permanent base at Dhan Singh Thapa post, at Finger 3.
  • India previously patrolled on foot up to Finger 8 — there is no motorable road access from India’s side to areas east of Finger 4 — while China has dominated up to Finger 4, having already built a road there and enjoying superior logistics.
  • Starting last summer, Chinese troops had prevented India from reaching Finger 8, leading to the crisis.
  • Now, the entire contested area, from 4 to 8, will become a buffer zone and all temporary infrastructure built after April 2020 will be withdrawn.
  • Similarly, both sides will return to their bases south of the lake, where India will vacate the heights it occupied in an effective countermove in late August in the Kailash range, which gave India much needed leverage to negotiate as well as demonstrated its resolve to match China’s actions.

Issues related to disengagement:

  • Not complete Disengagement: The two inevitable questions that will arise now, or later, is the proposed status of the Depsang plateau and the Kailash heights.
    • In the former, the PLA is currently denying us access to patrolling points at our perception of the LAC and the latter is the location of the advantage accruing to us due to domination over Moldo and Spanggur.
  • India’s occupation of Kailash heights remains within our perception of the LAC. Its vacation, if at all, will need to be contingent upon rebuilding of trust and will probably be a culminating event.
  • Issue of Depsang Plains: Chinese occupation at Depsang has been a problem since 2013 and needs to be linked to anything that finally transpires in the Pangong Tso area.
  • Issue Regarding Creation of Buffer Zone: There are worries that the creation of proposed buffer zones would lie majorly on the Indian side of the LAC, thus converting a hitherto Indian-controlled territory into a neutral zone.
    • At best, these buffer zones can provide a temporary reprieve but are no alternative to the mutual delineation of the LAC and a final settlement of the Sino-Indian boundary.
    • Further, for the sake of disengagement at the north bank, China is asking India to withdraw from the important hills it acquired in the Kailash Range.
    • Thus, it raises questions about the wisdom of giving up the only leverage India had against China in Ladakh.
  • Distrust Between India & China: Owing to the disputed nature of the border and a lack of trust between the two sides, any perceived violations of ‘no patrol’ zones can lead to deadly outcomes as seen in Galwan valley in 2020.
    • India’s embracing of USA and strategic alignment in defence is ringing alarm bells in Beijing. Along with this, Quad and Indo-Pacific dialogue are also seen as anti-China moves from India.

Conclusion:

It’s a good beginning to a seemingly intractable problem. The final solution lies in confidence building through verification and consultation, a complete absence of rhetoric and resumption of full and formal contact at the diplomatic level.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

5. Ending the silent pandemic of road accidents will need education, civil society cooperation and professional policing. Discuss in the light of recent recurring accidents witnessed in the country. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

Recently, a horrific bus accident took place in Madhya Pradesh’s Sidhi district.  The bus passengers were trapped within the bus as it landed into a swollen canal near Patna village. There were about 57 people on the bus, out of which 50 were left dead.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in what way ending the silent pandemic of road accidents will need education, civil society cooperation and professional policing.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with some key data related to road safety in the country say present data on number of road accidents that happen every year.

Body:

Discuss first the issues one by one related to road safety in the country.

According to the recently released World Bank-commissioned report – Traffic Crash Injuries and Disabilities, India has 1% of the world’s vehicles but 11% of all road accident deaths.

According to the Union Transport Ministry, the number of dead in 2019 was 1,51,113 and injured- 4,51,361.

India loses 3% of its GDP due to road accidents, most of which are preventable.

Transport departments continue to take an indulgent view of rule violations.

Political parties and others fix illegal flag poles and spears on car bonnets and metal contraptions to SUV bumpers, which are deadly in an accident.

The Motor Vehicles (Amendment) Act of 2019 has provisions that aim to bring about change.

Conclusion:

Conclude with what needs to be done and suggest solutions.

Introduction:

Road accidents can affect people’s livelihood and push them into poverty. Studies show that poor households go into debt by borrowing money to cope with the additional medical expenses, in addition to losing income after an accident. Containing road accidents needs to be a multi-sectoral effort that involves law enforcement, governance, (the issue of driving licenses and vehicle registration), engineering (appropriate road design) awareness raising and post-accident trauma care and management.

Body:

Statistics:

  • India has, according to the just-released World Bank-commissioned report, Traffic Crash Injuries and Disabilities, 1% of the world’s vehicles but 11% of all road accident deaths;
  • the Union Transport Ministry put the number of dead in 2019 at 1,51,113, and injured at 4,51,361.
  • India’s highways witnessed 61% of deaths from just 5% of all accidents, as per 2019 data.

Causes of Road Accident:

  • Many road accidents are the result of faulty road-design especially a single-lane one with a sharp curve.
  • Infrastructural deficits: Pathetic conditions of roads and vehicles, poor visibility and poor road design and engineering – including quality of material and construction.
  • Negligence and risks: Over speeding, driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs, tiredness or riding without a helmet, driving without seatbelts.
  • Distraction while driving like talking over mobile phones while driving has become a major cause of road accidents.
  • Overloading to save cost of transportation.
  • Weak Vehicle Safety Standards in India: In 2014, crash tests carried out by the Global New Car Assessment Programme (NCAP) revealed that some of India’s top-selling car models have failed the UN’s frontal impact crash test.
  • Lack of awareness among people regarding importance of safety features like airbags, Anti-lock Braking system etc. Moreover, Vehicle manufacturers do not provide them as standard fitment but only in higher class of vehicles reducing their reach.

Measures needed:

  • Implementation of Legislation: The Motor Vehicles (Amendment) Act of 2019 has provisions that aim to bring about change.
  • Behavioural Changes: Increasing motorcycle helmet use, increasing seat-belt uses and increasing child restraint use. Awareness regarding influence of alcohol on driving.
  • Safe Roads: Safety consideration during the planning, design, and operation of roads, can contribute to reducing road traffic deaths and injuries.
  • Vehicular Safety Standards: Vehicle safety features such as electronic stability control, effective Car Crash Standards and advanced braking should be made mandatory.
  • Awareness and Publicity: Mass media and social media should be used effectively for spreading awareness about road safety.
  • Training and capacity building: Training courses and training workshops have been organized for building capacity in road safety audits and road safety engineering.
  • Motor Vehicle Accident Fund is proposed to be created. It will provide compulsory insurance cover to all road users in India for certain types of accidents.

Way forward:

  • The transition to a professional road environment requires implementation of first-tier reforms that deal with quality of road infrastructure, facilities for vulnerable users and zero-tolerance enforcement of rules by a trained, professional and empowered machinery.
  • A key mechanism of change is District Road Safety Committees, which were enabled even by the 1988 Act, but remain obscure.
  • A mandatory monthly public hearing of such committees involving local communities can highlight safety concerns, and their follow-up action can then be supervised by the Members of Parliaments’ Road Safety Committees, created last year.
  • It is essential to make the Collector, local body and police accountable.
  • Making dashboard cameras mandatory, with the video evidence accepted in investigation, would protect rule-abiding motorists and aid enforcement.
  • To save lives on highways, quality trauma care at the district level holds the key.

Conclusion:

In the absence of good hospitals and cashless free treatment, no significant improvement is possible in the quest to save life and limb. Establishing a clear national goal and pursuing it in mission mode through an appropriately resourced lead agency is something India should focus on as a priority. The amended Motor Vehicle Act, in fact, makes a provision for exactly such an agency—the National Road Safety Board. States are being encouraged to create independent lead agencies as well. The human cost in this is enormous, and so is the impact on the economy. A World Bank study has found that if India were to successfully halve road deaths and injuries between 2014 and 2038, it could potentially add 14 percent to its GDP per capita. The National Road Safety Strategy, also envisages halving the number of road accident fatalities by 2025.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Case study

6. Arun, a very hardworking person, is the sole bread earner in his family. He has worked with an oil company’s local affiliate for several years, and has established a strong, trustworthy relationship with Suresh, manager of the local facility. Suresh has recently recommended Arun to be recruited as the corporate consulting engineer for the company, which would be a position of greater responsibility along with a stable income. During a casual conversation, Suresh mentions an incident in the 1960s wherein 10,000 gallons of a petrochemical was leaked into the local environment by the company due to negligence, though at the time no damage was found, and no mention of this leak was made to the press. When Arun mentions that the state law requires him to report all spills, Suresh reminds him that no harm had been done and reminds him that the company can’t have a consulting engineer who does not value loyalty and respect confidentiality. (250 words)

(a) Identify the ethical issues involved in the given case.

(b) What are the options available to Arun in this situation? Evaluate each of them.

(c) Had you been at Arun’s place, what would have been your course of action? Give reasons for the same.

Why the question:

The question is a case study based on values of loyalty and confidentiality.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the case study by evaluating the ethical issues involved and suggest suitable opinion.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with

Body:

Analyse the case and identify the key ethical issues involved.

 List the options available to Arun in a given situation and bring out the positives and negatives of each available option.

Give the course of action and give arguments to justify your course of action.

Conclusion:

Conclude with suitable suggestions to be taken.

Introduction:

The case involves an ethical dilemma faced by Arun who has to choose between better opportunity for himself versus legal and environmental non-compliance which he needs to report to the state.
Even if no harm was done due to petrochemical leak, Arun’s conscience doesn’t allow him to let the matter rest until it has been reported.

Stakeholders:

  • The Oil company and its affiliate
  • Arun and his job security
  • The state government
  • Environmental safety and people

Body:

(a) Ethical issues involved

  • Environmental ethics being violated.
  • Violation of Integrity of an individual.
  • Ethical conscience that reminds us of transgression of moral principles.
  • Non-compliance of legal laws and regulations.
  • Pressure from higher authority to hide the irregularities.
  • Setting wrong precedent in following environmental laws.
  • Self-interest versus Greater Good.

(b) Options Available to Arun

Option 1: Arun must report the petrochemical leak, as soon as he Is made aware of this.

Merits:  He would not be held liable for concealing information. Moreover, his integrity and conscience towards environment and welfare of people will remain intact.

Demerits: He would stand to lose his promotion and the possibility of stable income. This may jeopardize his career and future prospects of employment due to disloyal behaviour towards his organization.

The negligence on part of company may happen again and may have destructive impact on people’s lives and ecosystem.

Option 2: Arun must simply ignore the historical wrong

Merits: Arun’s career will flourish and he will become Corporate Consultant Engineer and will have better livelihood and income security. Moreover, no damage to environment was done and hence he does not have to feel a burden of guilt.

Demerits: He will be ignoring his ethical responsibility towards the people of the community. Futuristic shortcomings may get neglected as well and lead to bad industrial disaster. Eg: Assam oil blow out and Vizag styrene gas leak.

It may lead to loss of lives which inherently would mean a guilty conscience for Arun as well as a direct role in its occurrence.

(C) If I were in Arun’s place, I would choose option 1 and come clean about the incident. Because “Wrong does not cease to be wrong if majority share in it”. As for livelihood, with the immense experience gained, I would be confident of finding a better employment opportunity elsewhere in an organization that values integrity. Fear of job or income cannot overpower our ethical conscience especially when a disaster can occur due to such negligence.

One must be aware of Bhopal Gas Tragedy and Chernobyl disasters and the kind of human misery it caused. As Gandhiji said, “There would be nothing to frighten you if you refused to be afraid.” Doing the right thing matters and ultimately will reward us. A right means alone can help us reach the right destination.

Conclusion:

In such cases one must ensure that the action he or she takes must result in the greater good of the humanity rather than narrow self-interest. Because our decisions not only impact our lives but also those surrounding us.

 

Topic: Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

7. What do you understand by Administrative Ethics? Why is it needed for efficient functioning of the administrative machinery? (250 words)

Reference:  Ethics by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper IV.

Key Demand of the question:

Based on the concept of “Administrative ethics”, the question aims to assess the concept and its importance in efficient functioning of the administrative machinery.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define first what you understand by Administrative Ethics.

Body:

Administrative ethics are considered as ‘a set of moral norms and requirements for those in public administration to aim their professional activity at attainment of common wealth and effective use of moral values’.

Explain the significance of it; Administrative ethics are based upon moral norms. These norms are approved by society, in its role as an important regulator of collective activities and existence as well as upon professional values, which are closely connected to public administration.

Explain their importance in public administration, give examples if required to justify.

 Conclusion:

Conclude with its importance in efficient functioning of the administrative machinery.

Introduction:

Administrative ethics: denotes the professional code of morality in civil service. They constitute the moral fiber of civil servants.  They regulate the conduct and behavior of different categories of civil servants. Thus, they provide “rules of the game”.

Paul H.  Appleby, argues that morality and administration cannot be separated and that one would not doubt that morality in public administration is sustained by patience, honesty, loyalty, commitment to service, cheerfulness, and courtesy

Body:

The civil service, being a profession in the modern state, has developed a code of morality for its members. This code consists of traditions, precedence, and standards which have to be kept up by the civil servants.  The civil servants are expected to set up high moral standards not only for themselves but also for the community at large. This is more so in the context of the growing size and role of administration and its impact on the society.

Need for administrative ethics:

  • check the arbitrary activities of civil servants.
  • promote the sense of administrative responsibility
  • establish and promote the correct relations between the citizen and the civil service
  • cultivate high standards of conduct among civil servants
  • preserve and mote social welfare, public interest and common good
  • control that part of administrative power and discretion which cannot be controlled by formal laws, methods and procedures
  • improve the efficiency and effectiveness and administrative process
  • strengthen the legitimacy and credibility of public administration
  • stabilize and harmonize the relation between the civil servants and the political executives
  • foster and maintain high morals among all categories of civil servants

Conclusion:

Highlighting the importance of administrative ethics, P.R. Subhash said, “it is of utmost importance that the public administration should be efficient but it is even more important that it should be ethical. It is said of an individual that if character is lost, everything is lost. It could be stated about public administration, that if ethics is lost, everything is lost”.


  • Join our Official Telegram Channel HERE for Motivation and Fast Updates
  • Subscribe to our YouTube Channel HERE to watch Motivational and New analysis videos