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[Insights Secure STHIR– 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 19 February 2021

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Union and its territory

1. “The creation of union territories is a manifestation of India’s geography”, Discuss in the backdrop of recent creation of the union territory of Ladakh and J&K. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Polity by Lakshmikant

Why the question:

The question is based in the backdrop of creation of union territory of Ladakh and J&K.

Key Demand of the question:

Substantiate with suitable reasoning as to how the creation of union territories is a manifestation of India’s geography”.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In short discuss about the UTs in India.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

  • Explain in short, the reasons for which the union territories came into existence in India.
  • Explain the reasons behind the creation of each union territory.
  • Evaluate how it helped in geographical continuity and state in what way they are an Expression of India’s geography.
  • Discuss the impact of having UTs in general on various aspects of the country.

Conclusion:

Thus, conclude that the Parliament has the power to redraw the political map of India. Over the years, the UTs are formed keeping in mind the geographical and other strategic factors. The direct control of the Union Government will help the socio-politico and economic developments of the UTs.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Parliamentary system and federal system

2. Even though the States are sovereign in their prescribed legislative field, and their executive power is co-extensive with their legislative powers, it is clear that “the powers of the States are not coordinate with the Union”. Examine. (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Polity by Lakshmikant

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper I, part Indian polity- Parliamentary system and federal system.

Key Demand of the question:

One has to present an analysis of the federal setup in the country and comment on how the powers of the States are not coordinate with the Union.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

One can start with the definition of Indian federalism and its importance in brief.

Body:

The answer body must explain in detail the federal setup of the country enshrined in the Indian constitution.

Explain the asymmetric federalism prevalent and followed in the country; the main forms of administrative units in India are the Centre and the States. But there are other forms, too, all set up to address specific local, historical and geographical contexts. Besides the Centre and the States, the country has Union Territories with a legislature and Union Territories without a legislature.

Give examples to substantiate like that of Jammu and Kashmir, Puducherry, and Delhi etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with uniqueness and importance of India’s federalism.

 

Topic: Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.

3. While presenting an overview of India’s Appellate Tribunal System discuss the problems associated with it. (250 words)

Reference:  Business Standard  

Why the question:

A draft law to wind up a few tribunals and move their appellate jurisdiction to the High Courts presents an opportunity to leapfrog and make tribunals the first court. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Present the overview of India’s Appellate Tribunal System discuss the problems associated with it. (

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with coming of Tribunals; Since the 1990s, a proliferation of regulators on the principle of “See a market, create a regulator; See a regulator, create a tribunal” is noticed.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Present an overview; Appellate jurisdiction refers to the authority of a court to rehear/review a case decided by a lower court. In India, appellate jurisdiction is vested in both the Supreme Court and High Courts. They may either overrule or uphold the judgments of lower courts.

Give examples such as – Securities Appellate Tribunal (SAT), Telecom Disputes Settlement Appellate Tribunal (TDSAT).

Discuss the Problems in India’s Appellate Tribunal System.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic: India and its neighborhood- relations.

4. The recent disengagement process between India and China is a promising start towards restoring peace in the border areas. However, there are many other issues that needed to be resolved to establish lasting peace. Comment. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

Recently, India and China have decided to finally reach an agreement on disengagement at Pangong Lake, which has been at the heart of the recent LAC tensions.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain that India-China disengagement process on the border is ongoing. There is a need for the cost-benefit analysis of this disengagement process.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief background of the happenings across the India-china border.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

Major Issues Associated with Disengagement Process such as – the current disengagement is limited to two places on the Line of Actual Control (LAC) in Ladakh viz. north bank of Pangong lake and Kailash range to the south of Pangong. Unresolved Issue of Depsang Plains, Issue Regarding Creation of Buffer Zone etc.

Suggest what needs to be done.

Way forward on the lines that – Clubbing Depsang Issue with current negotiations, Extending Counteraction, Playing Taiwan card, defence reforms etc.

Conclusion:

Thus, conclude that the current disengagement process is a welcome move because heightened tensions between the two nuclear-armed Asian powers serve no useful purpose for anyone. However, the success of the new disengagement plan will finally depend on whether it is implemented on the ground in letter and in spirit.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

5. Ending the silent pandemic of road accidents will need education, civil society cooperation and professional policing. Discuss in the light of recent recurring accidents witnessed in the country. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

Recently, a horrific bus accident took place in Madhya Pradesh’s Sidhi district.  The bus passengers were trapped within the bus as it landed into a swollen canal near Patna village. There were about 57 people on the bus, out of which 50 were left dead.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in what way ending the silent pandemic of road accidents will need education, civil society cooperation and professional policing.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with some key data related to road safety in the country say present data on number of road accidents that happen every year.

Body:

Discuss first the issues one by one related to road safety in the country.

According to the recently released World Bank-commissioned report – Traffic Crash Injuries and Disabilities, India has 1% of the world’s vehicles but 11% of all road accident deaths.

According to the Union Transport Ministry, the number of dead in 2019 was 1,51,113 and injured- 4,51,361.

India loses 3% of its GDP due to road accidents, most of which are preventable.

Transport departments continue to take an indulgent view of rule violations.

Political parties and others fix illegal flag poles and spears on car bonnets and metal contraptions to SUV bumpers, which are deadly in an accident.

The Motor Vehicles (Amendment) Act of 2019 has provisions that aim to bring about change.

Conclusion:

Conclude with what needs to be done and suggest solutions.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Case study

6. Arun, a very hardworking person, is the sole bread earner in his family. He has worked with an oil company’s local affiliate for several years, and has established a strong, trustworthy relationship with Suresh, manager of the local facility. Suresh has recently recommended Arun to be recruited as the corporate consulting engineer for the company, which would be a position of greater responsibility along with a stable income. During a casual conversation, Suresh mentions an incident in the 1960s wherein 10,000 gallons of a petrochemical was leaked into the local environment by the company due to negligence, though at the time no damage was found, and no mention of this leak was made to the press. When Arun mentions that the state law requires him to report all spills, Suresh reminds him that no harm had been done and reminds him that the company can’t have a consulting engineer who does not value loyalty and respect confidentiality. (250 words)

(a) Identify the ethical issues involved in the given case.

(b) What are the options available to Arun in this situation? Evaluate each of them.

(c) Had you been at Arun’s place, what would have been your course of action? Give reasons for the same.

Why the question:

The question is a case study based on values of loyalty and confidentiality.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the case study by evaluating the ethical issues involved and suggest suitable opinion.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with

Body:

Analyse the case and identify the key ethical issues involved.

 List the options available to Arun in a given situation and bring out the positives and negatives of each available option.

Give the course of action and give arguments to justify your course of action.

Conclusion:

Conclude with suitable suggestions to be taken.

 

Topic: Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

7. What do you understand by Administrative Ethics? Why is it needed for efficient functioning of the administrative machinery? (250 words)

Reference:  Ethics by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper IV.

Key Demand of the question:

Based on the concept of “Administrative ethics”, the question aims to assess the concept and its importance in efficient functioning of the administrative machinery.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define first what you understand by Administrative Ethics.

Body:

Administrative ethics are considered as ‘a set of moral norms and requirements for those in public administration to aim their professional activity at attainment of common wealth and effective use of moral values’.

Explain the significance of it; Administrative ethics are based upon moral norms. These norms are approved by society, in its role as an important regulator of collective activities and existence as well as upon professional values, which are closely connected to public administration.

Explain their importance in public administration, give examples if required to justify.

 Conclusion:

Conclude with its importance in efficient functioning of the administrative machinery.


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