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[Insights Secure STHIR– 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 16 February 2021

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

1. India carries a rich legacy of Scientific Ideas, in this context, highlight and discuss the contribution from India in the fields of Mathematic and Medicine. (250 words)

Reference:  class XI NCERT Medieval history of India ,ccrtindia.gov.in

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper I, part art and culture.

Key Demand of the question:

The question aims to ascertain the contribution from India in the fields of Mathematic and Medicine.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with a brief background of scientific ideas that have plummeted in India from past to present.

Body:

The question is straightforward; one has to discuss the contribution from India in the fields of Mathematic and Medicine in detail.

Explain that Science was an integral part and important preoccupation in ancient Indian culture. The past inspires the future in India, and the ancient Sanskrit texts reflect shades of twentieth century thinking. Scientific ideas were developed in India over 5,000 years ago and have stood the test of time.

Discuss the contributions in Mathematics; along with concept of zero, Indian mathematicians made seminal contributions to the study of trigonometry, algebra, arithmetic and negative numbers among other areas. Perhaps most significantly, the decimal system that we still employ worldwide today was first seen in India.

Conclusion:

Conclude by commenting on the present day contributions of the Indian population to the field of science and mathematics.

 

Topic: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

2. Many Philosophical School in India emphasize on Salvation as the final goal of human life. In the light of the above statement discuss the features of various orthodox schools. (250 words)

Reference:  Art and Culture by Nitin Singhania

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper I, art and culture.

Key Demand of the question:

The question aims to discuss the features of various orthodox schools of philosophy in India.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by briefly justifying the statement in question; Many Philosophical Schools in India emphasize on Salvation as the final goal of human life.

Body:

The answer body must discuss the features of various orthodox schools of philosophy in India.

The six orthodox schools are called as shatdarshanas and include Nyaya, Sankhya, Yoga, Vaisheshika, Purva Mimamsa and Uttara Mimamsa (Vedanta Philosophy). Most of these schools of thought believe in the theory of Karma and rebirth.

Explain the features in detail of each of the above mentioned school and present a comparison to reassert the statement in question.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of these schools of philosophy in India.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.

3. What is SVEEP initiative of Election Commission of India? What are other ECI initiative for Free and Fair Elections? Discuss. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu 

Why the question:

The question is based on the recent best practices brought by ECI in irder to strengthen the electoral system in the country.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the SVEEP initiative of ECI and other initiatives.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

One can start by highlighting the importance of free and fair elections for a Democracy like India.

Body:

The answer should discuss the SVEEP initiative of Election Commission of India in detail; Systematic Voters’ Education and Electoral Participation program, better known as SVEEP, is the flagship program of the Election Commission of India for voter education, spreading voter awareness and promoting voter literacy in India.

Then move onto comment on the role of Election Commission in ensuring free and fair elections in the country and enumerate various efforts made in this direction.

Conclusion:

Thus, conclude with how ECI and its efforts are key to ensure free and fair elections in the country.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money laundering and its prevention.

4. What are the flaws of IT Act 2000? How can better  and effective control be exercised on Social Media? Discuss in the wake of recent events that occurred in relevance to this in the country.(250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

On February 1, 2021, in the wake of the intensification of the farmers’ protests and reports of violent incidents on January 26 – a number of Twitter accounts became inaccessible in India. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Bring out the lacunae in the IT Act 2000 and explain how it can be made more effective in controlling social media.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with a brief background covering events relevant to the context of the question.

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

  • Key features of IT act 2000.
  • Flaws of IT Act 2000 in the context of social media regulations.
  • Explain how the easy availability of access to social media on the go has also triggered the phenomenon where people invariably post information on social media without understanding its ramifications. A number of times, people post content on various social media sites like Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest etc on the spur of the moment or on an impulse without thinking it through.
  • Discuss about the misuse of social media
  • Discuss in what way effective control can be brought on to social media.

Conclusion:

Conclude with need for reforms in the IT Act so to ensure its effectiveness and utility.

 

Topic: GS-2: Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.

GS-3: role of media

5. Why is media termed as 4th pillar of Democracy? What are its responsibilities in a vibrant democracy and how can selective targeting subdue democratic spirit? Explain. (250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article explains how the fear of executive overreach that is stifling some of our fundamental rights is very real. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain how Media is the 4th pillar of democracy and discuss its responsibilities in a democracy. Also discuss the challenges before it.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with recent examples around media and why it has been making news round the corner.

Body:

Explain first why media is considered as 4th pillar of democracy.

Discuss what is meant by selective targeting; explain how such a thing can undermine the very spirit of democracy.

Take hints from the article and explain the retreat of democracy.

Discuss the important role that media plays in fostering vibrant democracy.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of democracy.

 

Topic: GS-2: Issues relating to poverty and hunger.

GS-3: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

6. Can free-market full of competition and choices help achieve welfare state’s target by lowering the vaccine prices? Analyse.(250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu

Why the question:

The article brings to us detailed analysis of the vaccine market; a condition brought before entire world owing to covid-19.

Key Demand of the question:

One has to analyse if free-market full of competition and choices can help achieve welfare state’s target by lowering the vaccine prices.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Present the current conditions of vaccination and its stages across the world.

Body:

Discuss what you understand by free-market full of competition and choices. Then explain its relevance to achieving welfare State.

Explain that Economists point out that since vaccines boost health and immunity, creating additional private motivations with a free market makes rational sense in India’s context. India is not really a place where one can expect private subsidies to take vaccines to socially optimal levels, such as in the U.S., because that may be socially unaffordable for the government. If this is not done, the country’s rich will find a way to engage in vaccine tourism.

Take hints from the article and suggest your opinion.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

 


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics – in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

7. who are manual scavengers? Why vaccination of manual scavengers must be prioritized? Discuss the ethical concerns surrounding them.  Do you think the government has a moral obligation in doing so? (250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express

Why the question:

The question is based on moral and ethical concerns associated with manual scavengers and related vaccination priorities.  

Key Demand of the question:

One must present the ethical concerns surrounding the work of manual scavengers and evaluate as to why they should be prioritized first during vaccination.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the fact that in discussing manual scavenging in India, there are two important components: (1) close proximity to or handling of human feces and (2) the caste or community element, by which people engaging in this task are primarily from Dalit or SC/ST castes. The combination of these two elements moves the issue beyond being merely about labour.

Body:

The answer must first discuss the ethical concerns surrounding manual scavengers and then explain the case of prioritizing their vaccination amidst the current Covid-19 times.

Explain why there is prevalence of manual scavenging in India. Apart from social discrimination, manual scavengers face severe health hazards including exposure to harmful gases, cardiovascular degeneration, musculoskeletal disorders, and hepatitis, leptospirosis and skin problems etc.,

Explain how these are ethically valid concerns. 

Take hints from the article and explain why vaccination of manual scavengers needs to be prioritized.

Explain what should be the role of the government and why it would be a moral obligation.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a fair and balanced opinion as to what should be the solution.


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