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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 10 February 2021


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic:  Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

1. Persian literary sources of medieval India reflect the spirit of the age. Comment. (150 words)

Reference: G.S-1 UPSC CSE Mains 2020.

Key Demand of the question:  

To write about historical interpretations from Persian literary sources.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by writing about origin of Persian literature with the establishment of Turkish rule.

Body:

Write about how the literary reflect the spirit of the age.

Political Aspects – genealogy of kings, conquests etc.

Economic Aspects – Important reforms, features of economy, urban cities.

Social aspects – Religion, customs, rituals, dance, music etc.

Substantiate the above points by citing examples of various Persian literary works such as works of Khusro, Barani, Afif, Abu Fazal etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with the importance of Persian literature as source of historiography.

Introduction:

The Persian literature got a boost under Delhi Sultanate. Many of them had great love for Arabic and Persian literature. Learned men came from Persia and Persian language got encouragement from the rulers. Besides theology and poetry, the writing of history was also encouraged. Persian remained the official language of the Mughal court too.

Body

Persian literary sources reflect spirit of the medieval India:

Delhi Sultanate:

  • History writing: Barani’s Tarikh- i-Firoz Shahi contains the history of Tughlaq dynasty. Minhaj-us-Siraj wrote Tabaqat-i- Nasari, a general history of Muslim dynasties.
  • Exchange of knowledge: Sanskrit and Persian functioned as link languages in the Delhi Sultanate. Zia Nakshabi was the first to translate Sanskrit stories into Persian.
  • The book Tutu Nama or Book of the Parrot became popular and translated into Turkish and later into many European languages. Many Sanskrit works on medicine and music were translated into Persian.
  • Poetry: Amir Khusrau (1252-1325) was the famous Persian writer of this period. He experimented with several poetical forms and created a new style of Persian poetry called Sabaq- i-Hind or the Indian style.
    • He also wrote Tughlaqnama that deals with the rise of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq.

Bahamani Kingdom:

  • Mahmud Gawan was a Persian merchant under whose ministership, Bahamani sultanate reached its peak.
  • He made endowments to build a college at Bidar which was built in the Persian style of architecture.

Mughal Dynasty:

  • Illustrations of Persian versions of Mahabharata and Ramayana were produced in miniature form.
  • Persian language became widespread in the Mughal Empire by the time of Akbar’s reign.
  • Abul Fazl was a great scholar and historian of his period. He set a style of prose writing and it was followed by many generations. Ain-i-Akbari and Akabar Nama were authored by Abul Fazl. It talks about Mughal rulers and in the last part it deals with Akbar’s reign.
  • The leading poet of that period was his brother Abul Faizi.
  • Abdul Hamid Lahori, the author of the Badshah Nama, commissioned by Shah Jahan to write a history of his rule modelled on the Akbar Nama.
  • Dara Shikoh translated the Bhagavat Gita and Upanishads into the Persian language.
  • Many historical works were written during the reign of Aurangazeb. Famous dictionaries of the Persian language were also compiled during the Mughal period.

Conclusion:

Persian being the language of administration all through that age, Europe knew India through the Jesuit accounts which reflected the details of state officials and general conditions of life in Mughal times given in Persian chronicles.

 

Topic:  Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

2. What are ‘Classical’ languages in India? How are they classified? How are the Classical languages being promoted? Explain. (250 words)

Reference: Indian art and culture by Nitin Singhania.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1.

Key Demand of the question:

A straightforward question with respect to classical languages, their classification and steps taken for their promotion.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by defining classical languages and six classical languages of India.

Body:

In the first, write about the criteria for conferring classical status. High antiquity, High antiquity, originality and discontinuity.

Next, write about the steps that are being taken for the promotion of classical languages. Awards, Centers of excellence, Role of UGC, grants for various classical languages.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward to preserve the rich classical history of India.

Introduction:

A classical language is a language with an independent literary tradition and a large and ancient body of written literature. The Ministry of Culture provides the guidelines regarding Classical languages. Currently, six languages enjoy the ‘Classical’ status namely Tamil (declared in 2004), Sanskrit (2005), Kannada (2008), Telugu (2008), Malayalam (2013), and Odia (2014). Languages declared as classical are given certain benefits by the Human Resource and Development Ministry.

The Akhil Bharatiya Marathi Sahitya Sammelan recently demanded that Marathi be given the status of a ‘classical language’.

Body:

Guidelines for declaring a classical language:

According to the Ministry of Culture, the norms for according status of classical language are that the language should have a recorded history of more than 1500 years with ancient valuable literature recorded in it. Further, the language has to be original and not derived from another speech community. The guidelines of the government are as follows:

  • High antiquity of its early texts/recorded history over a period of 1500-2000 years;
  • A body of ancient literature/texts, which is considered a valuable heritage by generations of speakers;
  • The literary tradition be original and not borrowed from another speech community;
  • The classical language and literature being distinct from modern, there may also be a discontinuity between the classical language and its later forms or its offshoots.

Upon receiving the proposal for considering a language for the status, the Ministry of Culture refers it to the Committee on Linguistic Experts through the Sahithya Akademi for recommendations. The Ministry then forwards the proposal along with the recommendations to the Prime Minister’s Office for further action.

Classical languages are promoted in the following ways:

  • The Ministry of Human Resources Development gives away two major annual international awards for scholars of eminence in classical Indian languages.
  • A Centre of Excellence for studies in Classical Languages is set up.
  • MHRD also sends a request to the University Grants Commission to create a certain number of Professional Chairs for the Classical Languages in central universities to begin with.
  • Annually, funds are disbursed by the Central Government for promotion and development of these languages.
  • The Central Institute of Indian Languages located in Mysore, Karnataka works for the promotion of Kannada, Telugu, Malayalam and Odia.
  • For the promotion of Tamil, a separate institute, Central Institute of Classical Tamil was established in Chennai, Tamil Nadu.
  • Sanskrit language promotion is done by the Government through three deemed universities- Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeeth (Tirupati), Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan and Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeeth in New Delhi.
  • Funds are allocated to the universities/institutes for seminars, book publications, projects, fellowships, scholarships, orientation programmes and workshops.
  • As per the data provided in the answers in Lok Sabha, the allocation of funds appears to be meagre. The data also suggests that Sanskrit gets a lion’s share of these funds.

Conclusion:

The concept of classical languages has been a long debated issue since the notion has not been adopted by UNESCO. There have been debates around the criteria itself and whether or not each language satisfies all the conditions laid down. While the recognition in India is good first step towards promoting these languages, the meagre allocations do not do justice to the mandate.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic:  Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

3. A sustained movement to limit China’s expansionist policy by the Quad will go a long way in undermining China’s threats and policies on the international stage. Examine. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

In November 2020, the Quad conducted Malabar Naval drills in the Indian Ocean. In response, China affirmed that the activities of the Quad do not affect it; however it is actually keeping a close eye on it.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about how Quad can counter the aggressive and the assertive China in a post pandemic world.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by writing about Quad and the context of its formation.

Body:

In detail, write about the common elements of interest that the Quad countries are bound by. Write about the expansionism and threats at global stage made by China recently.

Next, write about how Quad can limit China’ expansionist policies and its threats on international arenas. Quad vs Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), Quad vs Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), Quad and Indo-pacific, benefits the members offer and set precedent for the EU etc. Substantiate with examples.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward for Quad in indo-pacific as well at the global stage.

Introduction:

The Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (Quad) of four countries, Japan, the US, Australia and India, was formed in 2007 with the initiative coming from Japanese PM Shinzo Abe. It is touted as an alliance to contain China’s expansionist policies and aggression in the Indo-Pacific region.

Body

The aim of the Quad is to support a “free, open and prosperous” Indo-Pacific region that China seeks to threaten.

Chinese expansionist policy

  • India-China fault lines: At the Galwan Valley in Ladakh, China has violated the status quo intruding into territory that is clearly on the Indian side of the Line of Actual Control, or LAC.
  • Taiwan-China conflict: Island encirclement against Taiwan and forceful takeover are becoming more of a reality considering Chinese navy and air force activities in the region.
  • Hong-Kong unrest: The ‘one country two systems’ in Hong Kong is dead and with it, the pretence that the same could be applied for the peaceful unification of Taiwan.
    • Eg: Extension of national security law to Hong-Kong and recent warning to Taiwan on possibility of war if it shores up defence weapons.
  • South China Sea: China claims 90% of south China sea as its sovereign territory, continuously terrorising Vietnam, Philippines wrt Paracel and Spratly islands.
  • Belt and Road initiative: T
  • String of Pearls: China has security and economic compulsions to develop its bases in India Ocean Region (IOR) to secure its communication lines. Its eagerness to establish China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) and Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) is to develop strategic communication alternatives
  • Salami Slicing: Continuously nibbling at neighbours’ land, at times even claiming an entire area on some dubious historicity, it successively builds up its military control over areas vital to its overall strategic designs. The annexation of Aksai Chin in the 1950s and repeated Chinese incursions into Indian territory are the executions of the same strategy.

Role of QUAD in containing China

The recent meeting of the Quad in Tokyo clearly spelt out their intention to put a stop to the expansionist tendencies of China.

  • Indian ocean and China’s trade: Beijing has emerged as the most important trading partner of the Indian Ocean region, accounting for1% of its total goods trade in 2017, up from 4.8% in 2000.
    • In November 2020, the Quad conducted Malabar Naval drills in the Indian Ocean. In response, China affirmed that the activities of the Quad do not affect it; however, it is actually keeping a close eye on it for its trade security.
  • Countering BRI: The BRI promises economic security but not human security by providing funds to developing countries with a debt trap.
    • Herein, the Quad can play a vital role as it is a group of democratic countries.
    • It should provide a choice to the nations as to where they want to borrow the money for development purposes from and also be a part of the supply chain.
  • Conducting patrols: Quad members can frequently venture into South China sea to ensure international free and open navigation is upheld.
  • Military exercise: A number of joint naval and air exercises have been undertaken by regional countries not only amongst themselves, but also with other powers specially the US and the UK.
    • The aim is to practise inter-operability of fighting equipment and manpower against a common enemy along with joint tactics and cooperation to meet a common military goal.
    • The aim is to send a firm message to China, that its days of expansionism are coming to an end.
  • The prime context behind Quad 2.0 is Beijing’s Maritime Silk Road (MSR), which is an integral part of China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) under Xi Jinping.

Conclusion

A formal revival and re-invigoration of the Quad is called for. It is also time to seek an enlargement of this grouping into a partnership of the like-minded. Other nations feeling the brunt of Chinese brawn may be willing to join an “Indo-Pacific concord” to maintain peace and tranquillity and to ensure observance of the UN Law of the Seas.

 

Topic:  Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

4. Eliminating trans fats from India’s food supply is a clear step in the right direction towards creating safer and healthier food systems. Comment. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

The FSSAI has amended its rules to put a cap on trans fatty acids (TFAs) in food products just weeks after it tightened the norms for oils and fats.

Key Demand of the question:

To explain about trans fats and why are they harmful for human health and what more needs to be done for global elimination for global elimination of trans fats.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by defining trans fat in brief.

Body:

In the first part, outline the major impacts of trans fat on the human health. Cite relevant statistic to bring out the risk of death or disability caused by the consumption of trans-fats.

In the next part, write about various initiatives undertaken for the elimination of trans fats globally as well as in India. WHO’s REPLACE, FSSAI gradual reduction over a period of years and example of Denmark.

Write further steps that are needed for the implementation of the guidelines and gradual phasing out the trans fat from India’s food systems.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

Introduction:

Trans fatty acids (TFAs) or Trans fats are the most harmful type of fats which can have much more adverse effects on our body than any other dietary constituent. These fats are largely produced artificially but a small amount also occurs naturally. Thus in our diet, these may be present as Artificial TFAs and Natural TFAs.

The Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) has restricted the permissible amount of industrial Trans Fatty Acid (TFA) in food products to 2 per cent from 2022. In December 2020, the FSSAI had capped TFAs in oils and fats to 3% by 2021, and 2% by 2022 from the current levels of 5%.

Body:

Artificial TFAs are formed when hydrogen is made to react with the oil to produce fats resembling pure ghee/butter. In our diet the major sources of artificial TFAs are the partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVO)/Vanaspati/ margarine while the natural TFAs are present in meats and dairy products, though in small amounts.

fats

Health impacts:

  • TFAs pose a higher risk of heart diseasethan saturated fats. While saturated fats raise total cholesterol levels, TFAs not only raise total cholesterol levels but also reduce the good cholesterol (HDL), which helps to protect us against heart disease.
  • It is also associated with a higher risk of developing obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, infertility, certain types of cancersand can also lead to compromised foetal development causing harm to the yet to be born baby.
  • Metabolic syndrome includeshigh blood pressure, high blood sugar, excess body fat around the waist and abnormal cholesterol levels. The syndrome increases a person’s risk of heart attack and stroke.
  • Studies have recently shown that 60,000 deaths occur every year due to cardiovascular diseases, which in turn are caused due to high consumption of trans fats.

Measures to curb their usage and intake:

National level:

  • FSSAI launched a “Trans Fat Free”logo for voluntary labelling to promote TFA-free products. The label can be used by bakeries, local food outlets and shops for preparations containing TFA not exceeding2 per 100 g/ml.
  • FSSAI launched a new mass media campaign “Heart Attack Rewind”to eliminate industrially produced trans-fat in the food supply by the year 2022.
  • “Heart Attack Rewind” is a follow-up to an earlier campaign called “Eat Right”,which was launched in July, 2018.
  • Edible oil industries took a pledge to reduce the levels of salt, sugar, saturated fat and trans fat content by 2% by 2022.
  • Swasth Bharat Yatra,an initiative started under the “Eat Right” campaign is a Pan-India cyclothon to engage citizens on issues of food safety, combating food adulteration and healthy diets.

Global level:

  • WHO launched a REPLACE campaign in 2018for global-level elimination of trans-fats in industrially produced edible oils by 2023.

Way forward:

  • Eat a dietary pattern that emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, poultry, fish and nuts. Also limit red meat and sugary foods and beverages.
  • Use naturally occurring, unhydrogenated vegetable oils such as canola, safflower, sunflower or olive oil most often.
  • Look for processed foods made with unhydrogenated oil rather than partially hydrogenated or hydrogenated vegetable oils or saturated fat.
  • Limit commercially fried foods and baked goods made with shortening or partially hydrogenated vegetable oils. Not only are these foods very high in fat, but that fat is also likely to be trans-fat.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic:  Government Budgeting.

5. Disinvestment is no doubt a bold step taken by the government but its execution is critical for it to be successful and achieve desired outcomes. Analyze. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

Two Public Sector Banks and one general insurance company are expected to be disinvested this year, Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman announced during Budget presentation in Lok Sabha.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the advantages of disinvestment and the need to have flawless execution of the same to accrue those advantages.

Directive:

Analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by explaining disinvestment and cite some recent examples

Body:

In detail bring out the multiple advantages associated with disinvestment ranging from revenue to better management of PSU’s. Substantiated with examples.

Write about the bold stance taken by the government in this year’s budget for disinvestment and mention the steps it needs to take for the process to acheieve desired results. create confidence in the sale processes, ensure a semblance of fair valuations, give officers some cover from potential post-transaction witch-hunts by auditors and investigating agencies, sequence the sales so that the economy does not face shocks or create monopolies and  manage electoral pressures in jurisdictions where these units would be located.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

Introduction:

As part of the ‘Aatmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan’ package, the government in May 2020 had announced that there will be a maximum of four public sector companies in the strategic sectors, and state-owned firms in other segments will eventually be privatised. For the year 2021-22 disinvestment receipts of ₹1.75-lakh crore are expected as stated in the budget.

Body

Disinvestment: Meaning

Disinvestment means sale or liquidation of assets by the government, usually Central and state public sector enterprises, projects, or other fixed assets. The government undertakes disinvestment to reduce the fiscal burden on the exchequer, or to raise money for meeting specific needs, such as to bridge the revenue shortfall from other regular sources.

Government’s disinvestment plan

  • This plan includes likely inflows from the strategic sale of entities such as Air India and BPCL, carried forward from this year’s plans.
  • Most significant, however, is the new strategic disinvestment policy for public sector enterprises and the promise to privatise two public sector banks and a general insurance company in the year.
  • The government will exit all businesses in non-strategic sectors, with only a ‘bare minimum’ presence in four broad sectors. These strategic sectors are — atomic energy, space and defence; transport and telecom; power, petroleum, coal and other minerals; and banking and financial services.

Need of Disinvestment

  • There is a pressure on the government to raise resources to support the economic recovery and meet expectations of higher outlays for healthcare.
  • The increase in public spending in the upcoming Budget will have to be financed to a large extent by garnering disinvestment proceeds and monetising assets.
  • To eliminate the need for the government’s involvement in non-strategic areas.
  • Some, including Balco and Hindustan Zinc, have fared much better under private management.

Challenges

  • Sale of profit-making and dividend paying PSUs would result in the loss of regular income to the Government.
  • There would be chances of “Asset Striping” by the strategic partner. Most of the PSUs have valuable assets in the plant and machinery, land and buildings, etc.
  • Strategic and National Security Concerns: Strategic Disinvestment of Oil PSUs is seen by some experts as a threat to National Security since Oil is a strategic natural resource and possible ownership in the foreign hand is not consistent with our strategic goals.
  • Loss making units don’t attract investment so easily. Eg: Air India did not have suitable bidder when government was looking for potential buyers.
  • Complete Privatisation may result in public monopolies becoming private monopolies, which would then exploit their position to increase costs of various services and earn higher profits.
  • Resistance from worker unions and trade unions, especially during election years makes the plan go on a back burner.

 Conclusion

The government will need to create confidence in the sale processes, ensure a semblance of fair valuations, give officers some cover from potential post-transaction witch-hunts by auditors and investigating agencies, sequence the sales so that the economy does not face shocks or create monopolies, and most of all, manage electoral pressures in jurisdictions where these units would be located. A single controversial transaction could scuttle the momentum behind such a plan and India can ill afford it.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic:  Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.

6. What do you understand by the following quote?

“The object of the superior man is the truth”  – Confucius

(150 words)

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: Begin by explain the quote in brief.

Body:

The superior man is a man that stays true to himself. In that, he cultivates aspects of himself that cannot be stolen or sold. The inferior man cultivates aspects of himself for the sake of image and worldly value. In staying true to oneself the superior man understands the value of empowerment. The inferior man only understands control, resulting in abuse of power because of his inferiority.

Substantiate with examples.

Conclusion:

Mention its relevance in the present day.

Introduction:

Confucius was an ancient and wise Chinese philosopher (born in 551 BC) whose teachings heavily influenced and still continue to influence the Chinese society and even societies all around the world. The philosophy of Confucius, known as Confucianism is a set of ethical and moral codes for living a peaceful, harmonious and productive life.

Body:

The superior man, according to Confucius, is not merely intelligent or scholarly, but his character should be exemplary. The superior man of Confucius possesses three virtues: Intelligence, courage and goodwill.

The central idea of Confucius is that every normal human being cherishes the aspiration to become a superior man—superior to his fellows, if possible, but surely superior to his own past and present self. This does not more than hint at perfection as a goal; and it is said of him that one of the subjects concerning which the Master rarely spoke, was “perfect virtue.”

A superior man knows the truth about life. Regardless of what his circumstances are, he adheres to moral principles and conducts himself by following the teachings of sages. Wherever he goes, he spreads his kindness and influences those around him, so that others also respect and value ethics and justice. The effectiveness of his teachings and influence exemplifies his virtuous character.

Importance of being truthful:

  • Being truthful also means being dependable and trustworthy. To be virtuous, it is important not just that our words be truthful, but that our actions are truthful and consistent with what we have promised.
  • As philosophers such as Immanuel Kant have written, truthfulness is a prerequisite both for building a stable, lawful society and engaging in meaningful interaction with others, so living up to one’s words is important not only on an individual level but also on the level of the community.
  • Deception by deliberate omission, though perhaps less immoral than outright lying, is still deception and should be forsworn.

Conclusion:

This accords well with the ameliorating and progressive principle of evolution which in these days offers a substantial reward, both for a man and for his progeny, if he will but cultivate higher and more useful traits and qualities. The aim to excel, if respected of all, approved and accepted by common consent, would appeal to every child and, logically presented to its mind and enforced by universal recognition of its validity, would become a conviction and a scheme for the art of living, of transforming power and compelling vigour.

 

Topic:  Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.

7. What do you understand by the following quote?

“Let me not pray to be sheltered from dangers, but to be fearless in facing them.”  – Rabindranath Tagore    (150 words)

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by explaining the quote in your own words.

Body:

The toughest part is taking the first step that gets you out of the boundaries you feel comfortable in. It needs fortitude for take on a new challenges. Take small steps – put yourself in a new environment, do something that scares you, consider other points of view, and ensure that you don’t pick the “safe” choice but rather pick the right choice. Substantiate with examples.

Conclusion:

Mention its relevance in the present day.

Introduction:

Rabindranath Tagore famously said “Let me not pray to be sheltered from dangers, but to be fearless in facing them. Let me not beg for the stilling of my pain, but for the heart to conquer it. Let me not look for allies in life’s battlefield but to my own strength.” It exemplifies the virtue of courage, strength and fearlessness in facing our adversities rather than hoping for a miraculous saviour.

Body

As human beings who live in a society, we face many hurdles and obstacles in life. Each person would have been in a situation that might have been very difficult to withstand. One cannot hope that no dangers or adversities comes our way. Rather, we must be prepared to bravely face any dangers and manoeuvre this life fearlessly.

Being fearless helps us take risks in life which make us successful. Be it taking the decision to move to a foreign country to pursue higher education or deciding to take up civil services exam. If the fear of failure or fear of alien country overpowers the will to succeed, one will never try. And when we don’t even try to fail, we are trying to fail. Fearlessness helps us embrace the suffering or misery, no matter the outcome.

Gandhiji’s mantra in life was “There would be nothing to frighten you if you refused to be afraid.” He said, Fearlessness connotes freedom from all external fear – fear of disease, bodily injury or death, of dispossession, of losing one’s nearest and dearest, of losing reputation or giving offence, and so on.

Our freedom from British is a testimony of Gandhiji’s courage and fearlessness. He embraced jail terms, British oppression and hegemony but yet had the bravery to conquer them through his ideals. No matter how hard it got to practice non-violence, he did not give up. Even when his own comrades were disillusioned in his technique, he showed that it was possible.

Conclusion

The one who falls and gets up is stronger than the one who never tried. Do not fear failure but rather fear not trying. One must face their bad times fearlessly and the path in tough times comes automatically through the courage we display. Thus, we must always ask for the strength to brave an adversity rather than asking to be sheltered from any adversity.


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