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[Insights Secure STHIR– 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 1 February 2021

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic:  Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues;

1. Why did India choose to go in for the production of nuclear weapons? Trace the evolution of India’s nuclear policy. (250 words)

Reference: India’s Since Independence by Bipan Chandra.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1.

Key Demand of the question:

To state the reasons as to why India started the production of nuclear weapons and to bring out the evolution of India’s nuclear policy.

Directive:

Trace – find or describe the origin and development of a policy/scheme.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by writing about the broad aims and objectives of India’s nuclear policy.

Body:

In the first part, write about the reasons as to why India chose to have a nuclear weapons stockpile. Credible minimum deterrent, The Sino-Indian war setback of 1962, security threats from Pakistan, domestic political pressures, international status and strategic autonomy etc.

In the next part write about the evolution of India’s nuclear policy. Under Nehru and Homi Bhabha, Under Shastri, Indira years, Pokhran-I, Pokhran-II and present day policy.

Conclusion:

Conclude by writing about despite India’s nuclear weapon arsenal and India’s commitment to ‘no first use doctrine’.

 

Topic: Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues;

2. Environmental movements in India have initiated protest action against the forces and agencies responsible for environmental degradation. Comment. (250 words)

Reference: India’s Since Independence by Bipan Chandra.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the various reasons for the genesis and naure of environmental movements in India.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by giving context regarding various environmental movements in India.

Body:

In detail, write about the causes for the environmental movements in India. Centering on dams, displacement and resettlement effectively articulated their agenda on the human consequences of tampering with the courses of natural resources.

Next, elaborate up on the nature of the movement with examples. Chipko Andolan, Save the Bhagirathi, Stop Tehri project, Narmada Bachhao Andolan in Madhya Pradesh and Gujrat; Youth organisation and Tribal people in the Gandhamardan Mines against Balco, the opposition of Baliapal Test Range, Bauxite mining in Kashipur and Niyamgiri, the Appiko movement in the Western Ghats; the campaign against the Silent Valley Project; reclaiming wastelands in Bankura district, and the opposition to the Gumti Dam in Tripura, etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with the importance of the above movements.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Indian Constitution– historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

3. Discuss the constitutional provisions available for the Finance Commission of India and explain its significance. Also, examine how the 15th Finance Commission report has the potential to transform the financial governance of India’s municipalities .(250 words)

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

The final report of XV FC for FY 2021-22 to FY 2025-26 is expected to be tabled along with the forthcoming Budget 2021-22. Thus the context of the question.

Key Demand of the question:

The question is straightforward and aims to note upon Finance commission and the recently released interim report.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain the constitutional provisions of FC.

Body:

Start by explaining the working and purpose of the FC;

  • The Finance Commission is a body set up under Article 280 of the Constitution, primarily to recommend measures and methods on how revenues, which the government earns through various taxes, need to be distributed between the Centre and the states.
  • Discuss the related provisions of it in detail.

Bring out the highlights of final Report of 15th FC and how it could possibly change the face of the urban governance which is currently in tatters.

Conclusion:

Conclude by relevance of the to be released final report of the 15th Finance Commission.

 

Topic:  Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

4.  “There are no short cuts; only persistent and focused efforts at the highest level of government will improve preventive care and primary healthcare.” Examine how to make the Indian healthcare system to become more sustainable as well as responsive. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The question is straightforward and talks about the Public healthcare system in India. In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, there have been vociferous demands to strengthen the country’s public health system. The article talks about the necessary reforms required in the health system that have been exposed by the Covid crisis.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain the radical overhauling that is required in the health care system of the country to ensure it becomes more sustainable and responsive.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Discuss the current situation that has exposed the lacunae in the Indian health care system.

Body:

One must remember that the question is not pertaining only to the pressures posed by the corona crisis on the healthcare system, and its about the loopholes in the system that have been prevalent over decades.

Give suitable examples and supporting evidence from the article that has repeatedly hinted at the lack of physical infrastructure, social infrastructure, doctors etc.

List and discuss all the other lacunae in detail.

Discuss suggestions to address these problems such as role of private sector, NGOs etc. role of the government. 

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward to build a robust public healthcare system.

 


General Studies – 3


 

5. Discuss in brief the key highlights of Economic Survey 2020-21. Examine the major challenges faced to boost India’s economic growth and measures to overcome the same. (250 words)

Reference: pib.gov.inbloombergquint.com

Why the question:

Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman tabled the Economic Survey 2020-21 in the Parliament on the first day of the Budget session. The survey, authored by Chief Economic Adviser Krishnamurthy Subramanian, has analysed various topics from economic growth, fiscal stance, state of banking and more. Thus, the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain the importance of Economic Survey and the theme of ES 2020-21.

Body:

Provide the highlights of the Economic Survey 2020-21.

Discuss the major impediments that Indian Economy is currently facing.

Suggest measures to overcome the same.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic:  dimensions of ethics

6. Vaccine should be given based on priority and not privilege. Examine ethically. (150 words)

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about ethical considerations in administering vaccine to the masses.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by citing the ethical dilemmas we face as the vaccine roll out begins.

Body:

In detail bring out the ethical dilemmas in the vaccination programme. Rationality, Disparities between rich and poor, lack of empathy towards poor, crony capitalism, gratitude towards front line workers, ethics in international relations etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a balanced judgement towards vaccine policy.

 

Topic:  Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and nonpartisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker-sections

7. What do you understand by the quote?

“Fortitude is the guard and support of the other virtues”. -John Locke

(150 words)

Introduction:

Start by explaining the quote.

Body:

Explain how Fortitude is firmness of spirit, especially in difficulty. It provides for constancy in the pursuit of virtue. Fortitude is a willingness to freely go beyond the call of duty, to make sacrifices, to act on your convictions. Fortitude includes the courage to confront our personal weaknesses and attraction to vice.

Conclude:

Underscore the importance as to how fortitude serve as a life support for other virtues.


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