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[Insights Secure STHIR– 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 27 January 2021

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic:  Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues;

1. It was one thing for the Muslim League to demand Pakistan and the British to concede it because it was in harmony with the politics they had pursued. But why did the Congress, which had fought for unity for long years, give up its ideal of a united India. Examine. (250 words)

Reference: India’s Struggle for Independence by Bipan Chandra.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1.

Key Demand of the question:

To examine the various reasons as to why the Congress accepted partition.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by mentioning about partition of India and widespread anarchy, communal clashes and mayhem caused by it.

Body:

In the first part, mention how the demand for Pakistan began with Muslim League and the identity politics played by it to achieve that end. `

In the next part, examine the reasons for the acceptance of Partition by Indian national Congress which it had vehemently opposed so far. a. One view is that the Congress leaders succumbed to the temptation of power – this has to be critically examined. Failure over the years to I bring the Muslim masses into the nationalist mainstream, failing to check the advancing tide of Muslim communalism, communal riots, possibility of a civil war and a hope to reverse it later.

Conclusion:

Pass a balanced judgement on the acceptance of partition by the Indian national congress.

 

Topic: Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues;

2. Land reforms included structural and institutional changes in the ownership pattern, land tenure system, modernization of agricultural operations and changes in the supportive institutions at the level of the village community. Comment (250 words)

Reference: India’s Since Independence by Bipan Chandra.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the changes brought about by Land reforms in the Indian agricultural scenario.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by writing about the land reforms that were initiated in the post independent India.

Body:

Address the structural and institutional changes with respect to the above mention factors.

Elaborate upon how the above were achieved through abolition of intermediaries, tenancy reforms, ceiling on land holdings for land acquisition, massive investment in improvement of the quality of land, its operational conditions and management of its physical conditions.

Conclusion:

Stress on the overall socio-economic implications of the Land reforms in India.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic:  Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

3.  New Delhi’s entry into the UN Security Council (UNSC) coincides with the emergence of a new world order. Hence India’s quest of its goals at the UNSC must have a clear agenda and also reflect its material and geopolitical limitations. Discuss. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

Five new countries — India, Mexico, Norway, Ireland and Kenya — formally joined the U.N. Security Council on Monday at a time of growing polarization in the body charged with keeping world peace and security.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the path India has to pursue in order to achieve its goals at the UNSC in the face of emerging new world order.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by mentioning the start of India’s tenure as the non-permanent member of UNSC and the opportunity it offers.

Body:

In the first part of the body, address the emergence of the new world order. Systemic uncertainty, little care for global commons, absence of global leadership, the steady division of the world into rival blocs, and an age marked by unabashed pursuit of narrow national interests, putting even the rhetoric about a value-based global order on the backburner. Also, mention the changes witnessed in India.

In the next part, mention how India should purse it long term goals in this short tenure having a clear agenda whilst reflecting its limitations. The China Issue, Cross Border terrorism, build coalitions among like-minded states, address issues like climate change and non-proliferation, the Indo-Pacific and set out its priorities for the next decade etc.

Conclusion:

Stress on the fact that India’s approach should be a practical long term approach.

 

Topic:  Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

4. On the basis of the learning gained from PMKVY 1.0 and PMKVY 2.0, the Skill Development and Entrepreneurship Ministry has improved the newer version of the scheme Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY 3.0) to match the current policy doctrine and energize the skilling ecosystem affected due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Analyze. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

The third phase of the government’s flagship skilling scheme Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY 3.0) was be launched in 600 districts across all states of the country.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the shortcomings of PMKVY 1.0 and 2.0 and suggest measures to make PMKYV 3.0 achieve the vision of a skilled India.

Directive:

Analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by writing the aims and objectives PMKVY 3.0.

Body:

In the first part of the body, mention the shortfalls of PMKVY 1.0 and 2.0. Lack of capacity, poor implementation of those policies, Issue of funding, dearth of scholars and practitioners, jobless growth and unmet targets.

Next, write about the major features of PMKVY 3.0 and how it seeks to achieve those. Elaborate up on the features especially in the light of the pandemic.

Suggest further measures to ensure that PMKVY 3.0 is successful in meeting its state objectives.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward to unlock the vision of making India the ‘Skill Capital’ of the world.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic:  Inclusive growth and issues arising from it; Government Budgeting.

5. With the Union Budget around the corner, the Indian government could think of measures to reduce the widening inequalities exacerbated by the pandemic. Elaborate. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

The annual Oxfam Report claims that India’s 100 top billionaires increased their wealth by nearly Rs 13 lakh crore during the pandemic showing the ever increasing inequalities.

Key Demand of the question:

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by giving context regarding the ever growing inequalities in India which are further widened by the Pandemic.

Body:

Give relevant stats from the Oxfam report which captures the above.

Analyze the reasons for the growing inequality. Factors, such as the role of technology in the globalising economy; rising incomes of top earners; Wages have become more unequal. More intense competition from foreign firms and a decline in higher-paying manufacturing jobs etc.

Write about how the Union budget presents an opportunity to make things better. Cost of healthcare, vaccine distribution, Education, fiscal measures, social safety for the poor, consider imposing a temporary covid-19 tax on the rich etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic:  Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.

6. Swami Vivekananda and Sri Aurobindo revolutionized and awakened the Indian philosophical mind. They can be viewed as great masters of philosophy of “unity in diversity.” Elaborate (150 words)

Reference: Ethics by Lexicon publications.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Key Demand of the question:

To write upon the philosophy of Swami Vivekananda and Sir Aurobindo and their contribution to the message of unity in diversity.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Giver a brief introduction of Swami Vivekananda and Sir Aurobindo as the great Indian philosophers.

Body:

In the first part, write about Swami Vivekananda’s Practical Vedanta. He believed in the basic oneness of existence seen through different constitutions such as earth, heavens, gods, hell, ghosts, men, etc. and advocated strongly the eternal sameness or homogeneity beyond all differentiation, the unity of all personalities.

In the next part, write about the essential teaching of Sri Aurobindo is that humans are in a transition toward the final evolution. They would surpass their present conditions and rise to a newer life with abundant knowledge and consciousness. It would transform not only the personal self but also this cosmos.

Conclusion:

Mention how their message is universal and eternal very much relevant to the present times.

 

Topic: Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration.

7. There can be no good government without moral leadership. Comment. (150 words)

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the relationship between moral leadership and good governance.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by describing moral leadership.

Body:

Bring out the relationship between moral leadership and good governance. In governance, a leader grapples with not only the legal aspects of the matter, but also with ensuring that moral interpretations yield equitable results. Substantiate with recent examples form the happenings as well as historical examples.

Suggest ways how leadership can align itself to moral values.

Conclusion:

Conclude by stressing on need for moral leadership in the present times.


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