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[Insights Secure STHIR– 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 25 January 2021

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic:  Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues;

1. From the second half of nineteenth century, it was not only a struggle between the colonial power and the Indian states but also there was struggle among the Indian powers themselves to establish political supremacy. Examine. (250 words)

Reference: A Brief History of Modern India by Spectrum Publishers

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the power struggle for supremacy between British and India regional powers are the collapse of the Mughal Empire.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by describing the nature of political set up in the second half of the eighteenth century.

Body:

You can use a simple and illustrative map of India to show the various powers in India during the second half of nineteenth century.

Elaborate up on the various struggles between the British East India Company and the regional powers of India. Plassey, Buxar, Anglo-Mysore, Angle-Maratha, Anglo-Punjab etc.

Next, mention how there existed power strudel between various regional powers in India for political supremacy. In this context, bring out clashes of Marathas with Mysore, Marathas and Nizam, Nizam and Mysore, Marathas and Punjab etc. Elaborate how British used one regional power against another for their benefit.

Conclusion:

Conclude with the impact caused by the above.

 

Topic:  Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues;

2. The third and the final round of the Anglo-French struggle proved decisive. The French political cause in India was doomed for good. Analyze the causes for the Failure of the French in India. (250 words)

Reference: A Brief History of Modern India by Spectrum Publishers

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the reasons for the defeat of the French in third Carnatic war and how it spelled doom to their dream of having an empire In India.

Directive:

Analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by giving context of the impact third Carnatic War for French political ambitions in India.

Body:

In detail, analyse the casues for the failure of French in India – French continental Preoccupations, Organisation of the two companies, Governemnt support for the two, Role of Navy, Impact of English Success in Bengal and Respecitve Leadership compared.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarizing the above and how after defeating the French decisively, English went to establish an empire in India.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic:  India and its neighborhood- relations.

3. The Palk Bay conflict is exacting a high toll as it continues to be a thorn in the bilateral relationship between India and Sri Lanka and cries for early resolution. Comment. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The tragic death of four fishermen from Tamil Nadu allegedly when the Sri Lankan Navy was about to arrest them last week, is yet another instance of the unresolved fisheries conflict in the Palk Bay.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the Palk bay conflict, its impact on Indo-Lankan relations and suggest measures to resolve it.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In brief, write about the Palk bay conflict between India and Sri Lanka.

Body:

In the first part, give context, causes and various facets to the conflict – island of Katchatheevu, frequent poaching by Indian fisherman in Sri Lankan waters, and the damaging economic and environmental effects of trawling. Bring out the impact the issue has on Indo-Lankan relations.

In the next part, mention various steps taken to address this issues which have not been fruitful in resolving the issue – setting up of Joint Working Group (JWG).

Suggest steps in which the issue can be resolved peacefully and amicably. Replacing trawlers with deep sea fishing vessels, ban on unsustainable fishing, joint patrolling, orderly sharing of and sustainable use of resources by fishermen from both sides and de-politicization of the issue etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic:  Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices;

4. To enable small farmers to diversify their crops or improve their income they must have access to credit at reasonable rates of interest. Examine the reasons for low transmissibility of subsidised credit among small and marginal farmers. What are the steps required to rectify this issue? (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The agriculture sector’s performance has not been commensurate with the increasing subsidised credit it receives as most of small and marginal farmers are left out of its ambit due to various reasons.

Key Demand of the question:

To examine the reasons as to why small and marginal farmers are unable to receive the benefits of subsidized credits and to suggest solutions to the above issue.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin the answer by highlighting the importance of accessibility to credit for small and marginal famrers.

Body:

In the body, cite relevant stats from the article which captures the low transmissibility of the credit to small and marginal farmers. Also, state despite increased outlay in successive budgets, they credit reached to them remains very low. Write about its impact.

In detail, write the reasons for the low transmissibility – loose definition of agri-credit, misallocation, uneven distribution and diversion of credit for non-agriculture purposes etc. Substantiate these points from relevant facts and figures from the article.

Next, suggest steps that can be taken to address the above mentioned loopholes. Direct income support, streamlining the agri-credit system, leveraging technology, reforming the land leasing framework and creating a national-level agency to build consensus etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

 

Topic:  Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

5. If we make our major ports cargo-specific, develop infrastructure on a par with global standards, and connect them with the hinterlands as well as international sea routes, they will automatically become transhipment hubs. Discuss the role that the Sagarmala initiative can play in this regard. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

Over the past 70 years, India has lost its global eminence in shipping due to poor legislation and politics. This article analyses the reasons therefore and suggests how Sargarmala can revitalize the shipping sector in India.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the reasons poor performance of shipping sector and ports in India and issues that plague them and to write about the scope of Sagarmala in rectifying the above.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by briefly starting the objectives of Sagarmala initiative.

Body:

In the first part, write about the various issues that affect India’s shipping and port sectors – visionless administration, only helps foreign shipping liners, lack of balance between infrastructure onshore and at sea, not optimization of our carrying capacity and lack of regional cargo-specific ports etc.

Next, write about the potential of Sagarmala initiative and other efforts that are needed along with it. Change in the mindset of the authorities and the maritime business community, ‘Make in India’, ship-owning by Indians and consolidating the strength of the coastal youth.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: role of Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

6. We live in a world, which is growing very fast with its new technologies and developments. One of the fast growing trends of today’s world is consumerism. Analyze as to how consumerism affects the society? (150 words)

Reference: Ethics by Lexicon publications.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about growing consumerism in the society and the impact of it.

Directive:

Analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by giving an apt definition of consumerism.

Body:

Write about how the consumerism is on the rise and mention its manifestation on the contemporary society.

In the next part, mention certain positive aspects of consumerism like – more demand, economic growth, and prosperity.

In the final part, write about how Consumerism interferes with the working of society, by replacing the normal common sense desire for an adequate supply of life’s necessities, relationships with an artificial ongoing and the money to buy them with little regard for the utility of what is bought. Bring out the economic, environmental and ethical costs of consumerism. Substantiate with examples.

Conclusion:

Write ways in which you could avoid excessive indulgence in consumerism. You can mention the quote by Mahatma Gandhi “There is sufficient on this planet for everyone’s needs but not for everyone’s greed”

 

Topic:  Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.

7. Explain the factors that affect the morality of human action. What are the impediments to moral actions? (150 words)

Reference: Ethics by Lexicon publications.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Key Demand of the question:

A straightforward questions in which one has to wrote about the factors that make an action moral and the impediments to moral actions.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by writing that morality of action is to judge the goodness or badness of any particular human act.

Body:

In the first part, in detail write about the three major factors – The objective/intention of the Human Act, The Circumstances contextualising the Human Act, The end result of performing a Human Act. Substantiate with examples.

In the next part, write about the impediments to Moral acts – Ignorance, Passion, Habits, Greed, Fear and Cultural Prejudices etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with how we can overcome the above impediments.


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