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Insights into Editorial: Rise of shadow entrepreneurship





Recently, a professor at a business school allegedly misused his faculty position to provide fake certificates to students whom he had compelled to attend an online course that he taught.

He essentially took advantage of India’s rising pre-pandemic gig economy in education. When authorities at the institution discovered the racket, they suspended him.

This is a cautionary tale for the global rise of shadow entrepreneurship, not just in education but other sectors such as finance (for easy loans), the betting economy (online games) and healthcare (e-pharmacies).


Supply and Demand shock: What might drive the rise of shadow entrepreneurship?

  1. When there is a supply and demand shock as momentous as COVID-19, a new market may open up to tackle the shifting inwards of markets, owing to rising prices and lower quantities available.
  2. Shadow entrepreneurs, offering the allure of technology-mediated services, can help release the associated distortions and frictions in the market by offering complementary services that traditional service providers may be constrained to offer or consumers might not be able to access due to lockdown constraints.
  3. This could produce a redistribution of old consumers towards these new markets provided through technology and also entry of new consumers.
  4. While markets may self-correct using the invisible hand principles, the initial spike in demand and ensuing lock-in effects might imply higher market power for early movers.
  5. The manifestation of such market power will happen through a variety of ways beyond the obvious price setting effects.
  6. Small firms will get acquired by large firms. First movers in the space with deep pockets could generate irrationally high valuations.
  7. This may also show up with cross-border and national security implications as recently reported about shady loans being provided by Chinese instant loan providers online.
  8. Such technology-mediated shadow entrepreneurial platforms could also harbour less than safe spaces as is happening with harassment in Indian telemedicine platforms.
  9. It will also mean that unscrupulous individuals who are not entrepreneurs per se but are complementary service providers will potentially take more advantage of these post-pandemic market constraints, extracting money from consumers by means such as document forgery.
  10. Clearly, while such shadow entrepreneurialism may spike short-run welfare effects with technology mediated access, they could create perverse welfare consequences in the long run.


Challenges in Gig Economy and Shadow Entrepreneurship:

  1. The gig economy thrives largely unregulated, therefore workers have little job security and few benefits.
  2. However, few argue that the gig economy in India with respect to workers not getting any social security, insurance, etc. is an extension of India’s informal labour, which has been prevalent for a long time and has remained unregulated.
  3. With the tech companies coming in, there is data available, making it a possibility to enable job security.
  4. A worker needs to be skilled enough. Unless a person is extremely talented, his bargaining power will necessarily be limited.
  5. While companies routinely invest in training employees, a gig-economy worker will have to upgrade his skills on his own at his own cost.
  6. There are already many more potential online independent workers than jobs, and this demand-supply mismatch will only get worse over time, depressing wages.


How the Gig Economy Is Fuelling A New Type Of Entrepreneur?

  1. The gig economy has facilitated a new breed of worker: people who want the freedom and flexibility to call their own shots, without being tied to a corporate objective.
  2. To study the effect of the gig economy on entrepreneurship, the researchers looked at the entry of ride-hailing services such as Uber and Lyft into nearly 1,200 US cities and towns through 2016.
  3. Because the services entered different cities at different times, the researchers were able to get a before-and-after view of entrepreneurship in each market relative to the advent of the gig economy locally.
  4. By creating a space for people to explore and develop new skills, franchising provides a secure way to access the gig economy: a hands-on career with unlimited opportunity for growth, on your own terms.
  5. The way we see it, the future of work isn’t just about freedom and flexibility, it’s about finding a stable opportunity that allows you to create the life of your dreams.


What is then the way forward to regulate such activity?

  1. As research by Amit Seru at Stanford University and his colleagues found through studying shadow finance in the U.S., or research by the Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad found in the world of private coaching houses in Indian education, strong monitoring of quality would be essential.
  2. This needs to be complemented with non-compliance being punishable with a jail term, clamping down on services and related strict consequences.
  3. Those shadow firms that comply are more than welcome to join the dominant mode of service delivery with non-shadow firms.
  4. But without regulation, the situation could spiral out of control, given monitoring needs of public goods distribution for the developing world.
  5. There also needs to be an associated harmonisation of activities between competition authorities of governments (in India’s case the Ministry of Corporate Affairs in regulating shadow entrepreneurship and government departments in healthcare, education or finance).



There is a need for the government to step in and implement radical changes in labour laws or implement tax rebates and concessions that can be passed on directly to drivers or delivery partners as health or insurance benefits.

There is a large shadow economy literature mainly arguing that the share of the informal activity is a function of the tax and enforcement policies.

The main idea in this literature is that high taxes on formal production and loose enforcement, which is often the case in LDCs, encourage informal economic activity.

However, some experts say that this would directly affect prices of service delivered to the end customer.

Given the potential perverse consequences of shadow entrepreneurship in the long run for consumer welfare, regulation is needed to monitor quality of services.