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[Insights Secure STHIR– 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 19 January 2021

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues;

1. The task before the Congress was a tremendous one – particularly in the light of the kind of expectations the people had from the Congress. Analyze the performance of Congress ministries. (250 words)

Reference: India’s Struggle for Independence by Bipan Chandra.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the performance of Congress in its 24 month rule by analyzing its achievement and shortcomings.

Directive:

Analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by mentioning the backdrop of formation of Congress ministries and wide and varied expectations of different sections of people from it.

Body:

Elaborate further on expectation from the diverse group of people. Their demands and expectations from INC. Briefly, mention the major demands from the various provinces.

In the next part, bring out the performance of congress in its 28 month short rule. In detail analyze how congress performed with respect to land reforms, labour reforms, Civil Liberties, Release of Political Prisoners, Press and Constructive work undertake by the Congress.

In the final part, mention the impediments to Congress rule and mention the shortcomings of it. Internal bickering, failure

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarizing the biggest achievements of Congress ministries.

 

Topic:  Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues;

2. The Cripps Mission failed to pacify the Indians. The British had merely taken up this exercise to demonstrate to the world that they cared about Indian sentiments, rather than to actually do something concrete. Comment. (250 words)

Reference: India’s Struggle for Independence by Bipan Chandra.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1

Key Demand of the question:

To write about why the Cripps mission failed and the inherent flaws in its design which made it bound to fail.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Write in brief about the Cripps mission and its mandate.

Body:

In brief mention the key outcomes and proposals of the Cripps mission with respect to India.

In the next part, in a detailed manner write about the reasons as to why the Cripps mission failed to pacify Indians. Write about the reactions of various nationalist leaders as well as political parties to the proposals of the Cripps mission.

In the last part, write about the flaws in the sending of the Cripps mission as how it was just a façade rather than something concrete. The non-cooperation of the secretary of the state, the limited powers it had and nothing concrete could be proposed.

Conclusion:

Write how its failure played a part in the start of Quit India movement.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic:  Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability;

3. Transparency and consultation build confidence, resolve issues, and reaffirm the faith of the public in the government. Hence they are vital tools of governance. Discuss in the light of recent various protests and major issues witnessed across India. (250 words)

Reference: Business Standard

Why the question:

From protests against laws redefining citizenship and agri-marketing to suspicions over the safety of the Covid-19 vaccine and leaks about internal differences over economic policy, these all point to lack of sufficient transparency, consultation and confidence.

Key Demand of the question:

To highlight the importance of transparency and consultation in resolving various protests and major issues that face the government.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin the answer by giving context of major issues and protests witnessed in the recent past in the light of the above statement.

Body:

Elaborate upon the above issues and analyze their nature in brief. The Farm law protests, CAA-NRC protests, Vaccine hesitancy, Rafale issue, accusations of crony capitalism and various leaks regarding internal strife etc.

Next, mention how the lack of transparency and consultation play a part in the above issues. In detail, mention steps that the government can take to try and improve the transparency. Better information sharing of relevant deals, clearing misconceptions, voluntary sharing of information as well responding effectively to RTI queries etc.

In the next part, mention about how the government can improve its consultation with relevant stakeholders in the issues having major public ramification. Consultation followed by addressing the concerns, taking all the stakeholders in to confidence, putting major policy decisions or laws in the public domain etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

 

Topic:  Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions.

4. Despite its good intention to mediate during the crisis of farm laws, the court must control these impulses to govern or legislate from the bench. Violating the structural separation of powers concentrates power in the judiciary, which will lead to a dictatorial instead of an impartial court. Critically Analyze. (250 words)

Reference: Live Mint

Why the question:

The Supreme Court, in its verdict on the petitions regarding the Centre’s new farm laws and the ongoing farmers’ protest, has put on hold the three farm laws and set up a four-member committee to clear the issues. Many constitutional experts have critiqued the act of SC.

Key Demand of the question:

To analyze as to how courts resorting to legislate or govern from the bench will violate the separation powers and is not in the interests of the country.

Directive:

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by mentioning the doctrine separation of powers and why it was envisaged in India by the founding fathers.

Body:

In the first part of the body, write about how the recent move of SC to put on hold he implementation of the farm laws and appointment of a mediation committees constitutes judicial overreach on its part. Lack of legal basis, neglecting judicial review, lack of representation. Mention relevant articles from the Indian constitution.

Next, in detail bring out the impact that above will have on India. Violation of structural separation of powers, concentration of power, lack of administration of justice and non-representation of the will of the people etc. Substantiate your points with examples.

In the final part, examine as to why there is need of Judiciary to intervene in the sphere of legislation and the executive. Suggest steps to address the same.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic:  Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

5. Natural resources, including minerals, are a shared inheritance where the state is the trustee on behalf of the people to ensure that future generations receive the benefit of inheritance. Examine the issues of mining in India and suggest steps to address them. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

Governments everywhere treat the mineral sale proceeds as revenue or income, a crucial error which hides the real transaction — a sale of inherited wealth. This article analyses the same and mention steps to avoid it.

Key Demand of the question:

To examine the issues related with unsustainable mining and suggest steps to prevent it.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by mentioning about sustainable development vis-à-vis mining sector in India.

Body:

In the first part, in detail bring out the issues affecting the mining sector and inhibiting its sustainable growth. Issues associated with mining – issues of unscientific mining, poor track records of environmental and social performance, and high instances of illegal activities.

The Losses in mineral value and the regulatory environment, and capacity and accountability of our authorities. Impact on social aspect – displacement of tribal pockets, Community concerns, Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement etc. Environmental aspect – Environmental pollution, critically fragile ecological areas, Exclusive Mining Zones, clearance systems etc.

Suggest steps to address the above. Mention how National Mineral Policy can play part in addressing the issues of equity and sustainable mining.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic:  Corporate governance;

6. Corporate governance is concerned with holding the balance between economic and social goals. Elaborate. (150 words)

Reference: Ethics by Lexicon publications.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Key Demand of the question:

To address the concept of corporate governance and its socio-economic significance between individual and community goals.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by defining corporate governance. 

Body:

In the first part briefly explain, that corporate governance is about enabling organisations to achieve their goals, control risks and assuring compliance. Good corporate governance incorporates a set of rules that define the relationship between stakeholders, management and the board of directors of a company and influence how the company is operating.

Then discuss in detail role of corporate governance in achieving the balance between economic and social goals and between individual and community based goals. Give examples from India and the world to substantiate your point.

Conclusion:

Conclude with its importance of corporate governance in improving growth and productivity companies as well as achieving socio-economic objectives.

 

Topic:  Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world;

7. What do you understand by the following quote?

 ‘The Best Way to Find Yourself Is To Lose Yourself In The Service Of Others’  -Mahatma Gandhi (150 words)

Why the question:

Question asked in UPSC Mains Examination 2020 GS-IV paper.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by explaining the quote.

Body:

Elaborate upon how service is a defining and fulfilling enterprise which can help you to see that “you” are not delineated by an identity, but defined by ability, compassion, connection and love.

By seeing virtue as selflessness and altruism and doing well to others, we are most essentially ourselves. If we act selfishly, we are not acting as our true selves

Substantiate the above by giving examples.

Conclusion:

Conclude by stressing why this quote is more relevant the ever in the current circumstances.


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