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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 12 January 2021


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic:  Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues;

1. Explain the nature of non-cooperation movement which was observed across India. Why the non-cooperation was called off and what were its impact? (250 words)

Reference: India’s Struggle for Independence by Bipan Chandra.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1.

Key Demand of the question:

To explain in detail as to how non-cooperation movement manifested across India and to reasons for its withdrawal.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Write in brief about non-cooperation movement and the context it was launched in. 

Body:

Non-cooperation included, the surrender of titles and honours, boycott of government affiliated schools and colleges, law courts, foreign cloth, and could be extended to include resignation from government service, non-payment of taxes. National schools and colleges were to be set up, panchayats were to be established for settling disputes, hand-spinning and weaving was to be encouraged and people were asked to maintain Hindu-Muslim unity, give up untouchability and observe strict non-violence.

Mention how the above manifested in various parts of India such a Bombay, Bengal, U.P, Andhra, Assam and Punjab etc.

Then give out the reasons for withdrawal of NCM, first mention about certain theories which wrongly criticizes Gandhi as trying protecting the interests of Zamindars. The write about the actual reason, that is, Chauri-Chaura incident and the anticipation of huge repression from the government which made Gandhi call the movement off.

Mention the reaction of the nationalists and the impact of abrupt shut down in contemporary politics of the national movement.

 Conclusion:

Write about the significance of the movement despite it sudden withdrawal

Introduction:

Non-Cooperation Movement was a significant phase of the Indian independence movement from British rule. It was led by Mahatma Gandhi after the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre. It aimed to resist British rule in India through nonviolent means.

Body:

  • Mahatma Gandhi was the main force behind the non-cooperation movement. In March 1920, he issued a manifesto declaring a doctrine of the non-violent non-cooperation movement. Gandhi, through this manifesto, wanted people to:
    • Adopt swadeshi principles
    • Adopt swadeshi habits including hand spinning & weaving
    • Work for the eradication of untouchability from society
  • Causes of Non-Cooperation Movement
    • Resentment at the British after the war:
      • Indians thought that in return for the extensive support of manpower and resources they had provided to Britain during the First World War, they would be rewarded by autonomy at the end of the war.
      • But the Government of India Act 1919 was dissatisfactory. In addition, the British also passed repressive acts like the Rowlatt Act which further angered many Indians who felt betrayed by the rulers despite their wartime support.
    • Home Rule Movement:
      • The Home Rule Movement started by Annie Besant and Bal Gangadhar Tilak set the stage for the non-cooperation movement.
      • The extremists and the moderates of the INC were united and the Lucknow Pact also saw solidarity between the Muslim League and the Congress Party.
      • The return of the extremists gave the INC a militant character.
    • Economic hardships due to World War I:
      • India’s participation in the war caused a lot of economic hardships to the people.
      • Prices of goods began to soar which affected the common man.
      • Peasants also suffered because the prices of agricultural products did not increase.
      • All this led to resentment against the government.
    • The Rowlatt Act and the Jallianwala Bagh massacre:
      • The repressive Rowlatt Act and the brutal massacre at Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar had a profound effect on the Indian leaders and the people.
      • Their faith in the British system of justice was broken and the whole country rallied behind its leaders who were pitching for a more aggressive and firmer stance against the government.
    • The Khilafat Movement:
      • During the First World War, Turkey, which was one of the Central Powers, had fought against the British.
      • After Turkey’s defeat, the Ottoman caliphate was proposed to be dissolved. Muslims regarded Sultan of Turkey as their Caliph (religious head of the Muslims).
      • The Khilafat movement was launched under the leadership of Ali Brothers (Maulana Mohammed Ali and Maulana Shaukat Ali), Maulana Azad, Hakim Ajmal Khan, and Hasrat Mohani.
      • It got the support from Mahatma Gandhi to persuade the British government not to abolish the caliphate.
      • The leaders of this movement accepted the non-cooperation movement of Gandhiji and led a joint protest against the British.
    • Features of the Non-Cooperation Movement
      • The movement was essentially a peaceful and non-violent protest against the British government in India.
      • Indians were asked to relinquish their titles and resign from nominated seats in the local bodies as a mark of protest.
      • People were asked to resign from their government jobs.
      • People were asked to withdraw their children from government-controlled or aided schools and colleges.
      • People were asked to boycott foreign goods and use only Indian-made goods.
      • People were asked to boycott the elections to the legislative councils.
      • People were asked not to serve in the British army.
      • It was also planned that if the above steps did not bring results, people would refuse to pay their taxes.
      • The INC also demanded Swarajya or self-government.
      • Only completely non-violent means would be employed to get the demands fulfilled.
      • The non-cooperation movement was a decisive step in the independence movement because, for the first time, the INC was ready to forego constitutional means to achieve self-rule.
      • Gandhiji had assured that Swaraj would be achieved in a year if this movement was continued to completion.
    • Forms of protest:
      • The Programme of non-cooperation included within its ambit the surrender of titles and honors.
      • Boycott of government affiliated schools and colleges
      • Boycott of law courts
      • Picketing of shops selling foreign cloth
      • Boycott could be extended to include resignation from government service and mass civil disobedience including the non-payment of taxes.
      • National schools and colleges were to be set up
      • Panchayats were to be established for settling disputes
      • Hand-spinning and weaving was to be encouraged
      • People were asked to maintain Hindu- Muslim unity, give up untouchability and observe strict non-violence.
      • Kisan sabhas:
        • In the Avadh area of U.P., where Kisan sabhas and a kisan movement had been gathering strength since 1918 and with Non-cooperation propaganda it became difficult to distinguish between a Non-cooperation meeting and a kisan meeting.
        • In Malabar in Kerala, Non-cooperation and Khilafat propaganda helped to arouse the Muslims tenants against their landlords.
      • Charkhas were popularized on a wide scale and khadi became the uniform of the national movement.
      • Defiance of forest laws became popular in Andhra.
      • Peasants and tribals in some of the Rajasthan states began movements for securing better conditions of life.
      • Akali movement:
        • In Punjab, the Akali Movement for taking control of the gurudwaras from the corrupt mahants (priests) was a part of the general movement of Non-cooperation, and the Akalis observed strict non-violence in the face of tremendous repression.
      • End of the Non-Cooperation Movement
        • While in 1921 the Non – Cooperation Movement was in full steam, the masses were awakened from their slumber and the grass root workers of Congress, as well as the leadership, were asking Mahatma Gandhi to launch the next phase of mass civil disobedience.
  • Gandhi announced that massive civil disobedience would begin in the Bardoli Taluka district of Surat and that all other parts of the country should cooperate by maintaining total discipline and silence in order to concentrate the entire attention of the movement on Bardoli.
  • However, the Chauri Chaura incident occurred before mass civil disobedience could be launched.
  • Chauri Chaura Incident
    • A Congress – Khilafat procession took place at Chauri Chaura in U.P. district of Gorakhpur on February 5, 1922.
    • Irritated by some policemen’s behavior, they were attacked by a crowd section.
    • The police opened fire on the unarmed procession in retaliation. Instigated by this, the whole procession attacked the police and the mob set fire to the building when the police hid inside the police station.
    • The cops who were trying to escape were hacked into pieces and thrown into the fire. In the Chauri Chaura incident, 22 police officers were killed.
    • Gandhi was profoundly disturbed by the Chauri Chaura incident news.
    • Gandhi decided to withdraw the movement because it violated the strict condition of non – violence that he had set for the launch of the civil disobedience phase and the continuation of the non – cooperation movement.
    • Thus, the Non – Cooperation Movement came to an end on February 12, 1922.
  • Impact of the Non-Cooperation Movement
  • Success:
    • The non-cooperation movement led by Gandhi was a mass movement which had never been seen before and after the Great Rebellion of 1857.
    • With the Non-Cooperation Movement, nationalist sentiments reached every nook and corner of the country and politicized every strata of population—the artisans, peasants, students, urban poor, women, traders, etc.
    • This politicization of men and women which imparted a revolutionary character to the national movement.
    • The myth that British rule was invincible was challenged by satyagraha through mass struggle.
    • It gave push to indigenous products thereby helping Indian producers and damaged Britain’s economic and commercial interests.
  • Failures:
    • People from the middle classes led the movement at the beginning but later they showed a lot of reservations about Gandhi’s Programme.
    • In places like Calcutta, Bombay and Madras, which were centres of elite politicians, the response to Gandhi’s call was very limited.
    • The response to the call for resignation from the government service, surrendering of titles, etc., was not taken seriously.
    • A section of the big business remained skeptical towards the movement. They seemed to be afraid of labour unrest in their factories.
    • People had not learnt or fully understood the method of non-violence. Violent incident in Chauri-Chaura in February 1922 marred the spirit of the movement. Gandhi responded by withdrawing Non-Cooperation movement arguing masses have not yet learned to practice non-violence.

Conclusion

Even though the Non-Cooperation movement did not achieve its stated aims but the strategic and leadership role of Mahatma Gandhi gave India’s freedom struggle new dimensions. The biggest gain of the movement was that it gave a new confidence to the common people and taught them to be fearless in their political pursuit and made Swarajya an important goal.

 

Topic: Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues;

2. Do you think Mahatma Gandhi’s support to Khilafat Movement had diluted his secular credentials? Give your argument based on the evaluation of events. (250 words)

Reference: India’s Struggle for Independence by Bipan Chandra.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1.

Key Demand of the question:

one is expected to evaluate whether Gandhiji’s secular credentials got diluted with Khilafat; by discussing the critiques and providing for the arguments that prove it otherwise.

Directive:

Evaluate – When you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming a personal opinion here.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Introduce by stating the backdrop of Khilafat movement and how Gandhiji came to support the cause of it.

Body

Such questions should be addressed through a narration, the body of the answer should preferably first discuss as to why his support to the Khilafat movement seemed to have unsecular colors to it, why was he criticized by some under this pretext. Then move on to explain that though the movement was based on religious issue, for Gandhiji was neither communal nor pro-Muslim nor an opportunistic leader but was a pragmatic statesman who had to make best use of the opportunities and resources available to him to attain independence from the British rule.

Conclusion

Conclude with his purity of means, how the Chauri chaura incidence made him call off the movement depicting his only true religion was humanity.

Introduction:

Post-World war 1, the allied powers had imposed harsh terms on the Sultan of Turkey who was revered by the Muslims across the world as ‘Khalifa’- the religious head of Islam. Therefore, the Indian Muslims led by Ali brothers launched the khilafat movement. Gandhiji saw this as an opportune event to forge unity between the Hindus and Muslims who were drifting apart due to a volley of previous events.

Body:

The history of Indian national movement can be studied under three important phases

1885-1905: Moderate Nationalism

1906-1916: Swadeshi and Home-Rule Movement, Militant Nationalism

1917-1947: Gandhian Era.

  • Muslims were apprehensive of INC’s freedom Struggle:
  • During the second phase, the extremists who were members of INC like Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Lala Lajpat Rai started off with Hindu Revivalism events.
  • Tilak used Ganesh Chaturthi, Shivaji Jayanthi festivals as a medium to attract the citizens towards nationalism which estranged the Muslim brothers.
  • Lajpat Rai was associated with the Shuddhi movement which involved reforms in the Hindu religion as well as wooing back the Hindus who had converted to Islam and Christianity.
  • The setting up of Muslim League in 1906 was a watershed event which lead to partition ultimately.
  • The Morley Minto reforms of 1909 provided the separate electorates for Muslims paving the way for strengthened Communalism.
  • However, in the Lucknow Pact of 1916, a truce was made between the INC and Muslim league. They took part together in-Home rule league movement in 1917. But this honeymoon period didn’t last long.
  • Thus, when Gandhiji took up the leadership of Indian National movement, he felt a moral responsibility to forge a unity between the Hindus and Muslims.
  • Central Khilafat Committee in India (1919-1920) started by Muslim leaders like Abdul Bari, Maulana Azad and the Ali Brothers had the objectives of boycotting the titles, civil services, police and army and non-payment of taxes. Gandhiji’s Non-Cooperation Movement also had similar objectives. Hence, he saw an opportunity to merge the movements and approached the leaders.  The latter were already impressed by Gandhiji’s efforts in South Africa and immediately agreed to make Gandhiji a member of Khilafat committee as his arrival gave a new strength to the agitation. Consequently, they merged the movements.
  • Yes, Gandhiji’s secular credentials were diluted to an extent due to
    • Gandhiji validated the demand for partition by agreeing to support a religious cause of Khilafat movement.
    • According to the Khilafat hardcore members, the NCM was a fight against the Britishers as well as Hindu Landlords. This helped in further vitiating the relation between Muslims and Hindus and led to rebellions like Moplah and riots against Hindu Jenmis in Aug 1921.
    • The Khilafat movement didn’t succeed for long as the ruler of Turkey, Mustafa Kemal Pasha declared Turkey as a Republic and no more Monarchy in 1923. He further went on to abolish Caliphate in 1924 making Gandhiji fight for a lost cause.
  • No, his secular credentials were intact because
    • The seeds of Communalism was already sown in 1909 by granting communal electorates in Morley- Minto reforms and further bolstered in Lucknow Pact of 1916.
    • The merging of Khilafat with NCM in 1920 led to strength of mass movement which left the British high and dry, thinking of the future. Thus, it was a net gain of funds and followers for Indian National Movement.
    • Gandhiji abruptly called off the NCM in 1922 following Chauri-Chaura incident which shows that his ideals of non-violence was more important to him.
    • His equal respect for all cultures and religions implied the idea of mutual learning and inter-faith dialogue.
    • Gandhi did not privilege any one religion over another, not even Hinduism. Religion for him was a matter of soft spirituality, rather than hard rituals and hard institutions.
    • Gandhi knew that independence could not come about by the efforts of the Hindus alone. He, therefore, involved the Indian Muslims in the struggle.
    • He never accepted the argument that Hindus and Muslims constituted two separate elements in Indian society. That is why Gandhi’s willingness to go out of his way to win over Muslims to the Congress won him many friends and admirers among the Muslims.
    • Gandhi’s deliberate attachment to the Muslims and the Khilafat movement had helped him in reaching broader groups in Indian society and rising as a non-elitist leader in the Congress.

Conclusion:

For Gandhi the power of the nation was vested with the people, rather than religion. Till his last breath, Gandhiji fought to keep Hindus and Muslims united. He was neither communal nor pro Muslim but a pragmatic leader. Gandhiji was a statesman who made best use of the opportunities and resources available to him to attain independence from the British rule.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic:  Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources;

3. The adverse impact of Covid-19 on school education is immense, a well-planned and holistic effort is required on the part of the government to prevent large scale dropouts. Comment. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The Union Education Ministry’s directive to the States to launch a mission to avoid large-scale dropouts in schools in the coming year, partly by relaxing the detention policy,

Key Demand of the question:

to bring out the impact of Covid-19 on school education in India and to find a way forward to prevent large scale drop outs.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by giving the context regarding the impact of covid-19 on education sector.

Body:

Elaborate on the disruptions caused and present some statistics and figures that captures the gravity of the situation.

Write about the potential consequences of the above.

In detail, explain the steps that are needed to prevent it. Relaxing the detention policy is a welcome step but much more is needed. Prioritizing students who are unable to return, negating the negative economic consequences on the families, achieving convergence in various government schemes and special emphasis on the girl child education etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

Introduction:

Nationwide lockdown has closed each academic institution, as a consequence of which, learners going from school-going kids to postgraduate college students, are affected.

The UNESCO report estimates that the Covid pandemic will adversely have an effect on over 290 million college students throughout 22 international locations. The

UNESCO estimates that round 32 crores college students are affected in India, incorporating these in faculties and faculties.

United Nations (UN) recently released the secretary-general’s policy brief on the impact of Covid-19 on the world’s education system.

Body:

Key highlights of the policy brief:

  • The policy brief points to the fact that the closure of schools and other learning spaces have impacted 94% of the world’s student population and up to 99% in low and lower-middle income countries.
  • It suggests that despite the delivery of lessons by radio, TV and online, and efforts of teachers and parents, many students still do not have access to education.
  • It highlights how learners with disabilities, those from marginalised communities, displaced and refugee students, and those in remote areas are at highest risk of being left behind.
  • It warns that the knock-on effects on child nutrition, child marriage and gender equality could be enormous.
  • The cumulative impact of all these on children may lead to a “generational catastrophe” that could waste human potential, undermine decades of progress, and exacerbate entrenched inequalities.
  • This is not good news for any nation, more so for those in the low and lower-middle income segments such as India.

IMPACT OF COVID-19 ON EDUCATION

School and university closures will not only have a short-term impact on the continuity of learning for more than 300 million young learners in India but also engender far-reaching economic and societal consequences.

The pandemic has significantly disrupted the higher education sector as well, which is a critical determinant of a country’s economic future.

Sluggish cross-border movement of students:

  • A large number of Indian students—second only to China—enroll in universities abroad, especially in countries worst affected by the pandemic, the US, UK, Australia and China.
  • Many such students have now been barred from leaving these countries. If the situation persists, in the long run, a decline in the demand for international higher education is expected.

Passive learning by students: 

  • The sudden shift to online learning without any planning, has created the risk of most of our students becoming passive learners and they seem to be losing interest due to low levels of attention span.

Unprepared teachers for online education: 

  • Lack of expertise of teachers in dealing with digital learning

Drop in employment rate: 

  • Recent graduates in India are fearing withdrawal of job offers from corporates because of the current situation. The Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy’s estimates on unemployment shot up from 8.4% in mid-March to 23% in early April and the urban unemployment rate to 30.9%.

 OPPORTUNITIES TO IMPROVE EDUCATIONAL QUALITY:

Rise in Blended Learning:

  • Universities and colleges will shift to a model of blended learning where both face to face delivery along with an online model will become a norm.
  • This will require all teachers to become more technology savvy and go through some training to bring themselves to the level that would be required.

Learning management systems to be the new norm:

  • A great opportunity will open up for those companies that have been developing and strengthening learning management systems for use by universities and colleges.
  • This has the potential to grow at a very fast pace but will have to be priced appropriately for use by all institutions.

Improvement in learning material:

  • There is a great opportunity for universities and colleges to start improving the quality of the learning material that is used in the teaching and learning process.
  • Since blended learning will be the new format of learning there will be a push to find new ways to design and deliver quality content especially due to the fact that the use of learning management systems will bring about more openness and transparency in academics.

Rise in collaborative work:

  • The teaching community to a large extent has been much insulated and more so in a country like India.
  • There is a new opportunity where collaborative teaching and learning can take on new forms and can even be monetized.
  • Finally, it is expected that there will be a massive rise in teleconferencing opportunities which can also have a negative impact on the travel.

WAY FORWARD

  • While the focus must now be ensuring the safety of students, teachers and staff, and putting in place protocols for school reopening, there has to be an extensive assessment of the learning loss and well-thought-out plans to bridge the learning gap, and schemes to retain students.
  • This entails tweaking the syllabus and changing pedagogy.
  • This forced break must also be used to align the sector to the National Education Policy (NEP), which was released last week, especially to its foundational learning goals.

Last but not least, governments will have to arrange for funds required for the sector.

 

Topic:  Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

4. The new EU-China investment deal underscores the prioritization of short-term economic opportunities over any long-term strategy vis-à-vis a rising global power that is intent on challenging the fundamentals of the global order, which the EU is keen to preserve. Analyse. (250 words)

Reference: Live Mint

Why the question:

The European Union (EU) announced the ‘in principle’ conclusion of an agreement with China to open the Chinese market further to its investors, bringing to an end a process that began way back in 2013.

Key Demand of the question:

Directive:

Analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by writing about the nature of the deal and how it has been portrayed that the agreement is of major economic significance” as China has committed to an unprecedented level of market access for EU investors, giving European businesses certainty and predictability for their operations.

Body:

In the first part of the body, write about the key elements and important details of the agreement between EU and China.

Bring about the detailed analysis of the treaty. The China-EU Investment Treaty which saw Europe capitulating to China’s brandishments is an indication that Europe values its economy more than its politics, sidelining of the U.S, the extent of implementing the agreements made as a part of the deal and overall instability related to the deal.

Mention how this could impact EU-India relations.

Conclusion:

Conclude with the approach that India needs to take in the wake of the recent developments between EU and China.

Introduction:

European Union (EU) announced the ‘in principle’ conclusion of an agreement with China to open the Chinese market further to its investors, bringing to an end a process that began way back in 2013.

Body:

  • The EU declared that “this agreement is of major economic significance” as “China has committed to an unprecedented level of market access for EU investors, giving European businesses certainty and predictability for their operations.”
  • This investment pact, which comes into force in early 2022, is aimed at addressing a longstanding European demand for greater access to the Chinese market and fairer competition with Chinese companies.
  • It removes joint-venture requirements in financial services while phasing them out in the automobile sector, even as it opens up the Chinese markets for health services, cloud computing and electric vehicles.
  • At least in theory, the agreement commits Beijing to end forced technology transfers and improve transparency over how it subsidizes firms.
  • EU- China Comprehensive Agreement on Investment
    • Ambitious opening and level playing field for European investments
      • In terms of market access for EU businesses, China has made significant commitments on manufacturing, the most important sector for EU investment in China.
      • Manufacturing makes up more than half of total EU investment – including 28% for the automotive sector and 22% for basic materials.
      • This includes production of electric cars, chemicals, telecoms equipment and health equipment, among others.
      • China is also making commitments for EU investments in various services sectors, such as cloud services, financial services, private healthcare, environmental services, international maritime transport and air transport-related services.
      • In the sectors covered, European business will gain certainty and predictability for their operations as China will no longer be able to prohibit access or introduce new discriminatory practices.
      • The CAI will help to level the playing field for EU investors by laying down very clear rules on Chinese state-owned enterprises, transparency of subsidies, and prohibiting forced technology transfers and other distortive practices.
      • The agreement also includes guarantees that will make it easier for European companies to obtain authorizations and complete administrative procedures. It also secures access to China’s standard setting bodies for European companies.
    • Embedding sustainability in EU investment relationship
      • The CAI will bind the parties into a values-based investment relationship underpinned by sustainable development principles.
      • This is the first time that China agrees to such ambitious provisions with a trade partner.
      • Amongst others, China is undertaking commitments in the areas of labour and environment such as not to lower the standards of protection in order to attract investment, to respect its international obligations, as well as to promote responsible business conduct by its companies.
      • China has also agreed to effectively implement the Paris Agreement on climate change as well as to effectively implement the International Labour Organization Conventions (ILO) it has ratified.
      • China has also agreed to make continued and sustained efforts to ratify the ILO fundamental Conventions on forced labour.
      • Sustainable development matters will be subject to a solid enforcement mechanism by an independent panel of experts as in our other trade agreements. This means a transparent resolution of disagreements with the involvement of civil society.
    • Last year was a turbulent one in EU-China relations, with Brussels reacting strongly to China’s imposition of a new security law in Hong Kong, even as it accused Beijing of trying to spread disinformation on the novel coronavirus.
    • The EU has been trying to position itself as a global geopolitical player, and several member states have enunciated their ‘Indo-Pacific’ policies, a nomenclature strongly objected to by China.
    • And in its recent transatlantic strategy, the EU also made a case to the US to work with it to meet the “strategic challenge” posed by China.
    • But the new EU-China investment deal underscores the prioritization of short-term economic opportunities over any long-term strategy vis-à-vis a rising global power that is intent on challenging the fundamentals of the global order, which the EU is keen to preserve.
    • Impact on Trans-Atlantic Relations
      • President-elect Joe Biden has declared his desire to work more closely with U.S. allies and partners in order to coordinate a stronger response to China.
      • The CAI could weaken the Biden administration’s efforts for closer EU-U.S. cooperation on China as they no longer trust the EU’s offers of cooperation.
      • Many involved in European trade negotiations recognized Europe’s frustration with the U.S. “Phase One” negotiations and feel that CAI brings them closer to parity with the United States.
      • The United States must be patient as the benefits of CAI may prove short-lived if Beijing does not deliver on their promises.
      • In addition, Merkel’s mandate ends in September 2021 and her successor may take a harder position on China. Other EU member states are also increasingly skeptical toward China.
      • The new administration needs to keep things in perspective and understand that the long-awaited EU deal with China, seven years in the making, will not necessarily prevent future U.S.-EU cooperation on China.
      • The bipartisan shock in the United States at the EU’s timing of this agreement needs to be followed by clear messaging on the proposed U.S.-EU partnership on China.
      • Working together, both could focus on extracting real commitments from Beijing on increased market access, subsidies to state-owned enterprises, and respect for intellectual property.
      • The U.S. and EU could spearhead a new multilateral coalition to balance China on the world stage.

Conclusion:

For India, there is much to consider here. New Delhi is trying to build a strategic partnership with the EU. But with Brussels’ inability to think strategically, this engagement is unlikely to reach its full potential. India would like very much for the EU to pull its weight as a global geopolitical player, but with the EU looking uninterested, New Delhi will have to find partners elsewhere.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic:  Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

5. What do you understand by this quote:

‘To educate a man in mind and not in morals is to educate a menace to society’.

1. Theodore Roosevelt  (150 words)

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Key Demand of the question:

To mention how the education system without values can be a bane to the society.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by elaborating and describing the meaning of the quote briefly.

Body:

Use examples to substantiate the quote. Such as educated people indulging in unethical activities, doing morally wrong things and causing harm to the society. E.g.: Scientists who aided in Holocaust, Educated person taking dowry etc.

Inculcation of discipline, honesty, being sensitive to the feelings of others, respect for teachers, engaging in debates without grudging the contrary view, inculcating team spirit , respecting the rules and code of conduct, cheering for the success of others  must be made an integral part of value based educational system.

Conclusion:

Summarize as how the educated men and women of various streams and young students must assert their responsibility to take back control over our value systems.

Introduction:

Having young, impressionable minds confined to four walls, with access to suspect information could be the harbinger of a catastrophe. It should alert us to serious developmental issues which may not manifest immediately. Social skills are an obvious casualty.

A much greater concern should be about moral values and character building. In addition to the ills of social media, uncontrolled web content and the mind-numbing effect of online gaming, look at what our children watch on TV.

What is more worrisome is the news, which is the real world. What do our young see on the news, or more importantly on primetime “discussions”? Lies, unscientific claims, a baseless sense of superiority, bigotry, masochism, aggression, shouting over others, refusing to see the other’s point of view, a total lack of accommodation and now even foul and outright abusive language.

School is a place that provides education and education is the key to life. Schools prepare us for life through exposure to activities, ideas, and fields of knowledge that one might never encounter otherwise.

Inculcation of discipline, telling the truth, being sensitive to the feelings of classmates, respect for teachers, engaging in debates without grudging the contrary view, inculcating team spirit, graciously conceding defeat on the sports field, respecting the rules and code of conduct, cheering for the success of others have been an integral part of school life. These have an impact on students’ sense of what is right and wrong and what is desired and undesired behaviour. From keeping their classrooms clean, to devoting time at a blind school or hospital, students not just develop empathy; they also learn skills of problem solving, conflict resolution and innovation. I have seen teachers apologise to a child, saying, “I’m sorry”.

Today it is criticised that schools have become mechanical and impart knowledge that lacks morality, which is illustrated below.

Mechanical:

  • Children’s education has been reduced to mere numbers. Race for marks leading to malpractices in exams.
  • No actual teacher-student bondage. While teachers are busy completing syllabus, students are busy completing assignments. In such scenario, potential of children is hardly recognized.
  • Curriculum that hardly promotes holistic development. Students are emotionally too weak to deal with the realities of life. Ex: suicides due to lower grades, falling prey to online games.
  • Education is just seen as a means to earn (students-job, institutes-business).

Knowledge without morality:

Mere accumulation of knowledge is not enough. One has to be inculcated values that contribute positively to the growth of individual and society as a whole. Without value based education, education is only going to create a clever devil. Today, number of examples show moral foundation of students is not strong enough like

  • Increasing crimes by Juveniles (lack of ability to comprehend consequences).
  • Student attacking teacher (lack of respect) and student attacking other student just to postpone exams (least value to ‘life’).

Events like Private schools’ reluctance to admit students from economically weaker sections (EWS) and Incidents of sexual harassment further send wrong message to children.

Let the educated men and women of fine arts, our doctors, scientists, engineers, industrial workers, agriculturists, teachers, academicians, and of course our young students assert their responsibility to take back control over our value systems. We must redefine success. Only those who are inquisitive, respect nature, seek truth and create harmony are successful in nurturing life.

A morally strong population will be a stronger bulwark against Machiavellianism, authoritarianism and rapacious corporate plunder than any political or trade union movement.  As scientific temper and moral values permeate our schooling, we can look forward to a new kind of human existence; a “civilizational” change, which the whole world will celebrate and rejoice in, perhaps even replicate—after all we are never shy of claiming that we were the “vishwa guru”.

CONCLUSION:

As swami Vivekananda says “We want the education by which character is formed, strength of mind is increased, and the intellect is expanded, and by which one can stand on one’s own feet”.

 

Topic:  Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.

6. Explain the relationship between attitude and behaviour. How are attitudes formed? (150 words)

Reference: Ethics by Lexicon publications

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Key Demand of the question:

To develop the relation between attitude and behavior and to explain how are attitudes formed.

Directive:

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by defining attitude and behavior.

Body:

In the first part of the body, bring out the relationship between attitude and behavior. Attitude can be defined as what a person internalizes as its values and beliefs, what it carries to be disposed and what generally forms a character of a person. Behavior finely abuts attitude. It’s a sum total summary of a person’s actions.

In the next part, write about the nature as to how attitudes are formed. Attitude formation occurs through either direct experience or the persuasion of others or the media. Attitudes have three foundations: affect or emotion, behavior, and cognitions. Sensory Reactions, Values, Operant Conditioning and Classical Conditioning etc. aid in the formation of attitude.

Conclusion:

Finish by mentioning about the need to develop the right attitude.

Introduction:

Attitude is a person’s mental outlook, which defines the way we think or feel anything. It has a strong impact on our decisions, actions, stimuli, etc.

Behaviour is an individual’s reaction to a particular action, person or environment. It is the manner of acting or controlling oneself towards other people.

Relationship between attitude and behaviour:

  • Attitude refers to a person’s mental view, regarding the way he/she thinks or feels about someone or something. Behaviour implies the actions and conduct of an individual or group towards other persons.
  • Attitude is more personal. Behaviour is expression of personal thoughts and feelings, depicted socially.
  • A person’s attitude is mainly based on the experiences gained by him during the course of his life and observations. The behaviour of a person is based on the situation and circumstances guided by experiences gained.
  • Attitude is a person’s inner thoughts and feelings. Behaviour is an expression of person’s attitude.
  • Attitude is a hypothetical construct whose direct observation is not possible. Behaviour is visible through consequences and result of one’s attitude.
  • Attitude is defined by the way we perceive things. Behaviour is ruled by social norms.
  • Attitude reflects one’s emotions, opinions and thoughts. Behaviour reflects one’s attitude as actions are the reflection of our thoughts.

ATTITUDE FORMATION

The term attitude formation refers to the movement we make from having no attitude toward an object to having some positive or negative attitude toward that object. A range of mechanisms for attitude formation are involved. They are – mere exposure, direct personal experience, operant and classical conditioning and observational learning.

Mere Exposure

Some attitudes may be formed and shaped by what is known as mere exposure, which means that simply being exposed to an object increases our feelings, usually positive, toward that object. The limit to this the effect is most powerful when it occurs randomly over time and that too many exposures actually will decrease the effect.

Direct Personal Experience

Second way of formation of attitude is through direct personal experience. It has the power to create and change attitudes. They are likely to affect behaviour strongly. Information to support such attitudes is also more likely to occur. Direct experience continues to form and shape our attitudes throughout life.

Conditioning Process

During the course of socialization a person’s attitudes may be formed through operant and classical conditioning, in the former the individual’s behaviour is strengthened or weakened by means of reward or punishment.

In classical conditioning, when an attitude object (a person) was paired with positive or negative stimuli, they came to associate the person with the positive or negative

Observational learning occurs when we watch what people do and then model, or imitate, that behaviour. Observational learning does not depend on rewards, but rewards can strengthen the learning, further people are more likely to imitate behaviour that is rewarded. When there are discrepancies between what people say and what they do, children tend to imitate the behaviour.

The Heritability Factor

Attitudes and other complex social behaviours may have a genetic component. Genetics have an indirect effect on our attitudes. Characteristics that are biologically based might predispose us to certain behaviours and attitudes. Biologically based characteristic affects how one thinks, feels, and acts.

CONCLUSION:

Changing anything pre-eminent and settled attitude or behaviour, both, is difficult, as its human instinct. However, change can be bought through self-discovery or external inspiration.  A complete change in attitude may be difficult but rigidness of attitude can be lowered by training. The scope of their thinking can be extended which can make them see the other side of coin. For this both theoretical and practical training is required. Training provides more inputs to the process which is helpful in shaping the attitude of a person.


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