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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 7 January 2021


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues;

1. “Our nation is like a tree of which the original trunk is swarajya and the branches are swadeshi and boycott.” Comment with regards to swadeshi movement. (250 words)

Reference: India’s struggle for Independence by Bipan Chandra.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1.

Key Demand of the question:

To explain regarding the swadeshi and boycott facets of swadeshi movement which were aimed towards achieving swaraj.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by briefly elaborating the quote by Bal Gangadhar Tilak on swadeshi movement – the reasons for it launch and its aims and objectives.

Body:

Bring out the relation of swarajya (self-rule) being the ultimate aim that was to be achieved and the means were swadeshi and boycott.

Write in detail about how swadeshi movement emphasized the above message of swadeshi and boycott in various items and forms.

Briefly write about its impact.

Conclusion:

Underscore the importance of swadeshi movement in taking our country a big step toward Swaraj.

Introduction:

Bal Gangadhar Tilak was an Indian nationalist, teacher, social reformer, lawyer and an independence activist. He was the first leader of the Indian Independence Movement. Tilak was one of the first and strongest advocates of Swaraj (“self-rule”) and a strong radical in Indian consciousness. He is known for his quote in Marathi: “Swarajya is my birthright and I shall have it!”.

Body:

The extremist like Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal, Lala Lajpat Rai, and Aurobindo Ghosh demanded Swaraj or complete independence from British rule. They believed in self-reliance as a weapon against domination. They promoted Swadeshi and boycott of foreign goods. Swarajya (self-rule) being the ultimate aim that was to be achieved and the means were swadeshi and boycott.

  • Swadeshi movement:
    • The Swadeshi movement launched in the early 20th Century was a direct fallout of the decision of the British India government to partition Bengal.
    • Use of Swadeshi goods and boycott of foreign made goods were the two main objectives of this movement.
    • A Boycott Resolution was passed in Calcutta City Hall on August 7, 1905, where it was decided to boycott the use of Manchester cloth and salt from Liverpool.
    • In the district of Barisal, the masses adopted this message of boycott of foreign-made goods, and the value of the British cloth sold there fell sharply.
    • Bande Mataram became the boycott and Swadeshi movement theme song.
    • Among the movement’s various forms of struggle, it was the boycott of foreign-made goods that encountered the greatest visible success on the practical and popular level.
    • Boycott and public burning of foreign clothes, picketing of shops selling foreign goods, all became common in remote corners of Bengal as well as in many major cities and towns across the country.
    • Another form of mass mobilization widely used by the Swadeshi movement was the corps of volunteers (samitis).
    • Ashwini Kumar Dutt, a school teacher, set up the Swadesh Bandhab Samiti in Barisal was the best – known volunteer organization of all of them.
    • The Shivaji and Ganapati festivals in Western India (Maharashtra) were organized by Lokmanya Tilak to spread the swadeshi message and boycott movements among the masses.
    • The Swadeshi and boycott movements placed great emphasis on ‘ Atmasakti ‘ or self – reliance as a means of reasserting national dignity in different fields.
    • In the field of national education, this emphasis on self – reliance was most evident.
    • The National College of Bengal was founded as its principal with Aurobindo. Numerous national schools have been established throughout the country in a short period of time.
    • The National Education Council was established in August 1906.
    • In Indians entrepreneurial zeal, self – reliance was also evident. The period saw an explosion of textile mills, factories of soap and match, tanneries, banks, insurance companies, shops, etc.
    • While most of these Swadeshi companies were set up and run as a result of patriotic fervor than any real business interest and were unable to survive for a long time, some others like Acharya P.C. Ray
    • In the field of culture, Amar Sonar Bangla, written by Rabindranath Tagore in protest against Bengal’s partition, became a rallying point for the Swadeshi and boycott movements and later inspired Bangladesh’s liberation struggle.
  • Importance of the Swadeshi and Boycott Movements
    • The Swadeshi and boycott movements were India’s first 20th century movements that encouraged mass participation in modern nationalist politics by a large section of society.
    • For the first time, women came out of their homes and joined processions and picketing of foreign-made goods shops.
    • The Swadeshi and boycott movements also changed the character of the Indian National Congress (INC) from being driven largely by moderates to the main agenda now being set by the ‘ Extremists ‘ who gave the Congress’s 1906 Calcutta session’s call for ‘ Swaraj ‘ or self – government.
    • The ideas of non – cooperation and passive resistance, successfully applied many years later by Mahatma Gandhi, found their origin in early 20th century Swadeshi and boycott movements.
  • Gandhian techniques used during Swadeshi movement:
    • The methods adopted were petitions to the Government, public meetings, adopted were petitions to the Government, public meetings, memoranda, and propaganda through pamphlets and newspapers such as Hitabadi, Sanjibani and Bengalee.
    • Their objective was to exert sufficient pressure on the Government through an educated public opinion in India and England to prevent the unjust partition of Bengal from being implemented.
    • The movement threw up the entire gamut of Gandhian techniques such as passive resistance, non-violent non-cooperation, the call to fill the British jails, social reform, constructive work, boycott of foreign-made salt or sugar, refusal by priests to ritualize marriages involving exchange of foreign goods, refusal by washermen to wash foreign clothes
    • Crops of volunteers of ‘Samitis’:
      • Samitis such as the Swadesh Bandhab Samiti of Ashwini Kumar Dutta (in Barisal) emerged as a very popular and powerful method of mass mobilization.
    • Programme of swadeshi or national education:
      • National school and colleges sprang up in various parts of the country.
    • Reasons behind the decadence of the Swadeshi movement:
      • Government suppression:
        • Realizing the revolutionary potential, the government came down with a heavy hand. Most of the important leaders of the movement were either imprisoned or deported between 1907 and 1908.
        • Any mass movement cannot be sustained endlessly at the same pitch of militancy and self-sacrifice, especially when faced with severe repression.
      • Congress split:
        • The internal squabbles, and especially, the split in 1907 in the Congress, the apex all-India organization, weakened the movement.
      • Organization structure:
        • It lacked the effective organization and party structure.
        • The movement failed to create an effective organization or a party structure.
        • It threw up an entire gamut of techniques that came to be associated with Gandhian politics like non-cooperation, passive resistance, filling of British jails, social reform and constructive work but failed to give these techniques a disciplined focus.
      • Reach limited:
        • The movement largely remained confined to the upper and middle classes and zamindars, and failed to reach masses especially the peasantry.
        • It was not able to garner the support of the mass of Muslims and especially of the Muslim peasantry. Hindus and Muslims were divided along class lines with the former being the landlords and the latter constituting the peasantry.
        • Though the Swadeshi Movement had spread outside Bengal, the rest of the country was not as yet fully prepared to adopt the new style and stage of politics.
      • Ideas failed:
        • The movement aroused the people but did not know how to tap the newly released energy or how to find new forms to give expression to popular resentment.
      • Leadership issues:
        • The movement was rendered leaderless with most the leaders either arrested or deported by 1908 and with Aurobindo Ghosh and Bipin Chandra Pal retiring from active politics.
        • Tilak was sentenced to six years imprisonment, Ajit Singh and Lajpat Rai of Punjab were deported and Chidambaram Pillai was arrested.

 

Topic:  Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues;

2. The moderates were like shields and extremists like swords. Without being together, the moderates seemed toothless and extremists appeared too vulnerable to repression. Congress collapse at Surat was a great triumph for the colonial rulers. Discuss. (250 words)

Reference: India’s struggle for Independence by Bipan Chandra.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the impact of Surat Split which rendered moderates ineffective, extremists prone to backlash and made the national movement enter a dormant phase.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin the answer by giving context of Surat split which divided the nationalist ranks.

Body:

Describe the metaphor of ‘swords and shields’ used for extremists and moderates respectively. How as a united front they could put pressure on the government and moderate can handle any backlash.

Write about the impact of Surat Split on moderates, extremists and national movement as whole. Use examples to substantiate your points. Elaborate how this was major triumph for the colonial government.

Conclusion:

Mention the bitter lessons learnt from the Surat split to avoid future splits.

Introduction:

In the early twentieth century the nationalism was gaining fervor so Curzon decided to divide Bengal, to break the unity of Indians and to check the growth of nationalism. The dream of a ‘Surat Split’ was already conceived by Curzon when he made the statement ‘Congress was tottering to its fall and one of the biggest ambitions in my life is to give it a peaceful demise’

Body:

  • British policies led to Surat split:
    • The new policy, known as the policy of the carrot and the stick, was to be a three pronged one. It may be described as a policy of repression-conciliation-suppression.
    • The Extremists, were to be repressed, though mildly in the first stage, the purpose being to frighten the Moderates.
    • The Moderates were then to be placated through some concessions and promises and hints were to be given that further concessions would be forthcoming if they disassociated themselves from the Extremists.
    • The entire objective of the new policy was to isolate the Extremists. Once the Moderates fell into the trap, the Extremists could be suppressed through the use of the full might of the state.
    • The Moderates, in turn, could then be ignored. British offered a bait of fresh reforms in the Legislative Councils began discussing them with the Moderate leadership of the Congress.
    • The Moderates agreed to cooperate with the Government and discuss reforms even while a vigorous popular movement, which the Government was trying to suppress, was going on in the country. The result was a total split in the nationalist ranks.
    • So British were using the divide a style policy.
  • Ideological differences between moderates and extremists:
    • There was a great deal of public debate and disagreement among Moderates and Extremists in the years 1905-1907, even when they were working together against the partitioning of Bengal.
    • The Extremists wanted to extend the Swadeshi and the Boycott Movement from Bengal to the rest of the country. They also wanted to gradually extend the boycott from foreign goods to every form of association or cooperation with the colonial Government.
    • The Moderates wanted to confine the boycott part of the movement to Bengal and were totally opposed to its extension to the Government.
    • Matters nearly came to a head at the Calcutta Congress in 1906 over the question of its Presidentship.
    • A split was avoided by choosing Dadabhai Naoroji.
    • Four compromise resolutions on the Swadeshi, Boycott, National Education, and Self-Government demands were passed.
    • Throughout 1907 the two sides fought over differing interpretations of the four resolutions.
    • By the end of 1907 the Extremists were convinced that the battle for freedom had begun as the people had been roused.
    • Most of them felt that the time had come to part company with the Moderates
    • Most of the Moderates, led by Pherozeshah Mehta, were no less determined on a split. They were afraid that the Congress organization built carefully over the last twenty years, would be shattered.
  • How congress underwent rebirth in Lucknow?
    • The Lucknow Session 1916 was special in many respects.
    • This session brought the moderates and extremists in Congress on common platform again after nearly a decade.
    • Congress and All India Muslim League signed the historic Lucknow Pact.
    • Muslim League sought for a sort of joint platform with the congress to put constitutional pressure on the British Government towards making reforms.
    • The idea was that such joint demand would give an impression of Hindu-Muslim unity.
    • Towards this, Congress and Muslim League negotiated an agreement in Lucknow pact whose main clauses are as follows:
      • There shall be self-government in India.
      • Muslims should be given one-third representation in the central government. Etc

Conclusion:

The Moderates did not see that the colonial state was negotiating with them not because of their inherent political strength but because of the fear of the Extremists. The Extremists did not see that the Moderates were their natural outer defence line (in terms of civil liberties and so on) and that they did not possess the required strength to face the colonial state’s juggernaut.

The only victorious party was the rulers. Even later British applied this policy for dividing congress but congress realized the consequences of split and stayed together.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic:  Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources;

3. The success of the National Education Policy 2020 (NEP) hinges not just upon the budgetary allocation but on proper planning and execution of the key aspects of the policy as envisaged. Examine. (250 words)

Reference: Live Mint

Why the question:

The finance ministry’s pre-budget consultations have commenced, it may be pertinent to keep watch of the government’s plan on funding the National Education Policy 2020 (NEP) especially in the wake of the pandemic.

Key Demand of the question:

To examine in detail the factors which are key in making the NEP 2020 a success.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In brief, put forward the aims and objectives of NEP 2020.

Body:

Elaborate on the key components of NEP 2020. Highlight the impediments to achieve the above mentioned aims and objectives.

Mention the variables on which the success of NEP 2020. Budgetary Allocation, mobilizing resources through privatization, new regulatory architecture, consultations all relevant stakeholders, convergence between state and central governments and political will etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

Introduction:

The NEP is aimed at transforming the Indian education system to meet the needs of the 21st Century. The new policy seeks rectification of poor literacy and numeracy outcomes associated with primary schools, reduction in dropout levels in middle and secondary schools and adoption of the multi-disciplinary approach in the higher education system. It also focuses on early childhood care, restructuring curriculum and pedagogy; reforming assessments and exams, and investing in teacher training and broad-basing their appraisal.

Body:

  • Significance of National Education Policy 2020
    • Recognizing Importance of Formative years: In adopting a 5+3+3+4 model for school education starting at age 3, the policy recognizes the primacy of the formative years from ages 3 to 8 in shaping the child’s future.
    • Departure from Silos Mentality: Another key aspect of school education in the new policy is the breaking of the strict division of arts, commerce and science streams in high school.This can lay the foundation for a multi-disciplinary approach in high education.
    • The Confluence of Education and Skills: Another laudable aspect of the scheme is the introduction of vocational courses with an internship. This may nudge the vulnerable sections of society to send their children to school. Also, it would help in realization of the goal of Skill India Mission.
    • Making Education More Inclusive: The NEP proposes the extension of the Right to Education (RTE) to all children up to the age of 18. Further, the policy seeks to leverage the huge potential of online pedagogy and learning methodologies for increasing gross enrolment in higher education.
    • Light But Tight Oversight: According to the policy, in spite of periodic inspection, transparency, maintaining quality standards and a favorable public perception will become a 24X7 pursuit for the institutions, leading to all-round improvement in their standard. The policy also seeks to establish a super-regulator for education which will be responsible for standards-setting, funding, accreditation and regulation of higher education India.
    • Allowing Foreign Universities: The document states universities from among the top 100 in the world will be able to set up campuses in India. This will lead to an infusion of international perspective and innovation, which will make the Indian education system more efficient and competitive.
  • Increasing public spending on education to 6% of GDP
    • Public spending of 6% of GDP was first made by the National Policy on Education 1968 and reiterated by the 1986 Policy.
    • NEP 2020 reaffirms the recommendation of increasing public spending on education to 6% of GDP.
    • In 2017-18, the public spending on education-includes spending by centre and states-was budgeted at 4.43% of GDP.
    • In 2020-21, states in India have allocated 15.7% of their budgeted expenditure towards education.
    • States such as Delhi, Rajasthan, and Maharashtra have allocated more than 18% of their expenditure on Education for the year 2020-21.
    • On the other hand, Telangana (7.4%), Andhra Pradesh (12.1%) and Punjab (12.3%) lack in spending on education, as compared to the average of states.

  • Budgetary allocation: Proper planning and execution of the key aspects of the policy as envisaged:
    • The NEP “commits to significantly raising educational investment, as there is no better investment towards a society’s future than the high quality of education of our young people”.
    • The NEP iterates that current public expenditure on education by the central and state governments put together is of the order of 4.43% of gross domestic product (GDP), amounting to about 10% of total spending by the government as a whole.
    • This figure is near the world average, but is not in sync with and is much higher than what the Economic Survey of 2018-19 shows.
    • Even if this figure is presumed correct, our spend per student, especially at the primary and secondary levels, is abysmally low.
    • The NEP admits that our figures are much lower than what most other countries spend on education. Hence, it aims to raise spending on education to 6% of GDP, which our national policies from 1968 onwards have been recommending.
    • According to Narendra Jadhav in Future of the Indian Education System, even 6% of GDP may be inadequate, given the ambitious scope of the NEP.
    • Nevertheless, enhancing it to this committed level over the next five years, with COVID-19 vaccines expected to help the economy achieve normalcy, would be a progressive step.
    • Increasing public expenditure has to proceed in tandem with private investment in this field.
    • As Jadhav argues instead of promoting disguised trusts and pseudo non-profit entities, one could perhaps think in terms of allowing private participation for profit, with proper regulation and subject to “reasonable supervision”.
    • However, this crucial aspect has been dealt with in the NEP rather half-heartedly.
    • Terms like “private philanthropic activity in the education sector” and a “light but tight” regulatory approach have been liberally used, but offer little clarity.
    • Unfortunately, social sectors have no strong and unified lobbies to voice their demands and concerns, and make the government stick to its promise.
  • Way Forward:
    • Concentrate on setting up the institutions and bodies, including the new regulatory architecture, envisioned by the NEP, with non-controversial men and women of proven merit appointed at the helm of affairs. Much of this can be accomplished before March this year.
    • Finance minister should hold exclusive consultations with educationists, planners and other stakeholders over how the NEP’s requirements can best be met, as part of her pre-budget exercises.
    • In order for the central and state governments to be equally involved in the proceedings, reconsider setting up the Rashtriya Shiksha Aayog and its state-level counterparts, as envisaged in the draft NEP.
    • This is important since state government expenditure as a proportion of total government expenditure seems to be declining.
    • The need for much higher public spending on primary and secondary education, and for an expanding role of the private sector in tertiary education, should also be addressed by such empowered bodies.
    • Enhance the financial allocation to this sector in real terms.
    • This would show the seriousness of the government’s intent and commitment.
    • To start with, it may be a good idea to consider reducing the allocation, for example, to the expensive Central Vista project for the time being, and re-allot that money to the country’s education budget.
    • The project may be a priority of the Union government, but education is a much higher national priority.

Conclusion:

The intent of policy seems to be ideal in many ways but it is the implementation where lies the key to success. Unless education receives the kind of importance that internal security or defence is accorded in India, the chances of this policy turning out to be a game-changer do not appear particularly bright.

 

Topic:  Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.

4. The role of investigative journalism in enhancing transparency and holding the government accountable is indeed immense but investigative journalism is not an excuse to break ordinary criminal laws. Critically Analyze. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

A judge in London on Monday rejected an American effort to have the WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange extradited to the United States, where he faces charges of conspiring to hack government computers and violating the Espionage Act by obtaining and releasing confidential documents in 2010 and 2011.

Directive:

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Initiate by mentioning the role of investigative journalism in ensuring transparency and accountability. Cite examples.

Body:

Elaborate on the role of investigative journalists in a democracy. Exposing graft and wrongdoing, putting pressure on the officials to do work and discreet spread of ideas and information etc.

Mention about the various obstacles in the path of investigative journalists. Pressure from the affluent, Laws. Unfairly charging with espionage, penalizing the whistleblower etc.

Mention the over-reach on the part of investigative journalism in some cases. But also mention the need to avoid going by the letter of the law for achieving the greater good. Talk about the Julian Assange case.

Conclusion:

Conclude by stressing on need to balance both the interests of investigative journalism without venturing out of the ethical boundaries.

Introduction:

Investigative journalism is a form of journalism in which reporters deeply investigate a single topic of interest, such as serious crimes, political corruption, or corporate wrongdoing.

Body:

  • Tools used by Investigative Journalist:
    • Analysis of documents, such as lawsuits and other legal documents, tax records, government reports, regulatory reports, and corporate financial filings.
    • Databases of public records.
    • Investigation of technical issues, including scrutiny of government and business practices and their effects.
    • Research into social and legal issues.
    • Subscription research sources such as LexisNexis.
    • Numerous interviews with on-the-record sources as well as, in some instances, interviews with anonymous sources
    • Federal or state Freedom of Information Acts to obtain documents and data from government agencies.
  • Julian Assange case.
    • The WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange was arrested in London to face a charge in the United States of conspiring to hack into a Pentagon computer network in 2010, bringing to an abrupt end a seven-year saga in which he had taken refuge in Ecuador’s embassy in Britain to avoid capture.
    • In the U.S., sensitive or leaked information published by the news media is protected under the First Amendment, a reason why the Obama administration decided against prosecuting WikiLeaks. But the Trump administration reversed tack. The new Biden-led government must rethink its predecessor’s approach.
  • Advantages of Investigative journalism:
    • Raising social Awareness: The journalism contributes significantly to raising social awareness of the issues involved and also stands the test of time.
    • Improving quality and work culture in the profession: Motivating and empowering this greatly enlarged pool of young women and men to do thorough, thoughtful, and carefully supervised investigations into subjects of social and moral significance could have dramatic effects in terms of developing capabilities, improving work culture, and raising quality in the profession.
    • Re-energize the field of professional journalism: Investigative Journalism plays an instrumentalist role in re-energizing and revitalizing the field of professional journalism that often seems to be tired, losing steam, and shedding value.
    • Finding the fact: With more digging and research investigative journalism would help to find out the real fact.
  • Disadvantages of Investigative journalism:
    • Misuse of anonymous and confidential sources: The use and misuse of anonymous and confidential sources is a global phenomenon, a minefield that has claimed many casualties and also taken a toll of the public’s trust in journalism.
    • May lead to anonymity public order disturbance: The credibility of a report often rests on the source of the information and readers do well to look very closely at the sources used. Sometimes, sources are anonymous which would cause a disturbance in the public order.
    • A threat to the journalist: Journalists involving in investigative journalism may have to face problems while investigating a fact that may even lead to risk their life.
  • Need for standard to be followed:
    • Ethics in journalism
    • Public good
    • Ethical deception
    • Independent but regulated
    • Scientific temper
    • Maintaining professionalism
    • Problem based and solution-oriented approach

Conclusion:

Journalism must act as a watchdog and whistle blower and that too for public interests. need to balance both the interests of investigative journalism without venturing out of the ethical boundaries.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic:  Security challenges and their management in border areas – linkages of organized crime with terrorism;

5. What is maritime domain awareness? Analyze its significance in protecting India’s maritime interests as well as generating cooperative synergies with the neighbourhood and the allies. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

Of late, the Indian Navy has been on a drive to improve domain awareness in the Indian Ocean. The Navy is seeking to expand India’s surveillance footprint by setting up radar stations in the Maldives, Myanmar and Bangladesh.

Key Demand of the question:

To explain about the concept of is maritime domain awareness and its importance in maintaining India’s strategic interests and security.

Directive:

Analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

A very straightforward introduction, by defining maritime domain awareness is apt.

Body:

In this part set forth, the need and the significance of maritime domain awareness.

Mention about protecting maritime interests: Various nature of threat at sea, monitoring Chinese activity, enemy presence in the eastern littorals, safety and security of Indian commercial ships, countering string of pearls, fight transnational crime and monitoring of maritime activity in the Persian Gulf and the Strait of Hormuz.

Describe the role played by maritime domain awareness in developing cooperative synergies: Liaison Officers with Indian ocean neighbours, collaboration with major Indo-pacific states, partnerships with gulf states.

Conclusion:

Summarize the overall importance of is maritime domain awareness in navigable waterways, including all maritime-related activities, infrastructure, people, cargo, and vessels and other conveyances.

Introduction:

Maritime Domain Awareness is defined by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) as the effective understanding of anything associated with the maritime domain that could impact the security, safety, economy, or environment.

The maritime domain is defined as all areas and things of, on, under, relating to, adjacent to, or bordering on a sea, ocean, or other navigable waterway, including all maritime-related activities, infrastructure, people, cargo, and vessels and other conveyances.

Body:

The Navy’s Information Management and Analysis Centre (IMAC), the nodal agency for maritime data fusion set up after the 26/11 Mumbai terror attacks, will soon become a National Maritime Domain Awareness (NDMA) Centre.

The National Maritime Domain Awareness (NMDA) Project of India, an integrated intelligence grid to detect and tackle threats emanating from the sea in real-time has been established to generate a common operational picture of activities at sea through an institutionalised mechanism for collecting, fusing and analysing information from technical and other sources like coastal surveillance network radars, space-based automatic identification systems, vessel traffic management systems, fishing vessel registration and fishermen biometric identity databases.

Significance of NMDA project

  1. The IOR, 5500 nautical miles wide by 7500 nm long, includes 35 countries.
  2. It is the busiest maritime trade route, with 11,000 to 12,000 ships present in it at any given time.
  3. The network provides these stations coastal surveillance information obtained from various sensors such as the coastal radar chain of the ICG and Automatic tracking systems as well as electro- optical cameras.
  4. The IMAC monitors movement of more than 120,000 ships a year passing through the Indian Ocean.
  5. Officers at its headquarters can look at all ships that transmit signals to an Automatic Identification System (AIS) when passing through IOR.
  6. And at any given point, IMAC can get data points such as how many Chinese vessels are in the region or how many vessels are headed to a particular port.
    1. E.g. Sources suggest a “steady rise” of Chinese research vessels in the IOR over the last few years.
    2. The data also show an increase in Chinese fishing vessels in the high seas in IOR, from approximately 300 four years ago to around 450 now.
  7. IMAC can also check if a vessel has changed its identity, or if it has been involved in law-enforcement issues in other countries.
  8. IMAC has linkages with a number of national and international organisations, from which it collates data, and analyses patterns.
  9. It also alerts relevant authorities if anything is found suspicious.
  10. It is a maritime initiative which gives priority to Indian Ocean region for ensuring peace, stability and prosperity of India in Indian Ocean region.
  11. The goal is to seek a climate of trust and transparency; respect for international maritime rules and norms by all countries; sensitivity to each other`s interests; peaceful resolution of maritime issues; and increase in maritime cooperation.
  12. In addition, we are endowed with abundant oceanic wealth comprising a large number of island territories and vast sea bed area, over 97 % of our national trade is carried by sea routes.
  13. It is therefore, imperative that we modernize the Navy which always has to be in a high state of preparedness.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic:  role of Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

6. Religion and Spirituality play a vital part in the development and enhancement of social values. Substantiate. (150 words)

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Key Demand of the question:

To bring forth the role of religion and spirituality in defining and understanding social values.

Directive:

Substantiate – When you are asked to Substantiate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question using suitable case studies or/ and examples.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Develop a link for the intersection of religion and spirituality with social values.

Body:

Using examples from religions and cultures across the world stress up on how they play a part in the development of social values.

The relationship between religion and social values that must account for the context of narratives, histories and practices. Mention about some values such as Honesty, compassion, peace, forgiveness and duty etc.

Also, mention the negative link between religion and social values, such as prejudice based on caster and color, discrimination based on gender.

Conclusion:

Pass a balanced judgement on the link between social values and religion.

Introduction:

Values are beliefs that have an inherent worth in usefulness or importance to the holder,” or “principles, standards, or qualities reflected worthwhile or desirable.” Values institute an important characteristic of self-concept and serve as supervisory principles for person.

Body:

Human values are necessity in today’s society and business world. Human values are the features that guide people to take into account the human element when one interacts with other human. They have many positive characters that create bonds of humanity between people and thus have value for all human beings.

Religion today has taken a much-institutionalized form. ‘Religion is a system of sacred belief and practices both in the tangible and intangible form’. Religion can serve the dual role of ideology as well as institution.

Religion plays a crucial role for a person in giving a cultural identity. Religion helps in creating an ethical framework and also a regulator for values in day to day life. This particular approach helps in character building of a person. In other words, Religion acts as an agency of socialization. Thus, religion helps in building values like love, empathy, respect, and harmony.

Western society, culture and economy, by and large, has focussed mainly on material well-being and development. Asia, including India, on the other hand, has been striving to strike a balance between material, social and spiritual development.

It is well known that Indian philosophy and thought follows a four-fold vision—Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha. Unless we give equal importance to each of these, we, whether as human beings or as a society, will not be happy or have peace of mind even though we may be materially rich. Happiness is a “state of mind” and while material needs are important for sustaining our daily lives, other aspects are equally important.

India gets its strength mainly from its tradition—respect for diversity. It is the tolerance for each other’s’ religion, learning from each other that has made India strong. This is the reason why we see Hindus visiting Muslim shrines in Ajmer or gurudwaras, or Muslims coming and listening to discourses on Hindu religious topics.
There is a difference between spirituality and religion, though they are intertwined. Spirituality helps in finding the “inner self” and provides values for individuals as human beings. Our scriptures are texts that emanate from the collective wisdom of an ancient civilisation. These provide distilled wisdom of centuries of human experience and experiments.

Some religious institutions are useful in providing a platform or forum for sharing the “righteous” value system through discourses and publications for the modern mind. This helps the society collectively to develop, share and practice the right value system. This in turn helps in uplifting and improving the society and essentially in character and nation building efforts. All religions enjoins upon the individual to do good deeds, take care of others and practice right or ethical action. We have had a long tradition where individuals and industry in India encourage “caring for the society” as much as creating wealth for future expansion of the business and the economy. This has taken various forms like building and developing schools and colleges, hospitals as also various religious and charitable institutions, supporting a variety of religious and welfare activities on a continuing basis. Each and every religion promotes its philosophy and the crux of it has always been the welfare and wellness of the people. For example, in the Sanatana Dharma, there are ideas like Vasudaiva Kutumbakam (the whole world is a family), Sarve Sukhina Bhavantu (let everyone be happy) which nurture and cultivate love and compassion in the society. Several universal human values such as Truth, Righteous conduct, Peace, Love and Non- violence are directly associated to physical, intellectual, emotional psyche and spiritual facets of human personality. There is need and urgency to reinforce these values for a better and humane society.

 

Topic:  ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions;

7. What are the ways to solve complex ethical dilemmas? Explain with examples. (150 words)

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Key Demand of the question:

To determine some steps which can resolve ethical dilemmas and achieve the most morally justified outcome.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Being the answer by defining ethical dilemmas. Give an examples of a classic ethical dilemma.

Body:

Determine as to why ethical dilemmas are hard to solve per se.

Enumerate various way to resolve an ethical dilemma and arrive at morally justified solution for a complex ethical problem.  Establishing the facts, determining your legal obligations, indulge in ethical reasoning based on normative theories, choosing the best option and addressing outcomes from the option you choose.

The above can be best illustrated using an example.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarizing the need to have effective resolution of ethical dilemmas.

Introduction:

Ethical dilemmas are situations in which there is a difficult choice to be made between two or more options, neither of which resolves the situation in a manner that is consistent with accepted ethical guidelines. When faced with an ethical dilemma, a person is faced with having to select an option that doesn’t align with an established code of ethics or societal norms, such as codes of law and religious teachings, or with their internal moral perceptions of right and wrong.

Body:

Examples of ethical dilemma examples include:

  1. Taking credit for others’ work.
  2. Offering a client a worse product for your own profit.
  3. Utilizing inside knowledge for your own profit.

Situations of ethical dilemmas faced by civil servants:

  1. Dilemmas between professional ethics and own personal values.
  2. Dilemma due to duty towards the community and being responsive to the government.
  3. In his desire to hold onto a job versus the professional ethics.
  4. Ethical dilemmas can arise, when two equally striking options are justified as right in certain situations.
  5. For a public servant attempting to function as a professional, the demands of law, his duty, fairness, due process, provides a productive ground in which ethical dilemmas arises.
  6. Other types of ethical dilemmas in which public servants may find themselves include conflict between:
  • The values of public administration.
  • Unclear or opposing answer-abilities.
  • Personal morals and work ethics versus administrative directive.
  • Validations for the institutions.
  • Professional ethics and director or executive directive.
  • Features of the code of conduct.

Solving Ethical Dilemmas

  1. Solve ethical dilemmas by adopting “and.”

Peak performers recognize collisions of “rights” and move the group away from making each other wrong and towards resolving the dilemma. To do this, invite the group to design a solution that embodies the magic of “and.” The narrative then becomes:

  • Good for the unit AND good for the whole.
  • Good for the long term AND good for the short term.
  • Truth AND loyalty.
  • Justice AND mercy.

When leaders can get the group to use this powerful orientation, they will most likely resolve the dilemma.

  1. Think about outcomes.

If you find yourself in a situation when this approach doesn’t work, you can resolve a right versus right dilemma by finding the highest “right.” Kidder wrote that there are three ways to make the best choice when faced with these types of dilemmas:

  • Ends-based: Select the option that generates the most good for the most people.
  • Rule-based: Choose as if you’re creating a universal standard. Follow the standard that you want others to follow.
  • Care-based: Choose as if you were the one most affected by your decision.

Once one has identified an ethical right versus right dilemma, lay out your options according to these three principles. One approach will immediately present itself as the “most right.”

  1. Keep the group committed to the decision.

No matter what decision-making approach makes the most sense for a given situation, it’s important to keep the group committed to the decision. To do this, adopt a working definition of consensus as the group tries to resolve these dilemmas. Instead of using the traditional definition of consensus where everybody is expected to agree with everything, switch it up to use the following definition:

  • Was the process to make the decision deemed rational and fair to all involved?
  • Was each person involved in the discussion treated well and listened to?
  • Assuming the group is satisfied with No. 1 and No. 2, can they live with and commit to the outcome?

Using these skills, one will become intensely important to the vitality of the company — you keep the group moving forward in spite of their inevitable encounter with ethical dilemmas.

Process of resolving an ethical dilemma in administration:

  1. Personal self-interest should be secondary to the common good in all situations, especially when such circumstances give rise to conflict of interest.
  2. A dilemma should be dealt appropriately by considering and reformulating all the options in a systematic and coherent manner.
  3. To resolve such ethical dilemmas, an order or a sequence of logical reasoning is must to integrate and rearrange the process of dealing with ethical dilemmas.
  4. The decisions should be guided by following principles:
  • The provisions of Indian Constitution.
  • Democratic accountability of administration.
  • The rule of law and the principle of legality.
  • Professional integrity.
  • Impartiality and neutrality.
  • Larger public good.
  • Responsiveness to civil society.
  1. The bureaucracy should be loyal to the country and its people while decision making considering consequences of such decisions.
  2. It is fundamental ethical duty of civil servants to show a spirit of neutrality and discretion and keep their own personal preferences out in the performance of their duties and responsibilities.

Conclusion:

Civil servants are responsible for providing justice too many lives. Their impartiality and neutrality is must to uphold his/her duty towards a society. Dilemmas arise many times in life of civil servants while performing their duties. What required is the objective decision making for larger public benefit.


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