Print Friendly, PDF & Email

[Insights Secure STHIR– 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 8 January 2021

Click on EACH question to post/upload you answers.

How to Follow Secure Initiative?

How to Self-evaluate your answer? 

STHIR – 2021: YEARLONG TIMETABLE

Join IPM 3.0 to get an assured review of 2 secure answers everyday

 


General Studies – 1


 

Topic:  Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues;

1. The ‘reforms’ of 1909, institutionalized communalism in India. Critically Analyze The Indian Councils Act of 1909. (250 words)

Reference: India’s struggle for Independence by Bipan Chandra.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1.

Key Demand of the question:

To bring out how the Morley Minto Reforms was the initiation of communal politics in India and to critique the act of 1909 by examining its positives and negatives.

Directive:

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Give a brief preview of the major aspects of Morley and Minto reforms as introduction.

Body:

In the first, in detail, explain how by introducing the concept of separate communal electorate, the policy of communalism and divide and rule got legal sanction.

In the next part, bring out the circumstances under which it came into force. Discuss what the demands of the moderates were, like expansion of legislative council, responsible government etc. With examples show how these reforms were just a shadow of what was actually demanded.

Write about a few positives of the reforms.

Conclusion:

Conclude that the constitutional reforms instead of solving the political problems of the country created more problems by making the situation worse.

 

Topic: Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues;

2. There were certainly some limitations in the Home Rule Movement but nevertheless it did have a concrete and profound impact on the national movement and changing the mood of the country. Analyze. (250 words)

Reference: India’s struggle for Independence by Bipan Chandra.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1.

Key Demand of the question:

To explain about the limitations of Home Rule Movement especially with regards to Home Rule leagues. Also, to explain the legacy of the movement.

Directive:

Analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In short, write about the Home Rule Movement, its leaders, inspiration and aims and objectives.

Body:

Elaborate further upon Home Rule movement and its nature of functioning and spread.

Bring out the limitations of Home Rule, lack of cohesiveness between Tilak’s and Besant’s leagues, Skepticism of Congress, Vacillation of Besant after Montagu declaration, Lack of leadership post 1917 etc.

In the next part write in detail about the legacy of the movement. Giving impetus to national movement during the war period, facilitating re-entry of extremists in congress, Lucknow, Creating a platform for upcoming leaders, preparing India for arrival of Gandhi and mass movements.

Conclusion:

Summarize the overall importance and the legacy of Home rule movement.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora;

3. With eccentric and unstable Trumpism coming to an end, a Democrat control over the Senate, Congress and the presidency is also a welcome change for the world and India. Discuss.  (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu The Hindu 

Why the question:

The Republican party has brought this ignominy upon itself, and the turn of events in the U.S. have shocked and alarmed the world. It will take a while to overturn the rot in U.S. politics heralded by the Trumpian turn in 2016 but the world will breathe a sigh of relief with the transfer of power.

Key Demand of the question:

To analyze the transition and changes that will be witnessed as the world moves from Trump to Biden at the helm of U.S.A.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by giving context in the recent volatility and clashes regarding the transfer of power.

Body:

In the first part, mention the volatility and unpredictability of Mr. Trump’s administrative and foreign policy. Substantiate with examples such as withdrawal from Paris, Iran deal, UNESCO, Trade wars etc. Bring out his relations with India and its effect on Indian diaspora.

Mention the changes we can expect as we move on from the Trump era. Analyse how it will have an impact on the world and bilateral relations with India with a new administration at the helm

Conclusion:

Conclude with a positive way forward.

 

Topic : Issues relating to poverty and hunger;

4. In an unequal world, any shock impacts people unequally. So has this pandemic, as was the case with demonetization and their combined effect has exacerbated inequalities and misery of the poor. Policymakers should act with urgency to shield them from further suffering. Justify. (250 words)

Reference:  Live Mint

Why the question:

Covid has widened inequality and pushed many who were reeling after demonetization closer to the brink.

Key Demand of the question:

To see the impact of widening inequalities on the poor caused by the pandemic as they were just beginning to recover from the shocks caused by the demonetization.

Directive:

Justify – When you are asked to justify, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question using suitable case studies or/ and examples.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by giving context of increasing inequalities, of which the poor are bearing burnt in the face of the pandemic. Back it up with a relevant statistics/fact.

Body:

Bring out the detailed impact that these inequalities are manifested. Such as children’s education, Due to denial of access to adequate food and nutrition, livelihood, housing and basic amenities like water and sanitation facilities etc. Substantiate with facts.

Further, with over 90% of the population working in the informal economy, the International Labour Organization (ILO) has predicted that as a result of the crisis and subsequent lockdown, about 400 million workers will fall deeper into poverty.

Suggest the changes and new things that are needed to address this pressing issue.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic:  Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life;

5. What is Avian Influenza or Bird Flu? Explain the steps taken by the government in order to tackle recurring instances of Avian Influenza in the country. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

Just three months after India declared itself to be free of the avian influenza outbreak, the highly pathogenic avian influenza subtypes, H5N1 and H5N8, have been reported from a dozen epicenters in four States — Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh and Kerala.

Key Demand of the question:

To define avian influenza and to explain the steps taken by the Government to prevent the occurrence, spread and transmission of Bird Flu.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by defining Bird flu/Avian influenza.

Body:

Elaborate upon the major factors of bird flu like mode of transmission, mortality, impact on humans etc. Mention about the economic and ecological impact of Bird Flu.

 Next, mention the steps taken by the government to tackle bird flu. Write about the key features of National Avian Influenza Plan, 2015. Mention about the preparedness, swif response, mass culling and information and awareness regarding.

Mention certain drawback in the above and suggest steps to make National Avian influenza plan more successful.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic:  Case Study

6. Mr. Julian Assange was indicted in 2019 on 17 counts of violating the Espionage Act of U.S.A for obtaining and publishing secret military and diplomatic documents. He was charged with violating the Computers Fraud and Abuse Act in the U.S.

The publication of the material exposed wrongdoing by the United States in Iraq and Afghanistan, and rights groups have hailed their release as valuable information for the public. Mr. Assange’s promotion of government transparency has made him a hero to many, but he has also been criticized as a publicity seeker with an erratic personality.

On the other hand, the U.S. government considers Mr. Assange an individual who has put lives at risk by revealing names of U.S. personnel and informants who provided valuable information in dangerous places like war zones.

In 2012, Mr. Assange entered the Ecuadorean Embassy in London to escape an extradition request from Sweden, where he faced rape accusations. He spent seven years in the embassy, but was arrested by the British police in 2019, and later sentenced to 50 weeks in prison for skipping bail when he entered the embassy.

The charges in Sweden have been dropped, and Mr. Assange has completed his 50-week sentence. He is not accused of any crime outside the United States, but he remains at the Belmarsh prison in London while Britain decides on his extradition. His bail requests have so far been rejected.

Several doctors have said that Mr. Assange suffers from depression and memory loss and could attempt to kill himself if he were extradited. Personal liberty still eludes WikiLeaks founder and Editor-in-Chief Julian Assange, despite a ruling by a United Nations legal panel that has declared his confinement “arbitrary and illegal”. (250 words)

  1. Analyse ethical issues involved in the above case.
  2. Should Mr Julian Assange be pardoned? State your opinion

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by giving the context of the case study.

Body:

This is a very interesting and dilemmatic based on the case study Mr Julian Assange. A smilar one was asked on Edward Snowden in 2019 mains.

In part (a), Identify and mention in detail all the ethical issues involved. There are multitude of ethical issues involved and many are in conflict of each other. Hint: The conflict between the freedom of press and the security interests of the country. (Remaining all of the issues will be given in the detailed synopsis as we want the students to think analytically and identify the issues themselves)

In part (b), use the above ethical issues to determine whether or not Mr Assange should be paradoned. Here it is important that you use ethical theories and thinker to justify you answer. Make logical, coherent and thought provoking arguments. Avoid jargons and clichés. Carefully weigh up all the facts and conflicts before deciding on your stand.

Conclusion:

Re-iterate your stand on Mr Asssange’s pardon.

 

Topic: Probity in Governance: Concept of public service;

7. Explain the key principles of probity. Mention its significance. (150 words)

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly define what Probity is.

Body:

Probity in governance is basic requirement for successful operation of governance and for socio-economic growth of country. It is defined as a risk management approach ensuring procedural integrity. Explain the key principles of probity – accountability, transparency, confidentiality, management of conflict areas etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting the significance of it.


  • Join our Official Telegram Channel HERE for Motivation and Fast Updates
  • Subscribe to our YouTube Channel HERE to watch Motivational and New analysis videos