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INSIGHTS DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS + PIB SUMMARY- 8 January 2021

InstaLinks help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically.

 

Table of Contents:

GS Paper 1:

1. Pravasi Bharatiya Divas

 

GS Paper 2:

1. New Industrial Development Scheme for Jammu & Kashmir (J&K IDS, 2021)

2. 25th Amendment of the US Constitution

3. Panel to study NFHS-5 findings

 

GS Paper 3:

1. What are the spectrum auctions?

 

Facts for Prelims:

1. Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS)

2. Naval Innovation and Indigenisation Organisation (NIIO)

3. Tripura govt’s new scheme to offer jobs to next of kin of those lost in political violence

 


GS Paper  : 1


 

Topics covered: Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.

Pravasi Bharatiya Divas


Context:

The 16th Pravasi Bharatiya Divas Convention, is being organized on 9th January 2021, despite the ongoing Covid pandemic.

About PBD:

Pravasi Bharatiya Divas (PBD) is celebrated on 9th January to mark the contribution of Overseas Indian community in the development of India.

  • PBD Convention is the flagship event of the Ministry of External Affairs and provides an important platform to engage and connect with the overseas Indians.
  • PBD conventions were held every year since 2003.
  • Since 2015, its format has been revised to celebrate the PBD once every two years.

The theme of 16th PBD Convention 2021: “Contributing to Aatmanirbhar Bharat”.

Why PBD is celebrated on January 9?

January 9 was chosen as the day to celebrate this occasion since it was on this day in 1915 that Mahatma Gandhi, the greatest Pravasi, returned to India from South Africa, led India’s freedom struggle and changed the lives of Indians forever.

Significance

  • These conventions provide a platform to the overseas Indian community to engage with the government and people of the land of their ancestors for mutually beneficial activities.
  • These conventions are also very useful in networking among the overseas Indian community residing in various parts of the world and enable them to share their experiences in various fields.

InstaLinks:

Prelims Link:

  1. On which date PBD is celebrated?
  2. The reason behind PBD celebration.
  3.  Significance

Source: The Hindu

 


GS Paper  : 2


 

Topics covered: Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.

New Industrial Development Scheme for Jammu & Kashmir (J&K IDS, 2021)


Context

Government of India has formulated New Industrial Development Scheme for Jammu & Kashmir (J&K IDS, 2021) for the development of Industries in the UT of Jammu & Kashmir.

About the scheme:

J&K IDS, 2021 is a Central Sector Scheme. The scheme aims to take industrial development to the block level in UT of J&K, which is first time in any Industrial Incentive Scheme of the Government of India.

  • The financial outlay of the proposed scheme is Rs.28400 crore for the scheme period 2020-21 to 2036-37.
  • Scheme while encouraging new investment, also nurtures the existing industries in J&K by providing them working capital support at the rate of 5% for 5 years.

Objective:

Main purpose of the scheme is to generate employment which directly leads to the socio economic development of the region.

  • It aims at development of Manufacturing as well as Service Sector Units in J&K.

Key Features of the Scheme:

  • Scheme is made attractive for both smaller and larger units.
  • It attempts for a more sustained and balanced industrial growth in the entire UT.
  • Scheme has been simplified on the lines of ease of doing business by bringing one major incentive- GST Linked Incentive- that will ensure less compliance burden without compromising on transparency.
  • It is not a reimbursement or refund of GST but gross GST is used to measure eligibility for industrial incentive to offset the disadvantages that the UT of J&K face.

Major Impact and potential:

Scheme is to bring about radical transformation in the existing industrial ecosystem of J&K with emphasis on job creation, skill development and sustainable development.

It will attract new investment and nurturing the existing ones, thereby enabling J&K to compete nationally with other leading industrially developed States/UTs of the country.

InstaLinks:

Prelims Link:

  1. What is J&K IDS?
  2. Duration of the scheme.
  3. Purpose?
  4. Incentives given under the scheme.
  5. Central Sector Scheme VS Centrally Sponsored Scheme

Mains Link:

New Industrial Development Scheme for Jammu & Kashmir scheme attempts for a more sustained and balanced industrial growth in the entire UT. Discuss.

Source: PIB

 

Topics covered: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

25th Amendment of the US Constitution


Context:

In the aftermath of Donald Trump supporters storming the US Capitol, many have urged Vice President Mike Pence to invoke the 25th Amendment.

What is the 25th Amendment of the US Constitution?

The Twenty-fifth Amendment is known as amendment (1967) to the Constitution of the United States.

  • It set forth succession rules relating to vacancies and disabilities of the office of the president and of the vice president.
  • It was proposed by the U.S. Congress on July 6, 1965, and it was ratified on Feb. 10, 1967.

The amendment has four sections:

  1. The first section codified the traditionally observed process of succession in the event of the death of the president—that the vice president would succeed to the office—it also introduced a change regarding the ascent of the vice president to president should the latter resign from office.
  2. The second section of the amendment addresses vacancies in the office of the vice president.
  3. The third section of the amendment set forth the formal process for determining the capacity of the president to discharge the powers and duties of office. If the president is able to declare his/her inability, then the vice president takes over as the acting president.
  4. The fourth section of the amendment requires the vice president and the cabinet to jointly ascertain if the president is unable to declare his/her incompetence. In this case the vice president immediately assumes the position of acting president.

It is this fourth section of the 25th Amendment that many are asking Vice President Pence to invoke against President Trump.

When was it introduced and has it been used in the past?

  • In the aftermath of the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, the 25th Amendment was proposed by Congress on July 6, 1965, and ratified by the states on February 10, 1967.
  • However, the fourth section of the 25th Amendment has never been invoked.

Why did Donald Trump supporters storm the Capitol?

  • Trump has repeatedly asserted, although without any valid evidence, that the presidential election in November, was rigged.
  • He has been urging his supporters to make their voices heard as members of the US Congress came together to confirm the counting of Electoral College votes and formally pave the way for Joe Biden to take over on January 20th.

InstaLinks:

Prelims Link:

  1. About the 25th Amendment?
  2. Sections of the amendment.
  3. Previous instance of its implementation.
  4. Capitol hill controversy

Source: Indian Express

 

Topics covered: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

Panel to study NFHS-5 findings


Context:

The Health and Family Welfare Ministry has set up a technical expert group to examine the adverse findings from the National Family Health Survey-5.

About the committee:

The committee is chaired by Joint Secretary Preeti Pant and includes experts from medicine and nutrition.

Mandate:

To recommend programmatic and policy interventions to improve” indicators pertaining to malnutrition, stunting, anaemia, and C-section.

Findings of NFHS 5

The survey provides data of States and UTs on over 130 parameters. On various parameters, major number of states have worsened over the last round of survey (NFHS 4 – 2015-16).

  • The children born between 2014 and 2019 are more malnourished than the previous generation.
  • Infant and child mortality declined in most of the Indian states.
  • Sikkim, Assam, Goa and Jammu & Kashmir witnessed a steep decline in Neonatal Mortality Rate (NMR), Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) and Under-Five Mortality Rate (U5MR).
  • Meghalaya, Manipur and Andaman & Nicobar Island reported increase in all the three categories of child mortality – NMR, IMR and U5MR.
  • Among all the surveyed states and UTs, Bihar displayed the highest prevalence in Infant and child mortality in all three categories, while the lowest death rate was reported in Kerala.

Significance of NFHS 5 Results

Massive increase in child malnutrition and rising levels of anaemia in women and pregnant ladies clearly imply that the children born during 2015-2019 might be suffering from deficiencies.

Though India displayed improvement in child malnutrition between NFHS 3 (2005-06) and NFHS 4 (2015-16), the nation has now taken U-turn for the worse in terms of malnutrition among children, as per the NFHS 5 results.

InstaLinks:

Prelims Link:

  1. Key findings of NFHS-5.
  2. Panel to study NFHS-5 findings.
  3. What is NFHS?
  4. Who conducts the NFHS?

Mains links:

Though India displayed improvement in child malnutrition in earlier surveys the nation has now taken U-turn for the worse in terms of malnutrition among children. Discuss.

Source: The Hindu

 


GS Paper  : 3


 

Topics covered: Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

What are the spectrum auctions?


Context:

The Department of Telecommunications (DoT), recently said that auctions for 4G spectrum will begin from March 1.

The main objectives of the sale were:

  • To obtain a market-determined price for the spectrum on offer,
  • Ensure efficient use of spectrum and avoid hoarding,
  • Stimulate competition in the sector and maximise revenue proceeds.

What are spectrum auctions?

A spectrum auction is a process whereby a government uses an auction system to sell the rights to transmit signals over specific bands of the electromagnetic spectrum and to assign scarce spectrum resources.

Spectrum auctions in India

Devices such as cellphones and wireline telephones require signals to connect from one end to another. These signals are carried on airwaves, which must be sent at designated frequencies to avoid any kind of interference.

  • The Union government owns all the publicly available assets within the geographical boundaries of the country, which also include airwaves.
  • With the expansion in the number of cellphone, wireline telephone and internet users, the need to provide more space for the signals arises from time to time.
  • To sell these assets to companies willing to set up the required infrastructure to transport these waves from one end to another, the central government through the DoT auctions these airwaves from time to time.
  • These airwaves are called spectrum, which is subdivided into bands which have varying frequencies.
  • All these airwaves are sold for a certain period of time, after which their validity lapses, which is generally set at 20 years.

spectrum_auction

The likely bidder for the spectrum

All three private telecom players, Reliance Jio Infocomm, Bharti Airtel, and Vi are eligible contenders to buy additional spectrum to support the number of users on their network.

  • Apart from these three, new companies, including foreign companies, are also eligible to bid for the airwaves.
  • Foreign companies, however, will have to either set up a branch in India and register as an Indian company, or tie up with an Indian company to be able to retain the airwaves after winning them.

InstaLinks:

Prelims Link:

  1. What are spectrum auctions?
  2. Objectives of the sale.
  3. Need for a new spectrum auction
  4. Who can participate in auction?

Mains Link:

Spectrum auction in India has turned into a buyer’s market. Discuss.

Source: Indian Express

 


Facts for Prelims:


Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS)

Bureau of Indian Standards celebrates its foundation day on 6th January 2021.

About BIS:

Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) is the National Standard Body of India working under the aegis of Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution, Government of India.

  • BIS was established by the Bureau of Indian Standards Act, 1986 which came into effect on 23 December 1986.
  • The Bureau of Indian Standards Act, 2016 made the BIS a National Standards Body. The BIS Act has been implemented since 12 October 2017.
  • BIS is responsible for the harmonious development of the activities of standardization, marking and quality certification of goods and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

Naval Innovation and Indigenisation Organisation (NIIO)

Recently, Raksha Mantri has launched the Naval Innovation and Indigenisation Organisation (NIIO).

The NIIO is a three-tiered organisation.

  • Naval Technology Acceleration Council (N-TAC) will bring together the twin aspects of innovation and indigenisation and provide apex level directives.
  • A working group under the N-TAC will implement the projects.
  • A Technology Development Acceleration Cell (TDAC) has also been created for induction of emerging disruptive technology in an accelerated time frame.
  • The NIIO puts in place dedicated structures for the end users to interact with academia and industry towards fostering innovation and indigenisation for self-reliance in defence in keeping with the vision of Atmanirbhar Bharat.

Tripura govt’s new scheme to offer jobs to next of kin of those lost in political violence:

  • Under the New scheme, the state cabinet has decided to provide government jobs to the next of kin of those who lost their lives in political violence till March 2018.
  • Under the scheme, government jobs will be provided to any one member of such families, provided they meet a set of requisite criteria.

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