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[Insights Secure STHIR– 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 6 January 2021

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues;

1. The biggest contribution of moderates was not in making the Economic Critique of colonialism a potent weapon amongst nationalists but in laying solid foundations on which Indian National Movement could be built upon and flourish. Comment. (250 words)

Reference: A Brief History of Modern India by Spectrum Publishers.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1.

Key Demand of the question:

To compare the relative importance to biggest contributions of Moderates, the economic critique of colonialism and laying foundations for India’s struggle for Independence.

Introduction:

Explain Economic Critique of Nationalism which was one of the major contributions of moderates..

Body:

Elaborate upon the economic critique of nationalism – what it was, who propounded it and how it became a potent weapon to attack British by moderates as well as extremists and Gandhian phase later on.

Next, explain in detail the role of moderate in laying foundations for India’s struggle for Independence. Spreading nationalism to far and wide and protecting the nascent Indian National Congress from any serious repercussions of the British.

Conclusion:

Summarize the overall contributions of moderates of Indian national movement and their legacy.

 

Topic: Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues;

2. Compare and Contrast the moderate and the extremist phase of the Indian National Congress. State the reasons for the rise of extremists in Indian National Congress. (250 words)

Reference: A Brief History of Modern India by Spectrum Publishers.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1.

Key Demand of the question:

To bring out the differences and the similarities between moderates and extremists. As well as to account for the rise of extremists in the Indian National Congress.

Directive:

Compare and contrast – provide for a detailed comparison of the two types, their features that are similar as well as different. One must provide for detailed assessment of the two.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin the answer by giving the context about the between moderate and the extremist phase of Indian National Congress.

Body:

In the first part of the body, bring out detail differences between moderates and the extremists on parameters such as time period, nature of agitation, important leaders, and their relationship with British, aims and objectives and composition etc.

Also, mention a few similarities between the two. Such as, their policy towards economic exploitation, their patriotism etc.

In the next part, write about reasons for rise of extremists in Congress. Failure of moderates, new middle class, spread of nationalism and attitude of British towards moderates.

Conclusion:

Mention about how the rise of extremists marked a new phase and added new vigor and dimension to the national movement.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic:  Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora;

3. With shared history, the commonwealth and the recent completion of Brexit, there is a new opportunity in furthering India-U.K. ties but its position is precarious. Analyze. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

British Prime Minister Boris Johnson who, due to the ravages of COVID-19 mutations in the U.K., has expressed his inability to attend a truncated version of India’s Republic Day.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the changing contours India-U.K relations – the opportunities and costs associated with it in a post Brexit world.

Directive:

Analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by providing context of India-U.K relations, the historical angle, aftermath of Brexit and a ravaging pandemic.

Body:

Start by writing about the scale of existing relations with Britain. Mention the changes that Brexit will bring in to the bilateral relations between India and Britain. Mention its impact.

Analyze the opportunities for collaboration between India and Britain in the aftermath of Brexit. . One and a half million persons of Indian origin reside in Britain. Before COVID-19, there were half a million tourists from India to Britain annually and twice that figure in the reverse direction. Around 30,000 Indians study in Britain despite restrictive opportunities for post-graduation employment. Britain is among the top investors in India and India is the second-biggest investor and a major job creator in Britain. Mention about leveraging the commonwealth for mutual benefits.

Mention the obstacles: duty reductions on autos, wines and spirits and wanted India to open financial sectors such as banking and insurance, postal, legal, accountancy, maritime and security and retail. India, as always, sought free movement for service professionals.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward as to how these countries sharing a common history can have a win-win relationship.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic:  Government Budgeting;

4. The covid-induced revenue crunch and Chinese belligerence make the exercise of Defence budget all the more complex, as the government faces the twin imperatives of operational readiness and capability building. Comment. (250 words)

Reference: Live Mint

Why the question:

As we move closer to the Union budget, the central government faces a dilemma in what is already a tricky situation of defence allocation. This time with Chinese aggression on our borders and a considerable revenue crunch.

Key Demand of the question:

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by giving the context of India needing to boost its defence capabilities in the face of Chinese threat and the revenue shortage the government is facing.

Body:

Present a picture of budgetary allocation to defence and explain it in brief. Bring out the nuances and intricacies the government has faced over the years in defence allocation. State relevant facts and figures to substantiate your point.

Highlight the need to equip India’s forces, especially the Army and Air Force on the eastern front through fast-track procurements on priority. Accelerate capability development, intensify research and development efforts in areas like artificial intelligence (AI), robotics, quantum computing and cyber-warfare etc.

Suggest measures to overcome this dilemma

Conclusion:

Conclude with a balanced way forward in order to secure of defence need and balance our fiscal situation.

 

Topic: Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security;

5. Our data urgently needs protection by way of legislation as much as advanced security software systems. Discuss. (250 words)

Reference: Live Mint

Why the question:  

Last August, news broke of a data heist when Bengaluru-based Juspay, which processes digital payments for the likes of Amazon, Swiggy and MakeMyTrip, admitted a major database breach. This year, the efforts of online sleuths have revealed Credit and debit card transaction details of about 100 million Indians were found being hawked on the dark web.

Key Demand of the question:

To deliberate on the need strong and effective data protection law along with strong cyber security measures to prevent cyber-attacks.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with key facts such as – Although India was one of the few countries to launch a cybersecurity policy in 2013, not much has transpired in terms of a coordinated cyber approach and the India’s Personal Data Protection Bill, introduced in the Lok Sabha in late 2019 and referred to a joint parliamentary panel is yet to be passed.

Body:

Mention about the need of strong cyber security systems. Discuss examples of recent cyber-attacks. Explain the role being played currently by CERT-In.  Cyber security has become an integral aspect of national security. Moreover, its area of influence extends far beyond military domains to cover all aspects of a nation’s governance, economy and welfare.

Link the need of complementing the cyber security strategy with prudent and effective data protection law in India. Bringing about a balance between privacy of the individual and protection of the individual from adverse threats.

Suggest solutions such as creating awareness, strengthening of existing cyber security framework, mock drills, training and capacity building by bringing cyber security in education etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic:  Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance;

6. Emotional Intelligence helps one to balance interpersonal relationships empathetically. Explain. (150 words)

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Key Demand of the question:

To explain as to how emotional intelligence an individual to understand and behave with empathy in interpersonal relationships.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Introduction should mention the essence of EI in one’s own word. Discuss the concept.

Body:

Furnish example to bring clarity. Discuss about practical aspects of applying Emotional Intelligence in interpersonal relationships. Self-awareness, self-management, social awareness and relationship management teach one to behave with empathy with others. It equips to understand other point of view especially if it’s a divergent view. It acts as relationship builder.

Conclusion:

Conclude that by applying Emotional Intelligence, not only empathetic relationships but also effectiveness and efficiency in administration can also be brought.

 

Topic: ethical issues in international relations and funding;

7. International ethics and morality can help heal wounds caused by the Pandemic. Examine. (150 words).

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Key Demand of the question:

To establish how international morality ease suffering during the pandemic and help the world as a whole move on and rebuild together.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

International ethics is an area of international relations theory which concerns the extent and scope of ethical obligations between states especially when a global event such as a pandemic takes place.

Body:

Start by explaining what is International Morality? – International Morality consists of moral principles which are endorsed by a number of nations. The rules of customary International Law reflect International Morality. One of the major sources and sanctions of International Law has been International Morality.

Give examples. As some countries start mass vaccination, many countries especially countries belonging to the third are in fear of being left out. As such, it is essential for us to examine the nature of International Morality in international relations.

Conclusion:

Conclude by suggesting the importance and need of it in healing from the wounds the from the global pandemic.


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