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[Insights Secure STHIR– 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 5 January 2021

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic:  Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues;

1. The formation of Indian National Congress as a pan-Indian organization was the culmination of process of political awakening that was witnessed in India in the nineteenth century. Elucidate. (250 words)

Reference: A Brief History of Modern India by Spectrum Publishers.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1.

Key Demand of the question:

To trace the political awakening in India, starting from local/regional organization to the pan Indian organization.

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Write about the circumstances leading to the formation of Congress in 1885 in brief.

Body:

In brief mention about various theories regarding the formation of Congress – Safety Valve Theory and The Nationalist Theory.

Write about the evolving political consciousness among Indians. Mention the factors responsible for it. Also, write about the various local organizations that sprang up across India as result of political awakening. Mention their demands.

Conclusion:

Culminate as to how these resulted in a Pan Indian organization in the form of Indian National Congress.

 

Topic: Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues;

2. Discuss about the nature of moderate phase of Indian National Congress. Do you think their great faith in the British sense of justice and fair play was their major drawback? (250 words)

Reference: A Brief History of Modern India by Spectrum Publishers.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1.

Key Demand of the question: To explain in detail the features of moderate phase pf INC and their style of functioning and to analyze the impact of their trust in the efficacy of British rule.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by writing about the moderate phase of INC, its nature and its leaders.

Body:

Explain in the detail nature of the moderate phase of INC. Their Aims and Objectives, Constitutional nature, Belief in the British, Inspiration, mode of operation, core composition, and important outcomes.

Mention about the belief of moderates in sense of justice of the British rule. They knew the exploitative nature of British rule but wanted its reforms and not expulsion.

Mention at its nascent stage they could not all out ask for expulsion for the fear of crackdown on the entire organization. They had to tread carefully between nationalistic interests and protecting the nascent congress.

Conclusion:

Pass a balanced judgement and highlight the major contributions of moderates.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic:  Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.

3. Governor should be qualified, non-partisan and above politics. Politicization of the post of Governor is unhealthy for Centre-State relations. Elaborate. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The role of Governor is again in a controversy. Kerala Governor Arif Mohammad Khan’s refusal to convene a special session of the Kerala Assembly on December 23, as initially requested by the government has brought everyone’s attention to increasing politicization of the post of Governor.

Key Demand of the question:

To throw on the role of Governor in Indian federalism and how partisan actions of the Governor cause strain in center state relationships.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by mentioning how under article 155, Governor is appointed by the president under his warrant and seal. With governor being envisaged as senior statesman to help in smooth functioning of federal governments.

Body:

Mention about increasing politicization of the post of Governor and him/her acting as the ‘agent of center’. Mention the recent examples of Kerala, Maharashtra and Karnataka.

Mention the reasons for the above such as interpretation of situational discretion and constitutional discretion of the Governor, Lack of Security of tenure, Horse trading and coalition politics, issues of selecting the chief minister, determining the timing for proving legislative majority, demanding information about day-to-day administration, taking apparently long time in giving assent to bills or reserving bills for the President, commenting adversely on specific policies of the state government and exercising powers of the governor as the chancellor of state universities.

Write about the impact it has on Center-State relations. centre-state relations have created widespread public sensitivity and opinion regarding various wrong doings of the centre through the office of the governor which have proved to be damaging for the essential federal structure in India.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward to reduce politicization of the role of the governor as suggested by various committees.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic:  Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment;

4. A carefully curated and sensitively regulated gig economy can be the panacea for the issue of urban unemployment. Analyze. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

Due to the pandemic, in several Indian cities however, shuttered businesses have meant that millions of workers have either had to leave or have had to take up new forms of work, with some finding the burgeoning gig economy to be their only source of employment.

Key Demand of the question:

To analyse as to how an effective steps towards helping gig economy grow and flourish can offer solution to the problem of increasing urban unemployment and the measures need for the same.

Directive:

Analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin the answer by defining gig economy and its nature.

Body:

Mention certain facts and figures related to Gig workers in India. For example: ASSOCHAM predicted in January 2020 that India’s gig economy will grow at a CAGR of 17 per cent to $455 billion by 2023. Also, mention the stats related rising unemployment due to the Pandemic.

Further Elaborate upon as to how this economy is capturing the interest of an increasing number of white-collar employees and the advantages it offers.

Argue for the need of bringing in policies and regulations to protect the interests of the gig workforce and a complete digital transformation. The lack of active governance to protect the interests of its workforce has been a big deterrent against participation in the gig economy. Regulations in favour of consumer interests, fair marketplaces, and labour and tax policies have been generally lacking.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

 

Topic:  Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment;

5. Economic circumstances are converging to create conducive conditions for reforms that could quell the risk of stagflation and India needs make use of it to turn this crisis in to an opportunity. Comment. (250 words)

Reference: Live Mint

Why the question:

The encouraging news that effective vaccines can be administered soon, it is time for the country to begin the task of reconstruction which offers an opportunity for India to climb back on to growth trajectory. The article covers this.

Key Demand of the question:

To explain about the need for reforms and what reforms are needed in order to improve the fiscal situation in the country.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by giving context that the turn of the year, improving business climate, strong capital account balance and imminent mass vaccination bring good tidings to India economy.

Body:

Explain the need for reforms at this point given that the economy has been already hit by the impact of demonstration, GST and weak growth before the pandemic further battered it.

Suggest reforms in order to achieve fiscal effectiveness, capitalization of private sector, Revitalization of the banking sector, focusing on micro, small and medium enterprises, achieve financial closure for existing projects and kick-start employment and demand etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward especially with the budget upcoming in order to make most of the opportunity.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance;

6. Upholding the letter of law is more important than upholding the spirit of law. State your opinion regarding this statement with examples. (150 words)

Key Demand of the question:

To debate up on the relative importance of Letter of law and the spirit of law.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Introduction:

Start by mentioning as to how The Letter Versus the Spirit of The Law Model as a medium for understanding the relationship between the law, social norms, and fairness in society.

Body:

Start by describing the letter of law – The letter of the law can be defined as any formal code, rule, regulation, or principle that must be followed according to governmental mandates or policies.

Then describe spirit of law – spirit of the law, which we define as a social and moral consensus of the interpretation of the letter of the law. Because social norms generally reflect social and moral consensus, we turn to the literature on social norms and the law to further expand on the spirit of the law.

With examples describe relative importance of both and conflict between them.

Conclusion:

Sum off with a balanced way of interpretation of law and need to judge on case by case basis as to what is important.

 

Topic: Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;

7. Gandhian trusteeship was an attempt at spiritualizing economics which preferred human dignity over material prosperity. Justify. (150 words)

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Key Demand of the question:

To explain about the trusteeship concept of Mahatma Gandhi and its aim of protecting dignity of beings over materialism.

Directive:

Justify – When you are asked to justify, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question using suitable case studies or/ and examples.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by defining the core idea of trusteeship philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi.

Body:

Further elaborate the concept of trusteeship with examples from Gandhian times to contemporary times. Gandhi’s economic ideas were part of his general crusade against poverty, exploitation against socio-economic injustice, and deteriorating moral standards.

He wanted to liberate the modern economic philosophy from the quagmire of materialism and bring it to a higher spiritual plane. Human actions were motivated by social objectives of the protection of human rights.

Conclusion:

End the answer by stressing the need and importance of trusteeship in present times.


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