Topic: Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues;
1. Out of all the major European powers that came to India, the British were able to establish a long-lasting pan Indian Empire. Examine the factors responsible for it. (250 words)
Reference: A Brief History of Modern India by Spectrum Publishers.
Why the question:
The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1.
Key Demand of the question:
To explain the factors responsible for the creation of a British Indian empire amongst the competition from the other colonial powers.
Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.
Structure of the answer:
Begin by giving the context to the question regarding the presence of various European powers present in India. Highlight the most important Anglo-French Rivalry.
Explain in detail as to why British emerged victorious among other rival powers. Firstly, the British were able to draw on some remarkable administrators, such as Warren Hastings and soldiers like Clive of India.
The British were also able to draw on more resources than their competitors in India ships and sailors, which allowed them to isolate their rivals in India. The East India Company was also able to draw on the Royal Navy’s support, the largest maritime force in the world, in the period. The British also had many more financial resources, and they could assemble larger armies, often composed of native soldiers, which gave them a decisive military advantage. Also, mention about the impact of Plassey.
Summarize as how these factors all meant that by at least the 1760’s that the British were not to have any serious European rival for two centuries and paved way for the creation of British Indian Empire.