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[Insights Secure STHIR– 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 4 January 2021

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic:  Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues;

1. Out of all the major European powers that came to India, the British were able to establish a long-lasting pan Indian Empire. Examine the factors responsible for it. (250 words)

Reference: A Brief History of Modern India by Spectrum Publishers.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1.

Key Demand of the question:

To explain the factors responsible for the creation of a British Indian empire amongst the competition from the other colonial powers.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by giving the context to the question regarding the presence of various European powers present in India. Highlight the most important Anglo-French Rivalry.

Body:

Explain in detail as to why British emerged victorious among other rival powers. Firstly, the British were able to draw on some remarkable administrators, such as Warren Hastings and soldiers like Clive of India.

The British were also able to draw on more resources than their competitors in India ships and sailors, which allowed them to isolate their rivals in India. The East India Company was also able to draw on the Royal Navy’s support, the largest maritime force in the world, in the period. The British also had many more financial resources, and they could assemble larger armies, often composed of native soldiers, which gave them a decisive military advantage. Also, mention about the impact of Plassey.

Conclusion:

Summarize as how these factors all meant that by at least the 1760’s that the British were not to have any serious European rival for two centuries and paved way for the creation of British Indian Empire.

 

Topic:  Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues;

2. The rise of Indian Nationalism was a reaction against the despotic, discriminatory and devious policies and nature of the British rule. Critically Analyze. (250 words)

Reference: A Brief History of Modern India by Spectrum Publishers.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1.

Key Demand of the question:

To analyze the nature of Rise of nationalism in India. Was it a reaction against the policies of British? Or was it born on its own?

Directive:

Critically analyze – When asked to analyze, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start the answer by describing the genesis of Indian nationalism in the late nineteenth century.

Body:

In the first part of the body, analyze as to how the Indian nationalism was a reaction against polices of the British. Mention about the Despotic nature of the rule, the racial discrimination, the lack of proper administration, lack of Indian in administration, alien rule, the loot and the plunder, indiscriminate taxation, ruining of Industries etc.

In the next part, analyze how the Indian nationalism was a product of its own maturity. Introduction of modern education, influx of ideas of liberalism and constitutionalism, rise of an educated middle class, impact of press, impact of socio-religious reform movements etc.

Conclusion:

Pass a balanced judgement as to how the Indian Nationalism took birth.

 

Topic: Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues,

3. There exists a very wide gender gap in agriculture of India, the new farm laws does very little to address it, in fact it may widen the gap. Analyze. Suggest measures to bridge the gender gap in Agriculture of India. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

Mahila Kisan Adhikaar Manch (MAKAAM), has highlighted several issues with the farm laws. Women farmers fear that the farm laws will further deepen gender inequality in the sector.

Key Demand of the question:

To analyze the impact of new farm laws on the ever widening gender gap in agriculture and to suggest solutions to reduce the gap.

Directive:

Analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by giving the context of gender gap in agriculture. According the NSSO 68th round data, women constitute 63% of workforce in agriculture.

Body:

Elaborate on the disparities prevalent in Indian agriculture. The India Human Development Survey reports that 83% of agricultural land in the country is inherited by male members of the family and less than 2% by their female counterparts.

Bring out its impact. Women are mostly left without any title of land in their names and are excluded from the definition of farmers. Besides, 81% of women agricultural labourers belong to Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and Other Backward Classes, so they also contribute to the largest share of casual and landless labourers.

Mention the impact of recently enacted farm laws on the existing gender Gap.

Suggest measures so as to reduce the gender gap in farming. Such as, Operationalize the definition of ‘Farmer’: Recognise women farmers, Mainstream women farmers in all government programmes, Creating a gender-disaggregated database, Prioritising landless women in public land distribution, Clear and inalienable including succession rights etc.

Conclusion:

Complete the answer by underscoring the need to reduce the gender gap so as to achieve SDG 5 (a) Undertake reforms to give women equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to ownership and control over land.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential;

4. The principal challenge for Public Policy and Governance is that we are constrained to find solutions for 21st-century challenges using 19th-century government structures. Examine. (250 words) 

Reference: Live Mint 

Why the question:

The outdated structures or namesake convergence has made the public policy ineffective in reaping the benefits of technological revolution. This article makes a case of effective and optimal utilization of convergence.

Key Demand of the question:

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by defining the convergence of technology with public policy so as to address the modern challenges posed by healthy, society and geopolitics.

Body:

Elaborate on how Governing convergence has been a challenge because ministries and departments are turf-conscious, statute-bound vertical silos and examine its negative impact and opportunity cost of not achieving convergence.

Public policy and governance must evolve to address the modern challenges using technology convergence. Suggest ways to achieve convergence.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic:  issues relating to intellectual property rights;

5. The purpose of granting patents itself is to not only encourage innovation but also ensure that the inventions are worked in India and are made available to the public in sufficient quantity at reasonable prices. Comment in the light of newly published Patent (Amendment) Rules, 2020. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

The central government recently published the Patent (Amendment) Rules, 2020, amending the format of a statement that patentees and licensees are required to annually submit to the Patent Office. The amendment has significantly watered down the disclosure format, and this could hamper the effectiveness of India’s compulsory licensing regime.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about how patents protects the rights of the innovators as well balances making the patented materials at reasonable costs for urgent needs. To explain as to how the

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by describing the importance of patents in protecting the intellectual property of innovators as to ensure that its benefits reach the public.

Body:

Mention about the section 146(2), Patents Act, 1970 a unique provision not found in patent laws of most other countries. Talk about its needs for India as a developing country and mention the example of Compulsory license for the production of Bayer Corporation’s Nexavar.

Talk about the recent amendment to the Patent Rules, 2020 and form 27 which has caused dilution of section 146(2).

Comment on the possible impact the recent amendment can cause. Such as, Dilution of disclosure, weakening of compulsory licensing, Impact on public interest etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by summarizing that patent working data is critical for triggering the compulsory licensing and revocation provisions. If the data is secret and opaque, it will ultimately affect consumers by denying them potentially more affordable technologies and goods, a concern most starkly felt in the area of lifesaving/extending medicines.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic:  Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics;

6. Virtue is a state that lies between two vices, one of excess and the other of deficiency. State your opinion. (150 words)

Reference: plato.stanford.edu

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Key Demand of the question:

To explain how the middle path between two extremes is the right and the virtuous path as given by Aristotle.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by mentioning there are three kinds of disposition, two of them vices, involving excess and deficiency respectively, and one a virtue, viz. the mean, and all are in a sense opposed to all.

Body:

Explain the theory – very virtue or excellence has the effect of producing a good condition of that of which it is a virtue or excellence, and of enabling it to perform its function well. Emphasize that one must find a moderate position between those two extremes, and thus one will be acting morally.

Substantiate the above with examples.

Give a brief criticism of the theory.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of the theory and its relevance.

 

Topic: Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.

7.  ‘Good can exist without evil, whereas evil cannot exist without good’  -Thomas Aquinas  (150 words)

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Key Demand of the question:

To analyze the inherent relationship between the good and evil in manner of their existence. As the goodness is the norm and evil is divergence from the good path.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin the answer by explaining the quote.

Body:

Elaborate the quite by citing relevant examples. For example, as per the Indian philosophy of the Upanishads, A person, who visualizes himself independent of others, tries to guard or please himself at the cost of others. Evil is thus the tendency of a person to live a life that is not ‘in harmony’ with the rest of the world, but ‘in opposition’ to it or at best ‘in indifference’ to it. The good is to discover the unity in the diversity of ‘all selves’ and beings. Once unity in diversity is realized, every being becomes our own self and good deeds follow automatically.

Conclusion:

Surmise as to how Goodness can be independently exist whereas the evil is always divergent behavior from the normal.


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