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RSTV: SCIENCE MONITOR 5.12.2020

RSTV


National Pollution Control Day:

  • National Pollution Control Day is celebrated on 2 December to raise awareness about pollution and its hazardous effects. This day is observed in the memory of the people who lost their lives in Bhopal gas calamity and is considered as one of the biggest industrial disasters.
  • Pollution is a major problem that India is not only facing, but the whole world is battling with it. It is also known as environmental pollution. We can define pollution as the addition of any substance, whether solid, liquid or gas or any form of energy like heat, sound, etc. to the environment.
  • The environmental pollution, directly and indirectly, affects the quality of life more than one can imagine. All this is mainly caused by human activities which harm the environment in ways more than one.
  • Nowadays pollution prevention is a major global concern because everyone on the earth is entitled to clean air to breathe, water to drink, and to enjoy public lands.
  • Many people died due to poisonous gas Methyl Isocyanate also known as MIC. Bhopal Gas Tragedy is considered as one of the biggest industrial pollution disasters.
  • According to the National Health Portal of India, every year around 7 million people globally die due to air pollution, 4 million of whom die from indoor air pollution.
  • The pollution level is so high that nine of ten people globally do not have access to safe air. Notably, the pollutants present in the air are so tiny that it can pass through mucus membrane and other protective barriers to damage the lungs, heart, and brain.
  • It is the air pollution that is responsible for the damage of the ozone layer and climate change.
  • The Government in India had made various laws to combat pollution like in Delhi decreases vehicles running on the road, implemented odd and even. National Pollution Control Board (NPCB) is the main governing body, that regularly conducts checks on industries to know whether they are following environmental regulations or not.

IIT Kanpur- New hourglass-shaped meta-structure:

  • IIT Kanpur researchers have demonstrated how with the use of a micro-structured hour-glass shaped metastructure in the lattice unit, one can get a wider variation of propagation and stop bands.
  • The hour-glasses are developed in the IIT Kanpur using additive manufacturing.
  • Lattice based meta-structures have shown tremendous application in electro-magnetic and sonic wave absorption which could in principle create ‘invisibility’ of an object either in optical or in acoustic domain.
  • Existing lattice and crystal based phononic materials have however, practical limitations in terms of customizability and hence, they can be generally used in a narrow band of frequency.
  • Inspiration of the lattice they developed has come from a two-headed drum called ‘Dambaru’ or ‘Damaru’ which is used in ancient Hinduism and Tibetan Buddhism. It is said that Lod Shiva has produced a special sound through this musical instrument to create and regulate the universe.
  • Interestingly, in this application, IIT Kanpur researchers  have shown the nature of stiffness of a vibrating medium could be altered drastically by controlling the lattice micro-structure from regular honeycomb to auxtetic honeycomb structure.
  • This has wide applications in the field of vibration isolation in high speed trains, stealth submarines, helicopter rotors and control the propagation and band-gaps very effectively which can usher in the development of new ultrasonic devices with capacity of sub-wave length imaging empowering the medical practitioners and the health management industry.
  • In this application, IIT Kanpur researchers have shown the nature of stiffness of a vibrating medium could be altered drastically by controlling the lattice micro-structure from regular honeycomb to auxtetic honeycomb structure.
    • Lattice based meta-structures have shown tremendous application in electro-magnetic and sonic wave absorption.
    • It could in principle create ‘invisibility’ of an object either in optical or in acoustic domain.
    • Existing lattice and crystal based phonetic materials have however, practical limitations in terms of customizability.
    • Existing lattice can only be generally used in a narrow band of frequency.

National Science Film Festival of India- 2020:

  • The 10th edition of prestigious National science film festival got off in a virtual mode.
  • The four-day long film festival has been jointly organized by Vigyan Prasar, an autonomous agency under the Department of Science and Technology, Govt. of India and the Tripura State Council of Science and Technology, Govt. of Tripura from 24 to 27 November 2020.
  • The science film festival offers a unique platform to showcase the science films made by professionals, amateur and student filmmakers under various themes, to promote science films in India.
  • VigyanPrasar, an autonomous agency under the Department of Science and Technology, Govt. of India, has been organizing this festival as a part of its science popularization endeavour.
  • Films being the most popular medium of communication, can help popularize science effectively, as people directly connect with them. Science is wedded to art; film is a complete medium.It has science, art and culture and thus offers a complete package.  In India we cannot separate science from art as the art-forms are based on science.
  • A total of 372 films in different languages ​​have been received for participation in the festival this year.
  • A total of 115 shortlisted films selected by the ten-member jury was screened during the festival. These include films in Hindi, English, Urdu, Malayalam, Kashmiri, Bengali, Marathi, Punjabi and Tamil languages.
  • Science and technology, environment, agriculture, renewable energy, water management, health and drugs and technological innovations are some of the most explored themes in the submitted films.
  • The national science film festival receives entries in the form of government funded films as well as films made by independent filmmakers, media institutes, college, universities, and school students.