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[Insights Secure STHIR– 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 30 December 2020

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Salient features of world’s physical geography;

1.  Briefly describe the features of the islands of India. Andaman and Nicobar Islands have an untapped economic, geostrategic and cultural potential. Examine. (250 words)

Reference: Class-XI NCERT: India Physical Environment.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1.

Key Demand of the question:

To explain the features of major islands of India and to mention about the potential of Andaman and Nicobar islands.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Being by mentioning the major island group of India – The Andaman and Nicobar islands in the Bay of Bengal and Lakshadweep islands in the Arabian Sea.

Body:

Mention the features of both the islands. Such as their nature of formation, Major islands, composition and their unique features.

In the next part, add about levering the untapped potential of Andaman and Nicobar islands. How a proactive policy is needed at transforming the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, a tri-services command, as an economic hub and one of the key centers of its defence and security strategy.

A focused development plan for the Islands is expected to greatly enhance the country’s geopolitical leverage in the Indian Ocean Region.

Bring out potential challenges in achieving the above and suggest measures to overcome the same

Conclusion:

Summarize that the A&N Islands can play a key role in enhancing India’s regional engagement with the Bay of Bengal littorals.

 

Topic: Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India;

2. Without involving its indigenous communities, any conservation efforts to protect and conserve the Western Ghats is flawed. Analyze. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

This article talks about community-involved conservation models and argues for the need of integrating forest tribes as part of conservation efforts of Western Ghats.

Key Demand of the question:

To bring out the relationship between conservation of Western Ghats and protecting the natural habitat of indigenous people.

Directive:

Analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly mention about indigenous communities and tribes of Western Ghats. Mention relevant facts and figures.

Body:

Give a backdrop of the conservation efforts on going in the Western Ghats. Need for conservation which is a World Heritage Site declared by the UNESCO.

Mention the Forest Rights Act of 2006 as to how it protects the interests of the forest tribes.

Mention the lacunas in the implementation of Forest Rights Act of 2006: recognition of the claims, inconsistency in the government’s approach in settling the claims, eviction of forest dwellers for conservation or developmental purposes etc.

Suggest measures of how to make the indigenous tribes an important part of conservation as well as developmental efforts. Involving communities living in the management and use of these resources, implementing the Forest Rights act at grassroots and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity etc.

Conclusion:

Underscore the importance of balancing the protection of indigenous communities as central to the conservation efforts.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

3. With the Australia-China trade war worsening and relations souring between the two countries, India has the opportunity to be a solution to Australian reliance on China. Examine. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express 

Why the question:

The downward spiral of Australia’s relationship with China and a retaliatory measures taken by each other have put both countries head to head in a trade war. This article covers the same.

Key Demand of the question:

To explain the ongoing Sino-Australian dispute and how India can offer solution to Australian reliance on China.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start the answer by giving context of the ongoing dispute between the two countries.

Body:

Mention the recent events that triggered the on-going disputes.

With relevant facts and figures mention about the dependence of Australia on China and how the country already reeling under the economic impact of Covid-19 is now further struggling due to the ongoing tariff war.

Mention the potential opportunities that India has in being a solution for Australia given that India too has an ongoing territorial dispute with Beijing. India is currently Australia’s fifth largest export partner and presents a lucrative option for Australian exporters to diversify, strategic political benefits, both countries are federal democracies, former British colonies, India’s and Australia strong relationship with the US and new economic policies under taken by India etc. Also, mention the limitations of the above.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic:   Disaster and disaster management;

4. Natural disasters generate significant fiscal risks, severely impacting developing countries. Prime Minister’s Ten Point Agenda on Disaster Risk Reduction majorly aims to address the same. Critically analyze. (250 words)

Reference: ndma.gov.in

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 3.

Key Demand of the question:

To analyze to what extent PM’s ten point agenda is effective in reducing fiscal risks associated with disasters.

Directive:

Critically analyze – When asked to analyze, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by briefly writing about PM ten point agenda which seeks have a concrete ideas for prioritized implementation of Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction.

Body:

Mention the fiscal impact of natural disasters on developing countries with examples.

In short and an evaluated manner, analyze the major points for PM’s 10 point agenda. All development sectors must imbibe the principles of disaster risk management, Risk Coverage, Role of women, Investment in risk mapping, leveraging technology, harnessing social media ecosystem and capacity building of locals etc.

Bring out the positives aspect of the agenda such as think big and innovatively to widen the risk insurance cover, greater involvement and leadership of women, undertaking multi-hazard risk assessments and leveraging technology to enhance the efficiency etc.

Mention the drawback of ten point agenda such as: rhetorical in nature and no fixed framework to achieve it, Risk Coverage is done with existing schemes like PM-FBY, PM-JDY, PM-SBY and nothing new has been introduced etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

 

Topic:    Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.

5. Geo-politics and geo-economics can never be truly separated. For India to be truly Atmanirbhar, India needs to focus on creating and fostering an environment of resilient supply chains that will enhance India’s position in the global supply chain. Comment. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

A key lesson learnt by the world during the COVID-19 pandemic has been the importance of creating resilient supply chains that can withstand disruptions and ensure reliability for the global economy. This article emphasizes on it.

Key Demand of the question:

To develop a link between geo-politics and geo-economics and stress on the need to have resilient and self-reliant supply chains.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Mention about the bottlenecks in supply chains which can either be natural due to disasters or manmade due to politics, breakdown etc.

Body:

Bring out the link between geopolitics and geo-economics. Substantiate with historical as well as recent examples as to how supply chains were disrupted because of geo-politics and bring out its impact.

Write about how having a resilient supply chains is vital to ensure the success of Atmanirbhar Bharat. Mention the obstacles that India faces such as, over reliance on imports in some sectors,  issues regarding data localisation, intellectual property rights, high tariffs, duplicative safety and security testing, price controls, being overly bureaucratic etc.

Suggest measures to strengthen India’s capacities to participate more vigorously without being prey to supply chain disruptions: engaging the Supply Chain Resilience Initiative (SCRI) of India, Japan and Australia, Supply chain needs to be diversified, infrastructure needs to be resilient and reliable and policies in the business environment also need to be reliable, levelling the playing field by abandoning discriminatory policies, enhancing transparency and predictability and its policies and lowering the cost of doing business and utilizing technologies such as blockchain etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic:  lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;

6. Which great leader or personality inspires you to stay morally upright? Why? (250 words)

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Key Demand of the question:

To talk about the inspiration you draw from a great personality that defines your morally justified path.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by introducing the personality or a relevant quote from the personality.

Body:

This is a very open ended. You should select a leader or personality who was known for his/her ethical standing, fortitude and moral courage.

It is vital that you mention the facets of the leader or personality with relevant instances form his life as to how he/she inspire you to stay on the right path.

Leaders and great personalities such as Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela, Gautama Buddha etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by stating the necessity of learning from the lives of the great personalities to keep up morally upright.

 

Topic: Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions;

7. The bureaucracy should not just aim to be ethical and efficient but also to create an environment that’s good for body and mind for its workers. Elaborate. (150 words)

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Key Demand of the question:

To explain how bureaucracy, apart from being ethical and efficient must strive create a positive and healthy environment for its workers.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin by giving context how the work pressure and sedentary lifestyle of bureaucracy is adversely affecting the physical health of the civil servants.

Body:

Bring out the causes for the same. The internal pressure from higher ups, the external pressures from politicians, activists etc, cumbersome work, lack of vacations, lack of physical activity and high expectations to deliver on time etc.

Write about the impact of the above. Deteriorating physical health with obesity, blood pressure and diabetes, worsening mental health with anxiety and depression, negative work life balance, affected familial relationship etc.

Suggest measures to improve the same. Flexible deadlines, compulsory vacations, promoting yoga and meditation on a daily basis, concessions for gym, insulating civil servants from undue political pressure, regular health checkups etc.

Conclusion:

Summarize that a positive atmosphere at work will not only reduce stress but improve the efficiency of the workers.


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