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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 28 December 2020


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic:  population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

1. Slums are not ‘problems’ that have to be ‘solved’ – but are indeed a result of lopsided and vested urban policies covering land ownership, infrastructure provision and maintenance, and other socio-economic issues. Analyse. (250 words)

Reference: Social Problems in India by Ram Ahuja

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1.

Key Demand of the question:

Bring out the true nature of the causes of issue of slums in India.

Directive:

Analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start the answer by putting forward how manifestation of income and other gaps in health, education, skills, etc. can be seen in slums and squatter settlements of most urban areas in developing countries. Mention stats related slums in India.

Body:

Mention the factors as how the slums are not problems per se but have become problems because of the factors such as unplanned urbanization, lack of opportunities and skills, migration, Lack of affordable housing, Overcrowding, close proximity to jobs and markets, tenural insecurity and informal and intermittent supply of urban services etc.

Mention the impact of the above with relevant facts and figures.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

Introduction:

Slum is a contiguous settlement where the inhabitants are characterized as having inadequate housing and basic services. Cities Alliance Action Plan describes slums as neglected parts of cities where housing and living conditions are appallingly poor.

Census of India 2011 explained slums as residential areas where dwellings are unfit for human habitation by reasons of dilapidation, overcrowding, faulty arrangements and design of such buildings, narrowness or faulty arrangement of street, lack of ventilation, light, or sanitation facilities or any combination of these factors which are detrimental to the safety and health.

The slum is an inevitable part of modern urbanization and the urban poor are active agents serving the non-slum dwellers and contribute to economic growth.

Body:

Slums in India:

  • Out of 4,041 Statutory Towns in Census 2011 Slums reported from 2,543 Towns (63%)
  • Largest number of slums reported from Maharashtra (21,359)
  • People who are living in slums increased from 52 million in 2001 to 65.5 million 2011

Factors responsible for growth of slums:

  • Demand- supply of Housing: The gap between growing demand for affordable urban housing and insufficient supply has encouraged the formation of slums. Whenever the demand surplus is not met by formal sectors, this gap is typically filled by an informal dwelling such as a slum
  • Limited access to financial resources: slum dwellers typically inhabit marginal locations such as dumping grounds mainly due to the low purchasing power of slum dwellers in formal land markets when compared with high-income groups. Further, the urban poor lack the access to formal financial resources to help them purchase new homes or maintain a new life in a new housing unit.
  • Rural to Urban Migration:Rural to urban migration is one of the primary drivers of growth of slums in Indian cities. Urban centres which are not equipped to support additional population, fail to cope up with high influx of people which ultimately causes several problems such as housing shortages, unemployment, and development of slums.
  • Poor Urban governance:A major factor for growth of slums use of rigid, often outdated urban planning regulations, which are typically bypassed by slum dwellers to meet their housing needs. Another issue is the failure of governments to incorporate slum dwellers as part of the overall planning process. This is often due to the inability of many governments to keep pace with urbanization because of ill-designed policies, lack of resources and corruption.

Problems faced by slum dwellers:

  • Lack of basic services/ amenities: The slums are characterised by lack of access to sanitation facilities and safe water sources, absence of waste collection systems, electricity supply, and drainage. These are sometimes supplemented by lack of surfaced roads and footpaths and street lighting. According to Census 2011, among the slums in India-
    • 58% have open or no drainage
    • 43% must bring water from outside their communities
    • 26% do not have access to clean drinking water
    • 34% have no latrine within premises; 19% open defecate
    • 2 electricity outages occur per day
  • Substandard housing: Slum areas are associated with a high number of substandard housing structures, often built with non-permanent materials unsuitable for housing and in dilapidated conditions.
  • Overcrowding: Overcrowding is associated with a low space per person, high occupancy rates, cohabitation by different families. Many slum dwelling units are overcrowded, with a large number of people sharing a one-room unit used for cooking, sleeping and living.
  • Unhealthy living conditions and hazardous locations: Unhealthy living conditions are the result of a lack of basic services, open sewers, lack of pathways, uncontrolled dumping of waste, polluted environments, etc. Further, slums come up in hazardous locations such as in proximity to industrial plants with toxic emissions or waste disposal sites.
  • Perpetuating cycle of Poverty: Low income and poverty is both cause and to large extent consequence of slum conditions. Slum conditions create barriers to human and social development. Low income characteristically means poor nutrition, elementary or no education, little or no medical care which undermines human capital development and slum dwellers are trapped in the vicious cycle of poverty.
  • Social problems: Slums are areas of social exclusion that are often perceived to have high levels of crime. Gender discrimination and violence towards women and children, substance abuse are rampant phenomena in slum areas.
  • Health:Since slums are not connected to basic services such as clean water, sanitation and hygiene facilities, residents are at great risk of contracting water-borne and respiratory diseases. High population density, lack of proper toilets and close proximity of homes allow diseases to spread quickly.

Government Initiatives:

  • National Slum Development Programme (NSDP):Initiated in 1996, NSDP provided both loans and subsidies to states for slum rehabilitation projects on the basis of their urban slum population.
  • Valmiki Ambedkar Malina Basti Awas Yozana (VAMBAY):Introduced in 2001, it focused on shelter for the urban poor, with 20% of total allocation for community sanitation facilities under the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA) program
  • Basic Services to the Urban Poor (BSUP):BSUP was an important component of Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM). BSUP aimed to provide basic services to urban poor in 63 of the largest cities in India by population
  • Integrated Housing & Slum Development Programme (IHSDP):Integrated Housing & Slum Development Programme (IHSDP) was launched by GoI by merging the schemes of NSDP and VAMBAY. The objective of the scheme is to provide adequate Shelter and basic infrastructure facilities to the slum dwellers in urban areas.
  • Interest Subsidy Scheme for Housing the Urban Poor (ISHUP): The Scheme envisages the provision of interest subsidy to economically weak section and Low income groups to enable them to buy or construct houses.
  • Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY):Launched in 2013, the scheme focussed on:
    • Bringing existing slums within the formal system and enabling them to avail of the same level of basic amenities as the rest of the town;
    • Redressing the failures of the formal system that lie behind the creation of slums; and
    • Tackling the shortages of urban land and housing that keep shelter out of reach of the urban poor.
  • Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana- “Housing for All (Urban):Launched in 2015, the scheme seeks to provide central assistance to implementing agencies through States and UTs for providing houses to all beneficiaries by 2022. It incorporates the following:
    • “In-situ” slum rehabilitation with participation of private developers using land as a resource. This approach aims to leverage the locked potential of land under slums to provide houses to the eligible slum dwellers bringing them into the formal urban settlement.
    • Promotion of Affordable Housing for weaker section through credit linked subsidy
    • Affordable Housing in Partnership with Public & Private Sectors
    • Subsidy for beneficiary-led individual house construction/enhancement
  • Slum areas (Improvement and Clearance) Act, in the year 1956:The act aimed at mechanical improvement or complete eradication of slums. It empowers the competent authority to declare any slum area in accordance with the definition, look into possibilities of improvement or eradicate slums.

Way Forward:

  • The focus should not only on building houses for the slum dwellers but also promoting livelihood options and social and economic infrastructure to develop the livelihood.
  • For effective urban planning, housing and population policies based on housing rights and the right to a clean environment must be established at all levels. These policies should be directed at inclusive cities and poverty alleviation
  • Attention must be paid to income generation, transport and empowerment of the beneficiaries to redress possible future problems
  • A three-pronged approach to Slum Free city should be adopted:
    • Provision of clear, free title to the residents, so that they enjoy the privileges of using property as a tangible asset
    • To upgrade the infrastructure and services providing water, power, and sewage connections to individual homes, the collection of solid waste, street lighting and neighbourhood security and police support
    • The creation of high-density, low income zoning that allows individual property owners to upgrade their homes without risk, rent out their properties to formal commercial establishments

 

Topic: population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies;

2. The greatest and most fundamental challenge of the new decade is to adjust to a world population of 8.4 billion people eager to achieve higher standards of living, while minimizing the negative impact of human activity on the environment. Comment. (250 words)

Reference: Social Problems in India by Ram Ahuja

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1.

Key Demand of the question:

To bring out the challenges we face as a result of increasing population as we well as diminishing ecology.

Directive:

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by giving context as to the twin challenge we face in the upcoming decade – Increasing problems as well as its impact on the environment.

Body:

Elaborate upon how there is growing evidence that population growth, combined with economic development, rising standards of living and a higher level of consumption has resulted in changing patterns of land use, increased energy use and the depletion of natural resources, with signs of climate change and environmental degradation more visible than ever before.

The access to resources for growing numbers of people, eradicate poverty, reduce social and economic inequality and end unsustainable patterns of consumption and production, while safeguarding the environment is another issue.

Talk about some opportunities which can be harnessed from the above such as declines in mortality and fertility, which will alter the age structure of populations in ways that, at various stages of the demographic transition, may prove to be either a boost or an additional challenge to the achievement of inclusive and sustainable economic Integrating population issues into sustainable development growth. Migration can contribute to sustainable development by expanding economic opportunities, reducing poverty, addressing labour markets imbalances and accelerating the diffusion of new ideas and technologies.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

Introduction:

Environmental pollution is one of the serious problems faced by the people in the country, especially in urban areas, which not only experiences a rapid growth of population due to high fertility, low mortality and increasing rural-urban migration, but also industrialization which is accompanied by growing number of vehicles. India is the world’s sixth largest and second fastest growing producer of greenhouse gases. Delhi, Mumbai and Chennai are three of the world’s ten most populated cities.

Body:

In India, the rapid increase of human numbers combines with desperate poverty to deplete and pollute local resource bases on which the livelihood of present and future generations depends. Though the relationship is complex, population size and growth tend to expand and accelerate these human impacts on the environment.

Population impacts on the environment primarily through the use of natural resources and production of wastes and is associated with environmental stresses like biodiversity, air and water pollution and increased pressure on arable land.

  • Urban air pollution costs India US $ 1.3 billion a year.
  • Water degradation leads to health costs amounting to US $ 5.7 million every year, nearly 60 percent of the total environmental cost.
  • Soil erosion affects 83 to 163 million hectares of land every year.
  • Land degradation leads to productivity loss equal to US $ 2.4 billion or 4 to 6.3 percent of the agricultural productivity every year (UNDP 1998).
  • The lack of services such as water supply, sanitation, drainage of storm water, treatment and disposal of waste water, management of solid and hazardous wastes, supply of safe food, water and housing are all unable to keep pace with urban growth.
  • Unplanned location of industries in urban and sub-urban areas followed by traffic congestion, poor housing, poor drainage and garbage accumulation causes serious pollution problems.

Rapid population growth plays an important role in declining per capita agricultural land, forest and water resources, through expansion and intensification of agriculture, uncontrolled growth of urbanization and industrialization, and destruction of natural habitats.

Study reveals that outcomes of high population growth rates are increasing population density and number of people below poverty line. Population pressure contributes to land degradation and soil erosion, thus affecting productive resource base of the economy. The increasing population numbers and growing affluence have resulted in rapid growth of energy production and consumption in India. The environmental effects like ground water and surface water contamination; air pollution and global warming are of growing concern owing to increasing consumption levels. The paper concludes with some policy reflections and emphasizes the potential importance of natural resources.

Solutions to counter overpopulation 

  • Encouraging late marriages: Many in Indian society opt for early marriages due to various reasons like social pressures, traditions, etc. If late marriages become the norm, it will considerably reduce the birth rate.
  • Spreading awareness: It is essential to spread awareness among the public about the negative consequences of the overpopulation. This can be done through education, public forums, media, etc. It is essential to provide free education to women at least till the college level so that they need not be dependent on their male counterparts for survival and are willing to participate in the workforce.
  • Reduction of infant mortality rate: It is essential to bring down the infant mortality rate. This is because, due to high infant mortality rates, many opt for increased birth rate to offset the loss.
  • Women empowerment: Women must be empowered through education, skill development, financial inclusion so that they can become independent and free from the shackles of the social norms and constraint.
  • Government schemes on par with efficient family planning: Many opt for having children for the purpose of security during the later stage of life. If the government provides enough security through increased welfare schemes for the older population, people will opt for far lesser children.
  • Promotion of the girl child: India is a society where the male child has far more importance than their female counterparts. Therefore, many families tend to continue having children until a male child is born. Government policies must focus on the increased promotion of female children to address this problem. Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao scheme is a step in the right direction.

Way Forward:

  • India has 13% of unwanted fertility – the product of unwanted or unplanned pregnancy, mainly due to the lack of education, awareness, family planning services, etc.
  • If this issue is addressed, India will have 30 million lesser people by 2030.
  • The government must increase its investment in the health sector. Currently, India invests only 1.3% of its total GDP on the health sector of which only 4% is dedicated to family planning.
  • The government must address the issue at the ground level as the population growth rate differs at various parts of the country due to the social, cultural and economic diversity of India.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic:   Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources;

3.  With a Vaccine at its doorstep, India needs proper planning, a prudent distribution policy and vigilant monitoring post vaccination to ensure holistic vaccination of the masses. Elaborate. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu The Hindu 

Why the question:

As many countries start vaccination for Covid-19, India too braces up for it but faces a myriad of challenges.

Key Demand of the question:

To mention the challenges India faces in mass vaccination drive and suggest measures how it can be overcome through an effective vaccination policy.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Mention how India is in the final stages of vaccine trials for major vaccines and can grant emergency use permission and countries such as U.S and U.K have already started their vaccination drives.

Body:

Write about the need for proper planning as India has a large population, overburdened public health care and need for two doses to given with 2 week apart.

With huge number of people that need to vaccinated and with initial supply shortage, bring out how the vaccine distribution be shaped. The health care professional and front line workers no doubt will be first. Next, immuno-compromised and the elderly should be prioritized or youth who are more out in the public activities. Debate the role that private should play in the vaccine distribution, if it all if it is given.

Next, mention about to the need to monitor for long term effects and need to address any that arises from the potential vaccines for a safe vaccine.

Mention about India’s strengths and preparedness in the above such a Universal Immunization Programme, WIN IT platform and its test run in some states. Suggest steps to make it more robust.

Conclusion:

Summarize the key components that will make the vaccine policy in India successful.

Introduction:

As the private sector is leading the research for Covid-19 vaccine, the role and independence of vaccine manufacturers and free-market become very crucial. However, being a welfare state, while ensuring adequate profit to private researchers/developers, the Indian government needs to frame a policy that ensures the fastest delivery of a vaccine for the largest number of people. Consequently, government needs a policy which can ensure both acquisition of vaccines for poor people and pricing strategies so that the private sector remains motivated to deliver safe and effective vaccines.

Body:

Present scenario for vaccine development:

  • The Covid-19 pandemic has created a very large market for the vaccine, and the incentives of vaccine developers are well-aligned with society at large.
  • Indian manufacturers, frontrunners at mass-producing vaccines, have struck deals with most vaccine developers and global pharmaceutical companies. This places India in a unique position to get early access to a vaccine.

Issues related to vaccine distribution:

Utilization of Covid-19 vaccine will be influenced by three factors or three Cs (Convenience, Complacency, and Confidence)

  • Convenience:It implies the physical proximity or availability of vaccination to the masses.
    • A recent Lancet study pointed out, some wealthy nations have secured more than 2 billion doses of potential future Covid-19 vaccines using advance purchase agreements. This would certainly create a scarcity for developing countries like India.
    • Further, distributing the vaccine across India will need a sophisticated cold chain system.
  • Complacency:With respect to diseases, a lot of people tend to think that their personal risk is low.
    • “Optimism bias,”as it is called, makes vaccination seem unnecessary to them. However, this behaviour can prove fatal in battling a pandemic like Covid-19 pandemic.
  • Confidence:Public trust in the efficacy and safety of the vaccine is crucial whenever a new vaccine is launched.

Way forward:

  • Working for Availability of Vaccine:Once a safe and effective vaccine is available, it should be a high priority to ensure that it is easy for everyone to have access to it. In this pursuit:
    • India should consider joining the COVAX platform(Covid-19 Vaccine Global Access advance purchase agreement). It offers a diversified portfolio of vaccines to all participating countries.
    • Collaboration with the private sector will also help, in this direction the government is already working with pharmaceutical companies like the Serum Institute of India.
  • Market Pricing Along with Direct Benefit Transfer:This would mean lower immediate cost of rollout (due to competition and high demand) and targeted subsidy to the needy.
    • In this, vaccines for the poor should be paid for by the government at cost and a free market for the vaccine should operate for those who can afford it.
    • As any vaccinated person, rich or poor, will inadvertently protect others. Even if the rich get vaccinated first by buying it at a market price, this will ease the burden on the medical system and high prices will also incentivize greater supply of vaccines swiftly to locations where they are most in demand.
    • Further, the government by paying for the vaccine doses will ensure India doesn’t destroy its own long-term private vaccine production capacity and is promoted as a pharmaceutical hub in the world.
    • Launching an Awareness Campaign:Government should launch a massive awareness campaign highlighting the flaw in optimism bias in some sections of society. It can also help to emphasize that vaccination protects not only those who get vaccinated but also others whom they might otherwise infect.

Conclusion:

The Covid-19 vaccine is certainly a social good but its development largely depends on the hands of the private sector. Therefore, the government must cautiously frame vaccine distribution policy to ensure the greatest good to the greatest number.

 

Topic:   India and its neighborhood- relations;

4. With its ‘wolf warrior diplomacy’ fueled by assertive nationalism more visible than ever, China has turned a page in its foreign policy. Evaluate. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

Recently Beijing’s recourse to nationalistic aggression as a foreign policy stratagem has gained the euphemism of ‘wolf warrior diplomacy’.

Key Demand of the question:

To bring out how China is now having an aggressive and explicit foreign policy in the wolf warrior diplomacy and its features.

Directive:

Evaluate – When you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming a personal opinion here.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Stat by defining what ‘wolf warrior diplomacy’ of china.

Body:

In the first part, address as to how China under President Xi Jingping has undergone a paradigm shift with respect to foreign policy especially in ‘wolf warrior diplomacy’ as compared Deng Xiaoping’s ‘keep low profile’.

Mention the essential components of ‘wolf warrior diplomacy’ such as linked to a threat perception and being victimized, agenda of indoctrination, Personality cult, Aggressive nationalism, Responsibility of saving the world and No room for dissent in the own party etc.

Mention as to how the ‘wolf warrior approach’ became more aggressive after the Pandemic.

Bring out the impact of the policy on China and its relations with the global powers and India.

Conclusion:

Pass a balanced judgement on increasingly assertive foreign policy of China.

Introduction:

Wolf Warrior and Wolf Warrior II are Chinese action blockbusters that highlight agents of Chinese special operation forces. They have boosted national pride and patriotism among Chinese viewers. It derives its inspiration from the idiom of ‘Great Rejuvenation’ and its obsession with re-achieving the glories of an imaginary past.

Body:

The same can be seen through

  • Aggressive neighbourhood policy: As seen in Doklam standoff, Ladakh crisis
  • Policy of No tolerance- As seen in Hong Kong issue
  • Aggressive stand in International Organisations- UNSC, IMF
  • Militarisation of seas- South China Sea
  • Neo Colonialism- Debt traps in Sri Lanka, Maldives
  • Chinese coastguard ship allegedly sank a Vietnamese fishing trawler near the Paracel Islands

The Reason for the indoctrination

  • Since 2010, when China’s GDP overtook Japan’s as the world’s second largest, the Chinese have become more confident and China’s foreign policy has become more assertive, gradually departing from Deng Xiaoping’s taoguang yanghui 
  • In recent years, President Xi Jinping has advocated “a fighting spirit” on several occasions, whether speaking to soldiers or party officials. This has apparently raised the morale of Chinese officials and diplomats, and encouraged a more assertive style.
  • The new ‘Patriotic Education’ guidelines were introduced in 2019, along with the ‘2019-2023 National Work Program for the Education and Cultivation of Party Members’.
  • In 2018, the Party launched a “patriotic striving spirit” campaign to ‘enhance patriotism’ among Chinese intellectuals.
  • Chinese media outlets have been asked to follow the dictum of “telling China’s stories well” to shape domestic and international opinion as per the Party’s diktats.
  • Promotion of the Xi Jinping personality cult has become an intrinsic component of Chinese nationalism.
  • Elite institutions in China have either established research centres or introduced mandatory courses in ‘Xi Jinping Thought’.
  • From China’s perspective, wolf-warrior diplomacy is a direct response to “unfair” approaches by other countries, especially the U.S., toward China and the Chinese people.

Way forward:

  • Cult of personality will gain further momentum after the recently concluded fifth plenum of the Party which approved a plan for China to become a global leader in technology by 2035.
  • Xi has further declared his intentions to remain at the helm of China’s affairs long after his due retirement date as General Secretary of the Party in 2022.
  • The international community is poised to face an increasingly aggressive Chinese nationalism.

Conclusion:

Wolf-warrior diplomacy is already hurting China’s foreign policy, since it has generated pushback, such as Australia’s calls for an independent probe into the coronavirus’ origins. China’s soft power is weak globally; a belligerent approach will further damage China’s global image.

A more powerful China should be more confident and receptive to constructive criticism. Striking a balance between firmly defending national interests and enhancing soft power is a great challenge in Chinese diplomacy today.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic:  Food processing and related industries in India- scope’ and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management;

5. What is a sunrise industry? Examine the potential of Floriculture as a sunrise industry in India. (250 words)

Reference: Business Standard

Why the question:

The government has recognized Floriculture as an export-oriented sunrise industry.

Key Demand of the question:

To examine opportunities and challenges of floriculture as a sunrise industry in India.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin the answer by defining as to what constitutes a sunrise Industry with a few examples.

Body:

Mention about floriculture in India.

Explore the potential of floriculture as export oriented Sunrise industry. Mention about how India is the second largest grower of flowers, growth in production and area sown making it a lucrative branch of horticulture. Mention the local as well as global demand for flowers for various purposes as well as potential in north east.

Mention the challenges faced by the floriculture sector in India such as cultivation of loose flowers in open fields, largely by small and marginal farmers, lack of diversity in cultivation, scope for further expansion, Lack of market intelligence and growing competition from China and neighboring debutants etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude as to how India can address the challenges and maximize the potential in floriculture.

Introduction:

Sunrise industry is a colloquial term for a burgeoning sector or business in its infancy stage showing promise of a rapid boom. Sunrise industries are typically characterized by high growth rates, numerous start-ups, and an abundance of venture capital funding. These industries generate a lot of “buzz” as investors’ interest in its long-term growth prospect and public awareness increases.

A sunrise industry is often characterized by a high degree of innovation, and its rapid emergence may threaten to push into obsolescence a competing industry sector that is already in decline. Because of its dim long-term prospects, the competing industry sector is referred to as a sunset industry.

Body:

The following are the few examples of the sunrise industry:

  • IT industry of California and Bangalore
  • Hydrogen fuel production
  • Petrochemical industry
  • Food processing industry
  • Space tourism
  • Online Encyclopaedias

Key characteristics of Sunrise Industry:

  • A sunrise industry is a new business or business sector showing potential for substantial and rapid growth.
  • Notable characteristics of sunrise industries include high-growth rates and a lot of start-ups and venture capital funding.
  • As a sunrise industry develops, it may transition to the maturity stage and then to the sunset stage.
  • To remain relevant and on an upward trajectory, sunrise industries must prove their viability and sustainability.

Floriculture:

  • Floriculture or flower farming is the study of growing and marketing flowers and foliage plants.
  • Floriculture includes cultivation of flowering and ornamental plants for direct sale or for use as raw materials in cosmetic and perfume industry and in the pharmaceutical sector.
  • It also includes production of planting materials through seeds, cuttings, budding and grafting.
  • In simpler terms floriculture can be defined as the art and knowledge of growing flowers to perfection.

Potential of Floriculture as a sunrise industry in India:

  • Floriculture is an age old farming activity in India having immense potential for generating gainful self-employment among small and marginal farmers.
  • In the recent years it has emerged as a profitable agri-business in India and worldwide as improved standards of living and growing consciousness among the citizens across the globe to live in environment friendly atmosphere has led to an increase in the demand of floriculture products in the developed as well as in the developing countries worldwide.
  • Among states, Karnataka is the leader in floriculture with about 29,700 hectares under floriculture cultivation. Other major flower growing states are Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh in the South, West Bengal in the East, Maharashtra in the West and Rajasthan, Delhi and Haryana in the North.
  • Its growth has been truly remarkable in the past two decades. While the area under floral crops has expanded 4.4 times since 2001, their production has risen 5.6 times.
  • The government has recognised it as an export-oriented sunrise industry though the bulk of its output is consumed in the domestic market due to steadily swelling local demand.
  • With an annual output of around 2.86 million tonnes, India is now the world’s second-largest grower of flowers, next to China, leaving behind traditional floriculture bigwigs like the Netherlands, other European countries, and the US.

Constraints faced:

  • In spite of an abundant and varied production base, India’s export of floricultural product is not encouraging.
  • The export of floriculture products is yet to gather momentum though Indian flowers are now landing in as many as 130 countries.
  • India’s share in the global floriculture trade is quite meagre, just around 0.4 per cent, despite some geographical and climatic advantages the country enjoys in meeting the peak season demand of major importers.
  • The low performance is attributed to many constraints like non-availability of air space in major airlines.
  • The Indian floriculture industry is facing with a number of challenges mainly related to
    • trade environment;
    • infrastructure and marketing issues such as high import tariff;
    • low availability of perishable carriers;
    • higher freight rates;
    • inadequate refrigerated and transport facilities;
  • At the production level the industry is faced with challenges mostly related to availability of basic inputs including quality seeds and planting materials, efficient irrigation system and skilled manpower.
  • growing competition from China and neighbouring debutants in this field, such as Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Pakistan, is posing a big challenge for Indian floral product exporters.

Way forward:

  • In order to overcome these problems, steps must be taken to reduce import duty on planting material and equipment, reduce airfreight to a reasonable level, provide sufficient cargo space in major airlines and to establish model nurseries for supplying genuine planting material.
  • Training centres should be established for training the personnel in floriculture and allied areas.
  • Exporters should plan and monitor effective quality control measures right from production to post harvesting, storage, and transportation.

Conclusion:

Floriculture has emerged as an important agribusiness, providing employment opportunities and entrepreneurship in both urban and rural areas. National Horticulture Board helps one to establish a flower business. Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA) helps entrepreneurs with cold storage facilities and freight subsidies. It has been found that Commercial Floriculture has higher potential per unit area than most of the field crops and therefore a lucrative business. The export surplus has found its way into the local market influencing people in cities to purchase and use flowers in their daily lives. Small and marginal farmers may also use every inch of their land for raising the flower and foliage crops. Floriculture thus, offers a great opportunity to farmers in terms of income generation and empowerment.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: role of Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values;

6. Why is dowry so deeply entrenched in our society? Analyse ethically. (150 words)

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Key Demand of the question:

To examine the ethical perspective for the prevalence of dowry in modern society.

Directive:

Analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin the answer by giving the context on the problem of dowry in India.

Body:

Write about ethical issues responsible for the issue of dowry. Greed of money, Patriarchy, disobedience towards law, lack of empathy toward girl and her family, cultural issues, acceptance, sexist attitude and male chauvinistic tendencies etc.

Bring out the consequences of prevalence of dowry system. The very institution of marriage is being altered by this evil system. Marriage has become a potential death trap for an increasing number of women, particularly in the northern parts of the country. Instead of assisting newly- wed couples to set up a household, dowry has become a major disruption of marital harmony

Conclusion:

Suggest measure to tackle this widespread menace.

Introduction:

Dowry, a cultural practice deeply rooted in many Indian communities, refers to the money, goods, or property given to a bridegroom’s family along with the bride. Dowry is a social evil in the society, that has caused unimaginable tortures and crimes towards women.  The evil has taken lives of women from all strata of society – be it poor, middle class or the rich. However, it is the poor who succumb and fall prey to it, more due to their lack of awareness and education.

Body:

Reasons for dowry to be deeply entrenched in our society:

  • Patriarchal nature:
    • Sons are seen as assets.
    • There is a strong preference for male children, which has been blamed for years of female feticide.
    • This has left India with a very unbalanced sex ratio. There are 940 women for every 1,000 men according to 2011 census.
    • India has 37 million more men than women, making it hard for men to find suitable brides.
  • Societal attitude:
    • Instead of being regarded as a crime and a source of shame, dowry has become a matter of pride.
    • It is discussed over coffee at family gatherings.
    • Sons-in-law are often introduced with the price tag they come with.
    • Educated grooms tend to demand higher dowries. Education is reduced to just another factor that determines your market rate.
    • Today, dowries are seen as being directly linked to the brides’ estimation and treatment by her husband, forcing their families to ensure that a substantial amount of dowry is provided.
  • Greed:
    • Owing to expectations of material benefits from the bride’s family, dowry is demanded for, and at times, when the demands are not met, either the marriage is called off, or the bride is exploited leading to domestic violence.
  • Illiteracy:
    • With a literacy rate of 74.04% in the country, it is quite valid to consider it the primary cause for different social evils.
    • The communities that are not knowledgeable about the laws and legislation face several atrocities owing to dowry exchange practices.
  • Lack of Willingness to adhere to laws:
    • The primary reason behind the failure is lack of mass participation.
    • People pay no heed to such laws and make sure to exploit the dowry system to gain material benefits under the veil of a marriage proposal.

Implications of dowry:

  • It is because of the dowry system, that daughters are not valued as much as the sons.
  • In the society, many a times it has been seen that they are seen as a liability and are often subjected to subjugation and are given second hand treatment may it be in education or other amenities.
  • The parents don’t lay enough emphasis on educating their daughters, as they feel that husbands will support them latter.
  • The Poorer sections of society who send their daughters out to work and earn some money, to help them save up for her dowry.
  • The regular middle and upper class backgrounds do send their daughters to school, but don’t emphasize career options.
  • The very wealthy parents who happily support their daughters until they get married and their ability to fork out a high dowry

Conclusion:

Dowry has become an institutionalized and integral part of the Indian marriage. Social and economic realities do little to keep it in check. In such a situation, the need to revise the institutional framework concerning dowry and the need for more research on different forms of dowry and the reasons for its prevalence is the need of the hour.

 

Topic: Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery;

7. Service delivery should bring desired outcomes and make significant changes to the peoples’ lives as envisaged by the public policy. Explain with examples. (150 words)

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Key Demand of the question:

To explain the orientation of service delivery which impacts people’s life significantly as desired by the objective of public policy.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by mentioning the importance of service delivery in achieving the aspirations of people.

Body:

Write about the drawbacks in the present service delivery system, such as, inefficient allocation, corruption, inefficiency, amateur quality work, lack of accountability, inordinate delays which fail to make significant impact in the lives of the people.

With examples such as MGNERGA and CPGRAMS of Government of India, ‘Rajiv Aarogyasri’ of Telengana Government etc which are some standout performers in ensuring public service delivery.

Conclusion:

Conclude by emphasizing on the importance of service delivery in achieving sustainable development.

Introduction:

Governance and the quality of public services delivery can impact a country’s economic growth. The objective of public services is to deliver social protection to the poor and vulnerable and to alleviate poverty. Public services reduce inequitable distribution of resources and correct historical inequities, such as caste based discrimination and gender inequities.

Body:

Some key Public Services are:

  • Health care, Education, Social services for the poor and marginalized.
  • Infrastructure –Roads, Railways, Airports, Telecommunications, Electricity, Water.
  • Environmental protection, Waste Management, Sanitation (includes Toilets).
  • Law enforcement, Fire service, Public transportation, Postal Services.

Importance of efficient and effective service delivery:

  • Service delivery is one of the most important interfaces between a modern democratic state and its citizens.
  • The aim of public service delivery is to deliver cost-effective, high-quality services that the private sector is unable or unwilling to deliver.
  • A wide range of civic and welfare services are covered by any comprehensive definition of service delivery.
  • Social expenditure, which is the core of public service delivery, includes expenditure on health, nutrition, literacy, education, social welfare safety nets for vulnerable groups and all other areas that improve the quality of life of citizens.

In this regard, Indian Government came up with the Sevottam model of public service delivery. Sevottam is a “Service Delivery Excellence Model” which provides an assessment-improvement framework to bring about excellence in public service delivery. The term “Sevottam” is formed by joining two Hindi words “seva” and “uttam” meaning “service” and “excellence” respectively.

Contributions of Sevottam in service delivery excellence

  • Initially, Sevottam framework was undertaken from April 2009 to June 2010 in ten Departments of the Government having large public interface. These are, Department of Post, CBEC, CBDT, Railways, Passport office, Pensions, Food Processing, Corporate Affairs, Kendriya Vidyalaya Schools and EPFO.
  • Later, Sevottam has been launched as a certification scheme which provides for the award of the Sevottam symbol of excellence to public service organizations that implement and are able to show compliance to a set of management system requirements that have been specified in a specially created standard document.
  • This standard, known as IS 15700:2005, was developed by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) based on the objectives of Sevottam.
  • The standard takes into account unique conditions of service delivery by Public service organisations in India and the sectoral and regional variations in service delivery standards.
  • It offers a systematic way to identify weaknesses in specific areas and rectify them through systemic changes and process reengineering.
  • India is among the first countries in the world to have a Quality Standard for public service delivery.

e-Governance is another important tool in public service delivery to ensure equitable and inclusive access to services.

Conclusion:

Delivery of various public goods and services is the basic responsibility of the State. The State has a very important role to play in making available the essential public goods and services that ensure certain minimum level of well-being to everyone in need of those.


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