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Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Conjugate vaccine

Topics Covered: Issues related to health.

Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Conjugate vaccine:


Context:

The first indigenous vaccine against pneumonia, developed by the Serum Institute of India (SII), will be launched.

  • In July, India’s drug regulator had granted market approval for the Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Conjugate vaccine.

How the disease is spread?

Infectious agents may include bacteria, viruses and fungi.

  • Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia in children, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is the second most common cause of bacterial pneumonia. Respiratory syncytial virus is the most common viral cause of pneumonia.
  • Air sacs in an infected individual’s lungs (alveoli) become inflamed due to deposits of fluid and pus, making it painful and difficult for them to breathe.

About pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23):

It protects against pneumococcal infections.

  • PPSV23 protects against 23 types of pneumococcal bacteria.

Helpful Terms:

  1. Conjugate: A type of vaccine that joins a protein to an antigen in order to improve the protection the vaccine provides.
  2. Polysaccharide: A type of vaccine that is composed of long chains of sugar molecules that resemble the surface of certain types of bacteria in order to help the immune system mount a response.

InstaLinks:

Prelims Link:

  1. Pneumonia- types, causes and symptoms.
  2. Antigens vs Antibodies.
  3. How a vaccine works?
  4. Types of vaccines.
  5. About DGCI.
  6. Procedure to be followed for vaccine approval in India.

Sources: the Hindu.