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[Insights Secure STHIR– 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 28 December 2020

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic:  population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

1. Slums are not ‘problems’ that have to be ‘solved’ – but are indeed a result of lopsided and vested urban policies covering land ownership, infrastructure provision and maintenance, and other socio-economic issues. Analyse. (250 words)

Reference: Social Problems in India by Ram Ahuja

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1.

Key Demand of the question:

Bring out the true nature of the causes of issue of slums in India.

Directive:

Analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start the answer by putting forward how manifestation of income and other gaps in health, education, skills, etc. can be seen in slums and squatter settlements of most urban areas in developing countries. Mention stats related slums in India.

Body:

Mention the factors as how the slums are not problems per se but have become problems because of the factors such as unplanned urbanization, lack of opportunities and skills, migration, Lack of affordable housing, Overcrowding, close proximity to jobs and markets, tenural insecurity and informal and intermittent supply of urban services etc.

Mention the impact of the above with relevant facts and figures.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

 

Topic: population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies;

2. The greatest and most fundamental challenge of the new decade is to adjust to a world population of 8.4 billion people eager to achieve higher standards of living, while minimizing the negative impact of human activity on the environment. Comment. (250 words)

Reference: Social Problems in India by Ram Ahuja

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1.

Key Demand of the question:

To bring out the challenges we face as a result of increasing population as we well as diminishing ecology.

Directive:

Comment- here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by giving context as to the twin challenge we face in the upcoming decade – Increasing problems as well as its impact on the environment.

Body:

Elaborate upon how there is growing evidence that population growth, combined with economic development, rising standards of living and a higher level of consumption has resulted in changing patterns of land use, increased energy use and the depletion of natural resources, with signs of climate change and environmental degradation more visible than ever before.

The access to resources for growing numbers of people, eradicate poverty, reduce social and economic inequality and end unsustainable patterns of consumption and production, while safeguarding the environment is another issue.

Talk about some opportunities which can be harnessed from the above such as declines in mortality and fertility, which will alter the age structure of populations in ways that, at various stages of the demographic transition, may prove to be either a boost or an additional challenge to the achievement of inclusive and sustainable economic Integrating population issues into sustainable development growth. Migration can contribute to sustainable development by expanding economic opportunities, reducing poverty, addressing labour markets imbalances and accelerating the diffusion of new ideas and technologies.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic:   Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources;

3.  With a Vaccine at its doorstep, India needs proper planning, a prudent distribution policy and vigilant monitoring post vaccination to ensure holistic vaccination of the masses. Elaborate. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu The Hindu 

Why the question:

As many countries start vaccination for Covid-19, India too braces up for it but faces a myriad of challenges.

Key Demand of the question:

To mention the challenges India faces in mass vaccination drive and suggest measures how it can be overcome through an effective vaccination policy.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Mention how India is in the final stages of vaccine trials for major vaccines and can grant emergency use permission and countries such as U.S and U.K have already started their vaccination drives.

Body:

Write about the need for proper planning as India has a large population, overburdened public health care and need for two doses to given with 2 week apart.

With huge number of people that need to vaccinated and with initial supply shortage, bring out how the vaccine distribution be shaped. The health care professional and front line workers no doubt will be first. Next, immuno-compromised and the elderly should be prioritized or youth who are more out in the public activities. Debate the role that private should play in the vaccine distribution, if it all if it is given.

Next, mention about to the need to monitor for long term effects and need to address any that arises from the potential vaccines for a safe vaccine.

Mention about India’s strengths and preparedness in the above such a Universal Immunization Programme, WIN IT platform and its test run in some states. Suggest steps to make it more robust.

Conclusion:

Summarize the key components that will make the vaccine policy in India successful.

 

Topic:   India and its neighborhood- relations;

4. With its ‘wolf warrior diplomacy’ fueled by assertive nationalism more visible than ever, China has turned a page in its foreign policy. Evaluate. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

Recently Beijing’s recourse to nationalistic aggression as a foreign policy stratagem has gained the euphemism of ‘wolf warrior diplomacy’.

Key Demand of the question:

To bring out how China is now having an aggressive and explicit foreign policy in the wolf warrior diplomacy and its features.

Directive:

Evaluate – When you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming a personal opinion here.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Stat by defining what ‘wolf warrior diplomacy’ of china.

Body:

In the first part, address as to how China under President Xi Jingping has undergone a paradigm shift with respect to foreign policy especially in ‘wolf warrior diplomacy’ as compared Deng Xiaoping’s ‘keep low profile’.

Mention the essential components of ‘wolf warrior diplomacy’ such as linked to a threat perception and being victimized, agenda of indoctrination, Personality cult, Aggressive nationalism, Responsibility of saving the world and No room for dissent in the own party etc.

Mention as to how the ‘wolf warrior approach’ became more aggressive after the Pandemic.

Bring out the impact of the policy on China and its relations with the global powers and India.

Conclusion:

Pass a balanced judgement on increasingly assertive foreign policy of China.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic:  Food processing and related industries in India- scope’ and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management;

5. What is a sunrise industry? Examine the potential of Floriculture as a sunrise industry in India. (250 words)

Reference: Business Standard

Why the question:

The government has recognized Floriculture as an export-oriented sunrise industry.

Key Demand of the question:

To examine opportunities and challenges of floriculture as a sunrise industry in India.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin the answer by defining as to what constitutes a sunrise Industry with a few examples.

Body:

Mention about floriculture in India.

Explore the potential of floriculture as export oriented Sunrise industry. Mention about how India is the second largest grower of flowers, growth in production and area sown making it a lucrative branch of horticulture. Mention the local as well as global demand for flowers for various purposes as well as potential in north east.

Mention the challenges faced by the floriculture sector in India such as cultivation of loose flowers in open fields, largely by small and marginal farmers, lack of diversity in cultivation, scope for further expansion, Lack of market intelligence and growing competition from China and neighboring debutants etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude as to how India can address the challenges and maximize the potential in floriculture.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: role of Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values;

6. Why is dowry so deeply entrenched in our society? Analyse ethically. (150 words)

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Key Demand of the question:

To examine the ethical perspective for the prevalence of dowry in modern society.

Directive:

Analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin the answer by giving the context on the problem of dowry in India.

Body:

Write about ethical issues responsible for the issue of dowry. Greed of money, Patriarchy, disobedience towards law, lack of empathy toward girl and her family, cultural issues, acceptance, sexist attitude and male chauvinistic tendencies etc.

Bring out the consequences of prevalence of dowry system. The very institution of marriage is being altered by this evil system. Marriage has become a potential death trap for an increasing number of women, particularly in the northern parts of the country. Instead of assisting newly- wed couples to set up a household, dowry has become a major disruption of marital harmony

Conclusion:

Suggest measure to tackle this widespread menace.

 

Topic: Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery;

7. Service delivery should bring desired outcomes and make significant changes to the peoples’ lives as envisaged by the public policy. Explain with examples. (150 words)

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Key Demand of the question:

To explain the orientation of service delivery which impacts people’s life significantly as desired by the objective of public policy.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by mentioning the importance of service delivery in achieving the aspirations of people.

Body:

Write about the drawbacks in the present service delivery system, such as, inefficient allocation, corruption, inefficiency, amateur quality work, lack of accountability, inordinate delays which fail to make significant impact in the lives of the people.

With examples such as MGNERGA and CPGRAMS of Government of India, ‘Rajiv Aarogyasri’ of Telengana Government etc which are some standout performers in ensuring public service delivery.

Conclusion:

Conclude by emphasizing on the importance of service delivery in achieving sustainable development.


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