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[Insights Secure STHIR– 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 23 December 2020

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic:  Earthquakes, Landslide, Floods, Droughts;

1. Though Landslides are caused by Natural factors, but the increase in anthropogenic factors causing Landslides in alarming. Analyse. (250 words)

Reference: Class-XI NCERT: India Physical Environment.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1.

Key Demand of the question:

To analyse the anthropogenic causes of landslides and to account for their increase in the recent past.

Directive:

Critically analyze –

When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly introduce landslide by defining them. Give examples of some major landslides in the recent past.

Body:

Mention the natural factors behind the causes of landslides in India with a few examples. Mention the areas which are most prone to landslides. Draw a small illustrative map showing the same.

Next bring in the instances of human activity induced landslides. Bring forth the anthropogenic factors responsible for causing Landslides. Substantiate with facts and figures regarding the incidence of landslides. For eg:  a 2018 report from Copernicus Publications, which states that 18% of global human-induced landslide casualties occur in India. Mention the stats from recent NCRB report on casualties from Landslides.

Reason as to why the increase in anthropogenic induced landslides is alarming and cause of concern. Give solutions to overcome the same.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

 

Topic:  Earthquakes, Landslide, Floods, Droughts;

2. India faces a climate paradox – Rise in average global temperatures have led to a worrying trend of no rain for long periods and then a sudden bout of excessive rainfall, causing extreme weather events. Examine. (250 words)

Reference: Class-XI NCERT: India Physical Environment.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 1.

Key Demand of the question:

To understand the paradox between two extreme events of droughts and floods which are similar spatially.

Directive:

Examine –

When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Begin the answer by giving context as to how the extreme weather events are on rise in India. Quote relevant examples and facts.

Body:

Elaborate up on the extreme weather events particularly floods and droughts, which took lives, destroyed homes and agricultural yields as well as resulted in huge revenue losses. Give relevant facts to substantiate your points.

Bring out the factors that are responsible for rise in extreme weather events and bring out the impact which can have on our country and the world.

Give solutions so as to overcome this climate paradox of drought and floods.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic:  Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation;

3. Family planning is still the way ahead and not a law to control population in India. Justify. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The NFHS-5 data so far augurs good news for the success family planning initiatives in the country.

Key Demand of the question:

To argue for India to continue on the path of family planning initiatives rather than considering draconian measures like two child policy.

Directive:

Justify –

When you are asked to justify, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question using suitable case studies or/ and examples.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Give the context of India’s demographics on how India is India is projected to surpass China to become the world’s most populous country by 2024.

Body:

Mention the need for controlling India’s population such as overburdened resources, high poverty and inequalities, sustainable development etc.

Argue against population control law and the draconian ‘two child policy’ which will not only be against the liberty of Indian citizens but coercive laws can sometimes be counter-productive, leading to age composition imbalance.

Cite the recent data from NHFS-5, how it shows the considerable success achieved in the population control via family planning initiatives. Argue for increased contraception, awareness, better education and incentives etc in order to reduce fertility rates in the country.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a balanced way forward which makes family planning in India more effective.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic:  Changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.

4. In order to be self-reliant, India needs sufficient manufacturing depth. Analyse the potential of Production Linked Incentive (PLI) scheme in making India self-reliant. (250 words)

Reference: Live Mint

Why the question:

Production Linked Incentive scheme has shown a lot of potential in making our manufacturing sector more robust and making India self-reliant. This article captures that.

Key Demand of the question:

To write about the potential of Production Linked Incentive scheme, where its shortcomings are and how can they be corrected to achieve its full potential.

Directive:

Analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Start by making a case for the need for manufacturing depth to compete globally and be self-reliant.

Introduction:

Body:

Put forward the advantages of having manufacturing depth such as high rate of growth, more employment, security against foreign threats, sustainable competitiveness in international trade; and it provides pathways for wages to rise etc.

In the next part, talk about Production Linked Incentive scheme for ‘AatmaNirbhar Bharat’. Write about its potential for the promotion of an efficient, equitable and resilient manufacturing sector in the country. Growth in production and exports of industrial goods, more foreign competition, further innovation, integration with global supply chains, establish backward linkages with the MSMEs and How it will lead to overall growth in the economy and create huge employment opportunities etc.

Next analyse certain areas which needs to be improved to make Production Linked Incentive scheme more robust and effective. Linking the quantum of incentive with domestic value-addition, determination of PLI incentive, improving R&D etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a how this should serve as learning for Indian policy makers and move towards creating a sustainable and competitive manufacturing policy.

 

Topic:  Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

5. To walk the talk on climate change, the world needs to move towards a uniform carbon tariff regime and plan for climate neutrality. Critically comment. (250 words)

Reference:  Business Standard  , The Hindu 

Why the question:

December 12 marked the five-year anniversary of the Paris Agreement, there is a call for uniform carbon tariff.

Key Demand of the question:

To analsye the need of the uniform carbon tariff, its pros and cons.

Directive:

Critically comment –

When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘comment’ is prefixed, we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by defining carbon tariff and its nature. Then write about neutrality.

Body:

Make a case why it is high time for considering carbon tariffs and why it is pertinent for developed and developing countries to plan for neutrality.

Talk about the mechanism of carbon tariffs. Its advantages especially with respect to achieving climate goals. Mention how tariff would play role insubstantially raising the cost of emitting GHGs globally. The revenue from carbon tariffs and taxes can be used to support not only renewable energies but also innovations to reduce the costs of carbon capture and storage.

In the next part, talk about process to achieve climate neutrality. Fostering cooperation, decreasing in the costs of low carbon technologies, a need of a new growth model and roadmap to achieve climate neutrality on lines EU Green Deal etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a way forward.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic:  tolerance and compassion towards the weaker-sections.

6. With one example from your own life and experience, describe an event/incident which made you realize the importance of compassion. (150 words)

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Key Demand of the question:

To describe an incident which made you understand compassion and its importance in life.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by mentioning about compassion or a quote about compassion from a great personality.

Body:

This is a very open ended questions and need you to describe an incident in life which made you more compassionate. The incident you mention must be relevant to compassion. Be mindful not to come across as condescending and patronizing in this answer. Answer to the point and with utmost humility.

Conclusion:

Complete the answer by underscoring the need for more compassion in the world, especially in these testing and trying times.

 

Topic:  Utilization of public funds;

7. The best way to maximize the utility of public of funds is by achieving total transparency and accountability in its utilization. Elaborate. (150 words)

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications.

Why the question:

The question is part of the static syllabus of General studies paper – 4.

Key Demand of the question:

To explain how transparency and accountability associated with utilization of public funds of the country will improve it efficacy.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Discuss the importance of transparency and accountability in public funds.

Body:

Explain the lacunae in the country with respect to utilization of public funds such as corruption, nepotism, incomplete works, bad quality work, siphoning funds etc.

Discuss the significance of Transparency and efficiency as tools for monitoring and supervising distribution of public fund.

Explain various mechanisms through which it can be done – Public Fund Management System, Auditing agencies – CAG, Budgeting – Outcome based budgeting, zero base budgeting, Participation and transparency – Social Auditing, Financial Prudence etc.

Conclusion:

Summarize of this will aid in the developmental process of the country as well as reduce corrupt practices.


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