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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 14 October 2020


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic : Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.

1. Discuss the factors responsible for growth of communalism and its impact on Indian society. (250 words)

Reference: Hindustan Times

Why the question:

The question is based on the theme of communalism and its impact on Indian society.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the concept of communalism, factors responsible for growth and its impact on our society.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Communalism, in a broad sense means a strong attachment to one’s own community. In popular discourse in India, it is understood as unhealthy attachment to one’s own religion.

Body:

Present the case of Communalism in India; Communalism as a political philosophy has its roots in the religious and cultural diversity of India. It has been used as a political propaganda tool to create divide, differences and tensions between the communities on the basis of religious and ethnic identity leading to communal hatred and violence.

Discuss the major factors that contributed towards the emergence and growth of communalism in modern India. Present the current situation.

Present measures to deal with Communalism.

Conclusion:

Conclude with both positive and negative impact of communalism on our society.

Introduction:

Communalism is basically an ideology which consists of three elements:

  • A belief that people who follow the same religion have common secular interests i.e. they have same political, economic and social interests. So, here socio- political communalities arise.
  • A notion that, in a multi-religious society like India, these common secular interests of one religion is dissimilar and divergent from the interests of the follower of another religion.
  • The interests of the follower of the different religion or of different ‘communities’ are seen to be completely incompatible, antagonist and hostile.

Body:

Factors responsible for growth of Communalism in India:

  • A Legacy of Past:
    • On the basis of the “Two Nation” theory of Jinnah, India was partitioned. Communal politics had played its nasty game during the immediate past of independent India. The “Divide and Rule” policy of the British Government served their colonial interest. The partition of India was the ultimate outcome of their politics.
  • Presence of Communal Parties:
    • Religion in India has become an important agency of political socialization and it is also reflected in the ideology of a number of political parties. A number of communal and sectarian political parties and organisations are present in India. Muslim League, Jamaat—Islami, Hindu Mahasabha, Akali Dal, Vishwa Hindu Parishad are directly or indirectly responsible for the emergence of communalism.
  • Isolation of Muslims:
    • Indian Muslims have developed a tendency of isolationism even long after the creation of Pakistan. They remain aloof from the mainstream of national politics. Most of them are not interested to take part in the secular-nationalistic politics of the country. They insist on to be treated as a separate entity.
  • Poverty:
    • Mass poverty and unemployment create a sense of frustration among the people. It generates backwardness, illiteracy, ignorance, etc. The unemployed youth of both the communities can be easily trapped by religious fundamentalists and fanatics. They are used by them to cause communal riots. The weak economic status often breeds communalism.
  • Hindu Chauvinism:
    • The growths of Hindu chauvinistic attitudes have further strengthened the communal tensions in India. The Hindu religious groups like Shiv Sena, Hindu Mahasabha, Viswa Hindu Parisad often pressurize the government to take steps suitable to the interest of Hindus. They consider each Muslim as pro-Pakistani and anti-national. To face the possible challenge of other communal forces, they encourage the growth of Hindu communalism.
  • Social Cause:
    • The two major communities of India have been suspicious towards each other. The Muslims complain of the threat of Hindu cultural invasion upon their lives and have become more assertive of their rights. Either due to ignorance or insecurity, they do not fully accept the need of family planning and help in increasing population.
  • Communalization of Politics:
    • Electoral politics in India has become more expensive and competitive. Different political parties are not hesitating to use any means, fair or foul, for electoral victory. They even create communal tensions and try to take political advantage out of it. Concessions are granted to various minority groups for appeasing them.
  • Cross-Border factors:
    • Communal tensions in India sometimes are highly intensified due to the rule of two neighbouring theocratic countries. These countries try to create communal problems in the border states. The communal problems of Punjab and Jammu Kashmir are caused due to provocation of Pakistan. So long as this cross-border factor is not removed, communal problems are likely to stay in India.
  • Failure of Government:
    • Both the Union and the State Governments often fail to prevent communalism in the country. Due to lack of prior information, they fail to take any preventive measures. So the communal violence can easily take innocent lives and destroys property. The post-Godhra riot in Gujarat shows the inefficiency of the government to control the communal riot. Failure of immediate and effective steps has been a cause of the continuance of communalism.

Ramification of Communalism:

  • Genocides: With mass killings, the real sufferers are the poor, who lose their house, their near and dear ones, their lives, their livelihood, etc. It violates the human rights from all direction. Sometimes children lose their parents and will become orphan for a lifetime.
  • Ghettoization and refugee problem are other dimensions of communalism induced violence, whether its inter country or intra country.
  • Sudden increase in violence against any particular community causes mass exodus and stampede which in turn kills many number of people. For example, this was seen in the case of Bangalore in 2012, with respect to people from North eastern states, which was stimulated by a rumour.
  • Apart from having effect on the society, it is also a threat to Indian constitutional values, which promotes secularism and religious tolerance. In that case, citizens don’t fulfil their fundamental duties towards the nation.
  • It becomes a threat for the unity and integrity of the nation as a whole. It promotes only the feeling of hatred in all directions, dividing the society on communal lines.
  • Minorities are viewed with suspicion by all, including state authorities like police, para-military forces, army, intelligence agencies, etc. There have been many instances when people from such community have been harassed and detained and finally have been released by court orders guilt free. For this, there is no provision for compensation of such victims, about their livelihood incomes forgone, against social stigmas and emotional trauma of the families.
  • Barrier for development: Communal activities occurring frequently do harm the human resource and economy of the country. And then again it takes years for the people and the affected regions to come out the traumas of such violence, having deep impact on minds of those who have faced it. They feel emotionally broken and insecure.
  • Terrorism and Secessionism: As seen during the Khalistan movement in Punjab.

Steps to check the growth of Communalism:

  • Economic:
    • Poverty is one of the major factors for communal violence. Poverty alleviation measures are thus important for promoting communal harmony.
    • Eradicating the problem of unemployment among the youths, illiteracy and poverty and that too with honesty and without any discrimination.
    • Reducing educational and economic backwardness of minorities like Muslims.
    • This can uplift their socio economic status and reduce their deprivation compared to Hindus
  • Social:
    • The religious leaders and preachers should promote rational and practical things through religion promoting peace and security.
    • Children in schools must be taught through textbooks and pamphlets to maintain brotherhood and respect for all religions
    • Creating awareness in the society about the ill effects of communism through mass media
  • Political:
    • Political communism should be avoided recent Supreme court’s directives
    • Identification and mapping of riot prone areas. For Example, Delhi police used drones to monitor to maintain vigil during communal festivals
    • Media, movies and other cultural platforms can be influential in promoting peace and harmony.
    • Social Media should be monitored for violent and repulsive content and taken off immediately.
  • Recommendations of Committee on National Integration
    • Joint celebration of community festivals
    • Observing restraint by Hindus while taking processions before the mosques
    • Formation of peace and brotherhood communities at local level to prevent anti-social elements from engaging in communal riots
    • Respect for religious customs, rituals and practices

Conclusion:

Communalism cannot be accepted as the necessary evil in the society. It is detrimental to the development, social change, democracy and the federal feature of the State. Jawaharlal Nehru had pointed out the issue and termed it as the greatest danger. And so he said that anyone who loves India would hate communalism and anyone who hates India would love communalism.

 

Topic : History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society.

2. What do you understand by a colonial system and identify the factors promoting it? Elaborate on the major countries that got benefitted from colonialism and why? (250 words)

Reference: Modern Indian history  by Bipin Chandra

Why the question:

The question is based on the topic of colonial system, its origin and factors responsible for it.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the concept of colonialism, its evolution and factors that promoted it. Also, explain about the major countries that got benefitted from colonialism.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define what colonialism is.

Body:

Colonialism in its specificity is a relationship between two or more countries; of domination by one and subordination by others; of political control exercised by one country over another; and of economic exploitation by one over others.

Present the factors that led to colonialism across the world such as; demand for raw materials, need for market, spread of Christianity and western Ideals etc.

Explain the countries it benefitted to and the underlying reasons for the benefit such as – The peak of colonialism was during 18th and 19th century, during which entire world was dominated by a few powers only. While in the initial period it was Spain and Portugal which was the dominant power, later it was Britain and France which ruled most of discovered world.

Conclusion:

Conclude with its overall impact.

Introduction:

Colonialism is the “the system or policy of a nation seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories”.

Body:

Two types of Colonization:

  • Settler colonialismis that type of colonialism wherein a large number of the immigrants, often motivated by religious, political, or economic reasons, settle in a new place and dominate the local indigenous population in economic, political as well as social aspects.
  • Exploitation colonialisminvolves relatively less number of immigrants and predominantly focuses on exploitation of the resources of the colonial country.

Causes of Colonialism and countries that benefitted:

  • Economic Consideration:The countries like England, France, Spain and Portugal established their colonies primarily for the economic benefits.
  • Mercantilism:The policy of Mercantilism was based on the premise that the economic development of the mother country (Metropolis) was most important and the colonies should be governed in such a way that they lead to the benefit of the mother country.
  • European Rivalry:The exploration and colonization was started by Spain and Portugal. Gradually, other countries like France and England also entered the race. Acquiring new colonies became a thing of national pride. Moreover, due to various economic benefits of colonization, a stage of ‘competitive colonialism’ started among the European powers.
  • To Spread Christianity:During the Age of Discovery; the Catholic Church started a major effort to spread Christianity in the New World by converting indigenous peoples. As such, the establishment of Christian missions went simultaneously with the colonizing efforts of European powers such as Spain, France and Portugal.
  • Push Factors:The enclosure movement, taking land out of cultivation and converting it into pastureland for sheep, was creating a surplus population. Sheep raising, more profitable than traditional agriculture, required fewer labourers. The new lands in America gave these unemployed a place to work.

Impact of Colonialism:

  • Columbian Exchange:The term Columbian Exchange refers to the widespread exchange of plants, animals, culture, human populations, technology, and ideas that occurred between the new world (Americas) and the Old World (Eurasia) in the 15th and 16th centuries, as a result of European colonization and trade.
  • Slave Trade:To effectively utilize the resources, colonizers needed immense amount of labour. During the initial years, the European settlers met labour requirements by enslaving the native populations. However, the decline in the native population led to importing slaves from Africa which emerged as a lucrative alternative.
  • Boost to Mercantilism:Mercantilism, in a way, was both the cause as well as the effect of colonialism. Mercantile economic policies were definitely an impetus for the start of colonization. But subsequently, the benefits due to colonial exploitation further reinforced the ideology of mercantile capitalism and augmented its spread across Europe. As a result, these countries saw very rapid increase in trade volume while colonies suffered proportionally.
  • Deindustrialisation of markets: the effect on third world countries of social and economic change caused by skewed industrial revolution of first world countries. This led to rising unemployment in various sectors of economy of various nations.
  • Economic impact of colonialism is the ‘drain of wealth, led to control over production and trade, the exploitation of natural resources, and the improvement of infrastructure.

Conclusion:

The process of colonialism typically involved the relocation of populace to a new terrain, where the arrivals lived as permanent settlers while maintaining political fidelity to their country of origin. Colonialism is a practice of authority, which involves the suppression of one people to another. Decolonization is the opposing of colonialism.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic : Issues relating to poverty and hunger.

3. Do you think India needs to recall its ‘Garibi Hatao’ slogan of the early 1970s? Discuss in what way Anti-poverty programmes must be universal, not just on a below or above poverty line matrix. (250 words)

Reference: Down to Earth

Why the question:

The article presents to us a detailed critical analysis of the efforts of the govt. on the anti-poverty program front.

Key Demand of the question:

Analyse and opine if India needs to recall its ‘Garibi Hatao’ slogan again and explain in what way Anti-poverty programmes must be universal, not just on a below or above poverty line matrix.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Present key statistics highlighting the poverty situation in the country.

Body:

Discuss critically the issues associated with definition of poverty in the country. Our development schemes continue to target a section of people referred to as below the poverty line (BPL), identified years ago. Second, going by all economic indicators of recent years, it is certain that a large section of the country remains poor or is not able to reach a decent level of living. Third, if despite investing so much political and monetary capital, the development indicator is not positive, then we need to reassess our anti-poverty programmes. This is also because there is a section of the population in a certain geography who remain poor despite decades of focused intervention.

Discuss the current and past anti-poverty programmes and the lacunae in it.

Suggest what needs to be done to overcome the issues and concerns associated with the existing approach.        

Conclusion:

Conclude that Poverty is a concern for both, rural and urban areas, for BPL and above poverty line people. If it is not addressed now, it would undo whatever we have achieved in the last 70 years.

Introduction:

It is by now close to 50 years since Indira Gandhi brought the idea of eradicating poverty into the electoral arena in India. Garibi Hatao’ had been her slogan. The role that income generation actually played in lowering poverty in India may be gauged from the facts that economic growth had surged in the 1980s, and the late 1960s was when agricultural production quickened as the Green Revolution progressed. While the last attribute motivated her to improve the condition of her people, the first left her aware of the centrality of income generation in poverty eradication.

Body:

Poverty, as defined by UN, is “a condition characterized by severe deprivation of basic human needs, including food, safe drinking water, sanitation facilities, health, shelter, education and information.”

Major anti-poverty programs:

  • Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP): It was introduced in 1978-79, aimed at providing assistance to the rural poor in the form of subsidy and bank credit for productive employment opportunities through successive plan periods.
  • Food for Work Programme: It aims at enhancing food security through wage employment. Food grains are supplied to states free of cost.
  • National Old Age Pension Scheme (NOAPS):This pension is given by the central government. The job of implementation of this scheme in states and union territories is given to panchayats and municipalities.
  • Annapurna:This scheme was to provide food to senior citizens who cannot take care of themselves and are not under NOAPS. It would provide 10 kg of free food grains a month for the eligible senior citizens.
  • Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) 2005:The Act provides 100 days assured employment every year to every rural household. One-third of the proposed jobs would be reserved for women.
  • National Rural Livelihood Mission: Ajeevika (2011):It evolves out the need to diversify the needs of the rural poor and provide them jobs with regular income on monthly basis. Self Help groups are formed at the village level to help the needy.
  • National Urban Livelihood Mission:The NULM focuses on organizing urban poor in Self Help Groups, creating opportunities for skill development leading to market-based employment and helping them to set up self-employment ventures by ensuring easy access to credit.

Challenges:

  • India is still far from achieving SDG 1.
  • Incidence of extreme poverty continues to be much higher in rural areas than in urban areas.
  • Despite rapid growth and development, large population suffer from severe and multidimensional deprivation. 
  • Functioning of poverty alleviation programmes in silos. There is no systematic attempt to identify people who are in poverty, determine their needs, address them and enable them to move above the poverty line.
  • The resources allocated to anti-poverty programmes are inadequate.
  • There is no method to ensure that programmes reach everybody they are meant for.
  • Lack of proper implementation and right targeting
  • There has been a lot of overlapping of schemes.
  • Every year a huge number is added to the population pool of the country. This renders the scheme ineffective.

Way Forward:

  • Accelerating rural poverty reduction:
    • Capitalizing on growing connectivity between rural and urban areas, and between the agriculture, industry and services sectors.
  • Creating more and better jobs:
    • Need for better performance of the labour market, but also benefits from rising transfers and remittances, and favourable demographics among other factors.
  • Focusing on women and Scheduled Tribes:
    • The most worrying trends are the low participation of women in the labour market and the slow progress among scheduled tribes.
    • India’s women have been withdrawing from the labour force since 2005and less than one-third of working age women are now in the labour force.
    • Scheduled Tribes started with the highest poverty rates of all of India’s social groups, and have progressed more slowly than the rest.
    • Women and Scheduled Tribes are at risk of being locked out of India’s growth and prosperity.
  • Creating Better locations for improving Standards of Living:
  • More and more of India’s poor are concentrated in the poorest states, and even within relatively prosperous states, certain pockets of deprivation persist where people are unable to share in the state’s successes.
  • Improving human development outcomes for the poor:
  • This is central to improving their quality of life and income earning opportunities.
  • The recent past shows that some problems, such as undernutrition and open defecation, are endemic and not only confined to the poor but others too, and have not improved with economic growth.
  • Better health, sanitation and education will not only help raise the productivity of millions, they will also empower the people to meet their aspirations, and provide the country with new drivers of economic growth.
  • Providing Banking and promoting credit sector reforms.
  • Need to start taxing wealth and not only income.

Conclusion:

Poverty eradication should not be the only goal of the government but goal of the government policies should be to create prosperity. The indicator is based on the health and education status of a population apart from per capita income, bringing us back to the relevance of income generation to poverty. As the Central government is common across regions, differences in the human development index must arise from policies implemented at the State level.

 

Topic : GS-2: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

GS-3: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

4. Engagement and awareness of the general public forms significant part of effective E-waste management solution, Comment, (250 words)

Reference: Down to Earth

Why the question:

The article brings to us the concerns caused by the e-waste issue and the future threat it poses to the entire world.

Key Demand of the question:

One has to explain the significance   and criticality of engagement and awareness of the general public in effective management of e-wastes.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly talk about the menace that e-waste generation and mismanagement is posing to the country.

Body:

The volume of E-waste increased by 21% globally in the last 5 years; it has a doubling rate of 16 years.

Discuss what constitutes Electronic waste (E-waste); Electronic waste (E-waste) or Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) represent a major environmental challenge in the world today. It represents discarded appliances with a battery or a plug.

Rapid advances in technology, economic growth, urbanisation processes, increasing demand for consumer electronic equipment and a downward trend in prices are a few factors responsible for the unparalleled growth of E-waste worldwide during the last two decades.

Explain measures that are must to manage e-wastes effectively while highlighting the importance of engagement and awareness of the general public.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

E-waste is one of the fastest growing waste streams in the world. The Global E-Waste Monitor estimates that 44.7 million tonnes (MT) of e-waste was generated in 2016. India was the fourth-largest generator (2 MT) after China (7.2 MT), the US (6.3 MT) and Japan (2.1 MT) in 2016. As Indians spend more on electronic items and appliances with rising incomes, e-waste is expected to continue to grow rapidly.

Body:

Challenges in waste management:

  • Lack of proper infrastructure & mechanism:
    • The number of present recycling and collection facilities does not match the amount of e-waste being generated in India.
  • Lack of effective collection and take-back system.
  • E-waste dumping by foreign countries:
    • Cross-border flow of waste equipment into India is a major problem.
  • Issues with the informal sector:
    • Child Labour: ASSOCHAM report (2014) mentions that around 4.5 lakh child labourers are found to be engaged in several E-waste activities and that too without necessary protection and safeguards.
  • Poor enforcement of EPR:
    • Setting up collection centres for entire India is not economically feasible for a company.
    • Customer care representatives do not know about their companies’ responsibility to take back what they produce (EPR).
  • Gaps in rules:
    • E-waste rules have also been violated on a regular basis and the informal sector stays unregulated.
  • Lack of incentives:
    • There are no incentive schemes to promote people adopting a formal path of recycling.
    • The GST imposed a hefty 12% tax on electronic recyclers = deterrent for formal recycling.
  • Lack of awareness:
    • There is a lack of awareness among people since they don’t know that there are collection centres exist to collect used electronics products for recycling.
    • Further, the lack of awareness results in poor segregation of waste.

Measures that can be taken

  • Management of e-waste requires its dismantling, refurbishment or recycling and safe disposal
  • The E-Waste Management Rules 2016 address these issues. Extended producer responsibility is mandated to ensure effective plans for the collection, setting up collection centres and buyback mechanisms or a deposit refund scheme.
  • Checking unregulated e-waste imports:by strengthening the domestic legal framework.
  • Transition to formal:Measures needed to be taken to formalize the informal sector by integrating it with the formal sector.  The government should launch vocational training programs to rightly skill the present unorganized sector employees to make sure of their smoother transition to working with the organized sector.
  • R&D:The government must promote research into the development of better as well as environmentally-sustainable e-waste recycling methods.
  • Assessment:There is an urgent requirement for a detailed assessment of the E-waste including quantification, characteristics, current disposal practices, environmental impacts, etc.
  • Facilities:There is a need for more recycling facilities and the development of infrastructure to manage e-waste effectively. The government should promote Public-Private Partnership for setting up of e-waste collection, exchange, and recycling centres.
  • Incentives:There is a need for an effective take-back program by providing incentives to producers.
  • Mass awareness programmes:should be launched to promote consumers to reuse/ recycle electronic products and also educate them about the environmental and health impacts of e-waste.

Way forward:

Adopt Norway’s Model

  • Norway has an e-waste take-back system in place for more than a decade now.
  • The producers/importers of e-waste in Norway are obliged to be members of a take-back company and have to pay a fee for their membership to the take-back companies.
  • This is how it provides the funding for collection and treatment of the waste
  • Take-back companies need to ensure that they will collect all e-waste from their market share which is determined by how much of electronics is put into the market by their members.

Separate legislation:

  • The government should bring separate legislation on e-waste instead of handling it under the Environment Protection Act

Conclusion:

A rapidly growing e-waste crisis needs rapid official decision making and time-bound responses through awareness generation and community participation.

 


General Studies – 3


 

 Topic : Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

5. “Industrialization cannot happen without agricultural self-sufficiency”. Examine the case of Japan in light of above statement. (250 words)

Reference: https://eh.net

Why the question:

The article explains the case of Japan and in what way agriculture self-sufficiency can become a key driver to Industrialisation.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain the statement – Industrialization cannot happen without agricultural self-sufficiency and present the case of Japan.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Set the context of the question briefly.

Body:

Industrialization in Japan started after Meiji Restoration in 1868. The rule of shoguns ended and a new set of advisers began ruling in the name of the emperor.

Discuss the history of how Japan achieved agricultural supremacy and that in turn led to Industrialisation.

One can as well explain the case of India as to where we stand in the current scenario.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of agriculture self-sufficiency to Industrialisation.

Introduction:

Japan achieved sustained growth in per capita income between the 1880s and 1970 through industrialization. Moving along an income growth trajectory through expansion of manufacturing is hardly unique. Indeed, Western Europe, Canada, Australia and the United States all attained high levels of income per capita by shifting from agrarian-based production to manufacturing and technologically sophisticated service sector activity.

Body:

The proto-industrial base

Japan’s agricultural productivity was high enough to sustain substantial craft (proto-industrial) production in both rural and urban areas of the country prior to industrialization.

Investment-led growth

Domestic investment in industry and infrastructure was the driving force behind growth in Japanese output. Both private and public sectors invested in infrastructure, national and local governments serving as coordinating agents for infrastructure build-up.

  • Investment in manufacturing capacity was largely left to the private sector.
  • Rising domestic savings made increasing capital accumulation possible.
  • Japanese growth was investment-led, not export-led.

Total factor productivity growth — achieving more output per unit of input — was rapid.

On the supply side, total factor productivity growth was extremely important. Scale economies — the reduction in per unit costs due to increased levels of output — contributed to total factor productivity growth.

Scale economies existed due to geographic concentration, to growth of the national economy, and to growth in the output of individual companies. In addition, companies moved down the “learning curve,” reducing unit costs as their cumulative output rose and demand for their product soared.

The social capacity for importing and adapting foreign technology improved and this contributed to total factor productivity growth:

  • At the household level, investing in education of children improved social capability.
  • At the firm level, creating internalized labour markets that bound firms to workers and workers to firms, thereby giving workers a strong incentive to flexibly adapt to new technology, improved social capability.
  • At the government level, industrial policy that reduced the cost to private firms of securing foreign technology enhanced social capacity.

Shifting out of low-productivity agriculture into high productivity manufacturing, mining, and construction contributed to total factor productivity growth.

Dualism

Sharply segmented labour and capital markets emerged in Japan after the 1910s. The capital intensive sector enjoying high ratios of capital to labour paid relatively high wages, and the labour intensive sector paid relatively low wages.

Dualism contributed to income inequality and therefore to domestic social unrest. After 1945 a series of public policy reforms addressed inequality and erased much of the social bitterness around dualism that ravaged Japan prior to World War II.

Conclusion:

The Industrial Revolution in Japan that brought unprecedented changes in the economy, social fabric and military of Japan which had profound impact not just on the country but on the whole world at large. The benefits of the industrial revolution would establish Japan as the paramount Asian power of its time, and it was primarily because of agricultural self-sufficiency, which must be replicated by India as well.

 

Topic : Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

6. Assess implications of phasing out fossil fuel subsidies on the mitigation of climate change. (250 words )

Reference:  science direct

Why the question:

The article presents to us the long-term climate policy implications of phasing out fossil fuel subsidies.

Key Demand of the question:

Directive:

Assess – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you are in agreement with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Talk about the scenario of phasing out fossil fuel subsidies and underlying factors.

Body:

It is often argued that fossil fuel subsidies hamper the transition towards a sustainable energy supply as they incentivize wasteful consumption.

Discuss in detail the implications of phasing out fossil fuel subsidies on the mitigation of climate change such as –

  • The removal of subsidies leads to a net-reduction in the use of energy.
  • Emission reductions contribute little to stabilize greenhouse gases at 450 ppm if not combined with climate policies.
  • Low carbon alternatives may encounter comparative disadvantages due to relative price changes at world markets.

Discuss both advantages and disadvantages.

Highlight their impact on mitigation of climate change.

Conclusion:

Conclude that removal of fossil fuel subsidies, if not complemented by other policies, can slow down a global transition towards a renewable based energy system. The reason is that world market prices for fossil fuels may drop due to a removal of subsidies. Thus, low carbon alternatives would encounter comparative disadvantages.

Introduction:

Fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas) have, and continue to, play a dominant role in global energy systems. Fossil energy was a fundamental driver of the Industrial Revolution and the technological, social, economic and development progress which has followed. Energy has played a strongly positive role in global change.

Body:

India and fossil fuels:

  • As Indian population continues to grow and the limited amount of fossil fuels begins to diminish, it may not be possible to provide the amount of energy demanded by the world by only using fossil fuels to convert energy.
  • India’s current energy use is unsustainable.
  • India has been dependent to a large extent on energy imports to meet its national energy requirements.
  • India imports almost 80% of her oil needs, generates 60% of her electricity from coal-based thermal power plants.
  • However, these being fossil fuels, they are dwindling at quick rates.
  • The geo-political scenario is volatile leading to energy insecurity of India
  • It is estimated that at current rates of production, oil will run out in 53 years, natural gas in 54 and coal in 110.
  • Nearly 300 million people in rural India lack access to grid-connected power, promoting the use of archaic sources of energy such as kerosene, diesel, wood-fired chulhas, etc.
  • It not only results in huge government subsidies, but also substantial health and environmental hazards.

Fossil Fuel Subsidies:

Fossil fuel subsidies hamper the transition towards a sustainable energy supply as they incentivize wasteful consumption. Reduced fuel subsidies would result in:

  • Reduced proliferation of dangerous pollutants –
    • The World Health Organization estimates that ambient exposure to PM2.5 leads to around 4 million deaths worldwide every year
  • Reduced Global warming levels by promoting negative feedback
    • Greenpeace report illustrated the need for managed phase out of fossil fuel production as part of any comprehensive climate policy effort like a Green New Deal.
  • Will reduce the risk of extreme heat waves persistent in many places.
    • 2015 heatwave in Indo Gangetic belt, where in temperatures reached upto 48 degree Celsius.
  • Will cause Regularisation of rainfall and reduction of drought.
    • According to IMD, there remains a rainfall deficit of 14 per cent. On July 2019, when Baksa district in Assam was flooding, the deficit in North East was 38 per cent. At the same time Kerala experienced life destructing floods.
  • Stabilisation of sea-level rise and polar melting
    • Two thirds of the ice loss are happening in Greenland this has potential to increase sea level rise upto 60 cm as per IPCC report.
  • Stabilising health risks.
    • Studies have shown if nothing is done to halt emissions, climate change could cost the U.S. $500 billion every year by 2090.
  • Fossil Fuels cause water Pollution.
    • oil spills and explosions have wreaked havoc on water, land, and homes and communities. For E.g.: Deepwater horizon crisis, which spilled 4.9 million barrels of oil into the Gulf of Mexico.
  • Reduced burdens of both climate change and conventional pollution on low-income vulnerable communities.
    • N. study found that climate change could “push more than 120 million more people into poverty by 2030 and will have the most severe impact in poor countries

Spreading of Awareness on climate change and promote universal human principle of caring for other through mutual compromise.

Conclusion:

Fossil fuel industry has spent millions of dollars in lobbying and campaign contributions to block any concerted climate action at the federal and state level. So far, this decades-long investment in influencing our political system is paying off. In 2017 revenues to the Indian government from fossil fuel production stood at 2.3 per cent of GDP or 11.3 per cent of general government revenue.

It is clear that the current business model of the fossil fuel industry is putting all of us in harm’s way, but in particular, low-income, Indigenous, and communities of colour who are on the frontlines of pollution and climate chaos. Fossil fuel interests are still one of the main barriers to the passage of comprehensive climate policies in the India, it is time for the industry to face a reckoning.

 

Topic : GS-2: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

 GS-3: Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

7. Discuss in detail the key concerns associated with Assisted Reproductive Technology Bill also suggest way forward. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express 

Why the question:

The article presents to us a critical review of ART Bill.

Key Demand of the question:

One has to explain in detail the key concerns associated with Assisted Reproductive Technology Bill also suggest way forward.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

The Assisted Reproductive Technology (Regulation) Bill, 2020 was introduced in Lok Sabha on September 14, 2020.  The Bill seeks to provide for the regulation of Assisted Reproductive Technology services in the country.

Body:

Briefly write about the features of the Bill. The Bill defines ART to include all techniques that seek to obtain a pregnancy by handling the sperm or the oocyte (immature egg cell) outside the human body and transferring the gamete or the embryo into the reproductive system of a woman.

Explain what are the key concerns; Exclusion in the access of ART, Issues associated with consent, threat of eugenics, Overlap with Surrogacy Regulation etc.

Conclusion:

Suggest solution and way forward; The Bill raises several constitutional, medico-legal, ethical and regulatory concerns, affecting millions and must be thoroughly reviewed before passage.

Introduction:

Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is used to treat infertility. Assisted reproductive technology includes medical procedures used primarily to address infertility. This subject involves procedures such as in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, cryopreservation of gametes or embryos, and/or the use of fertility medication.

Union Cabinet has approved the Assisted Reproductive Technology Regulation Bill, 2020 to monitor medical procedures used to assist people to achieve pregnancy.

Body:

Highlights of the bill

  • National Board:The Bill provides for a national Board which will lay down a code of conduct to be observed by those operating clinics.
  • Standardization:It will also formulate minimum standards for laboratory and diagnostic equipment and practices to be followed by human resources employed by clinics and banks.
  • National registry:Under the proposed law, a national registry and registration authority will maintain a database to assist the national Board to perform its functions.
  • Confidentiality clause: The Bill will also ensure confidentiality of intending couples and protect the rights of the child.

Strict punishment:

  • India has one of the highest growths in the number of ART centres and ART cycles performed every year.
  • India has become one of the major centres of this global fertility industry, with reproductive medical tourism becoming a significant activity.
  • This has also introduced a plethora of legal, ethical and social issues; yet, there is no standardisation of protocols and reporting is still very inadequate.
  • The Bill thus proposes stringent punishment for those who practise sex selection; indulge in sale of human embryos or gametes and those who operate rackets.

Need for the ART bill:

  • Social stigma of being childless and lengthy adoption processes have increased the demand for ARTin India but no legislation currently regulates it.
  • There is yet no standardisation of protocolsand reporting is still very inadequate.
  • A lack of regulation and the consequent laxity in operations has led to the mushrooming of ART clinics across the country.
  • Among Asian countries, India’s ART market is pegged at third positionand a market projection by Fortune Business Insights has said that the size of the ART market is expected to reach $45 billion by 2026.
  • Hence the ART Bill, which seeks to regulate and monitor ART procedures is the need of the hour.
  • Now with the passage of the bill, infertile couples will be more ensured/confident of the ethical practices in ARTs.
  • The bill safeguards the patients who fall prey to illegal ART centres and protects the affected women and the children from exploitation. 

Criticisms:

  • Only an ‘infertile couple’ is eligible to avail of ART under the ART Bill with the term ‘couple’ being narrowly defined to mean only a heterosexual relationship of a marriage or a live–in relationship. A man above 50 years and a woman above 45 years are not eligible for ART, thus preventing older persons from accessing it.
  • ICMR Guidelines permitted single women to benefit from ARTand also provided for ‘minimum physical requirement for ART clinics’, ‘essential qualifications of ART teams’, and ‘ART procedures’. But these are missing from both the ART Bill as well as the Surrogacy Bill.
  • In Devika Biswas vs Union of India case (2016),the Supreme Court recognised the right to reproduction as an important component of the ‘right to life’ under Article 21.
  • Thus, restricting ART and surrogacyonly to heterosexual relationships within a certain age group and denying reproductive choices to LGBT, single persons and older couples, would be a violation of Article 21.

Way Forward:

  • The ART Regulation Bill is supposed to be the first step to regulate the sector.
  • A proper database of medical institutions and clinics providing such services will help in regulating services like surrogacy and abortion.
  • Bill protects and recognizes women’s reproductive rights.

Conclusion:

The need to regulate the Assisted Reproductive Technology Services is mainly to protect the affected Women and the Children from exploitation. The oocyte donor needs to be supported by an insurance cover, protected from multiple embryo implantation and children born through Assisted reproductive technology should be provided all rights equivalent to a Biological Children. The cryopreservation of sperm, oocytes and embryo by the ART Banks needs to be regulated and the bill intends to make Pre-Genetic Implantation Testing mandatory for the benefit of the child born through assisted reproductive technology.


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