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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 21 October 2020


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic : Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India. Role of women

1. Describe the concept of Role and Role Conflict. Discuss the nature and extent of role conflict among working women in India. (250 words)

Reference: www.researchgate.net

Why the question:

The question is based on the concept of Role and Role conflict.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the concept of Role and Role Conflict. Discuss the nature and extent of role conflict among working women in India.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define what you understand by Role conflict.

Body:

Role conflict occurs when there are incompatible demands placed upon a person relating to their job or position. People experience role conflict when they find themselves pulled in various directions as they try to respond to the many statuses they hold.

Explain the background of the concept in India; In India, the position of women has always been rather ambivalent. On the one side, she has been raised to the status of divinity, and on the other side, she has been exploited as somebody lower in status to men in every walk of life. Fortunately, from the middle of the nineteenth century, consciousness rose in our country to eradicate this dichotomy in her existence.

Discuss Indian women through the ages. Present the current conditions.  

Let part of your answer explain role conflict among working women in India with suitable examples.

Conclusion:

Suggest way forward.

Introduction:

Role means responsibility and accountability in which you are expected to perform certain duties – it can be official and unofficial both. Role conflict happens when you are in a dilemma with your conscience and unable to decide the sole purpose of the role which you are expected to perform. It is synonymous with crisis of conscience.  Role conflict is conflict among multiple roles played by a person at a particular time.

Body:

Role conflict occurs when there are incompatible demands placed upon a person relating to their job or position. People experience role conflict when they find themselves pulled in various directions as they try to respond to the many statuses they hold.

In India, the position of women has always been rather ambivalent. On the one side, she has been raised to the status of divinity, and on the other side, she has been exploited as somebody lower in status to men in every walk of life. Fortunately, from the middle of the nineteenth century, consciousness rose in our country to eradicate this dichotomy in her existence.

Role conflict of Working Women in India:

Working women in India are expected to perform many roles apart from official duties and that too with accountability – for example role of a mother, housewife, daughter in law etc. Sometimes there is conflict and crisis of conscience which makes them to rethink about sole purpose of the roles which they are expected to perform – when they are expected to do all household chores after returning from office without any appreciation or when they have to nod for everything demanded by husband and mother in law. It paves way to existential crisis and role conflict whether they are doing justice to their multidisciplinary roles as an employee, mother, housewife etc.

  • Role Conflict for a daughter:
    • She has to work in IT fields, Banks, School teacher, Govt. Officer, or in an agricultural field and at the same time she has to think about her parents, household works, and take decisions about her marriage.
  • Role conflict for a wife:
    • She has to work and simultaneously look after her house, she has to look after her in laws, she has to help her husband in day to day work.
  • Role conflict for a Mother:
    • She has to groom her children in right path, she should stand as a role model for her children, she has to help them in studies.
  • Role Conflict as an Employee:
    • She should be responsible to her senior, she should help her subordinates, should maintain her timings for household works.

Challenges faced:

In a present day, for a working women, gender based discrimination and sexual harassment at workplace are major challenges and these issues are standing as main causes for psychological trauma of women. These psychological traumas are impacting the other roles of women like wife, women, employee etc.

 Conclusion:

Role conflict is present in both gender but in case of women it is worsened and become problematic with discrimination and undermining women’s work. Role conflict can be reduced in different ways like better education among women, awareness program, equality, safety, political representation, which would go long way in giving way to these role conflicts.

 

Topic : Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

2. What caused the rise of the Sufi movement in India? Discuss its spread and expansion in the country. (250 words)

Reference: Medieval Indian history NCERT class XI

Why the question:

The question is based on the context of Sufi movement in India.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in detail the rise of Sufi movement in India and its expansion.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Sufism has a history in India evolving for over 1,000 years.

Body:

In the answer body capture the following important dimensions:

  • Write in brief about the Sufi Movement; its origin, expansion etc. Sufism helped the assimilation of the Afghani Delhi Sultanate rulers within mainstream society. By building a syncretic medieval culture tolerant and appreciative of non-Muslims, Sufi saints contributed to a growth of stability, vernacular literature, and devotional music in India.
  • Give the reasons that led to the rise of Sufi movement in the country.
  • Elaborate on its Impact on the society.

Conclusion:

Conclude that through Sufi movement a deep-rooted change came about to lay the foundations of a liberal and composite Indian society.

Introduction:

The Sufi movement began in 10th century AD. It was brought to India by Muinuddin Chisti and from then it spread throughout the country. It shared many traits with the contemporary Bhakti movement. Due to travelling by traders and expansion of Muslim powers across Indian subcontinent gave rise to Sufism.  Sufi Saints are revered today not only by Muslims but also by a large number of Hindus.

Body:

Different sects of Sufis established their hospices at different places, their areas seldom overlapped. The various sects are Chisti (Ajmer, Delhi), Suhrawardi (Multan), Qadiriyya (Punjab), Naqshabandiyya (Bengal, Malwa, Jaunpur).

Causes:  

  • Growing materialism of the Caliphate as a religious and political.
  • Rising hatred due to Shia and Sunni sects.
  • Patronage of Sufi saints under Delhi Sultanate.
  • Effects of Hindu Yogis, jains and Buddhism.
  • Sympathetic and loving character of Sufism.
  • The personal God concept, devotional music, and the practice of having a spiritual teacher (Murshid), similar to older Hindu tradition made the Sufis very agreeable to the general Indian public, always curious and eager for spiritually inclined men.
  • For Sufis, love of God means Love for humanity, while Orthodox Muslims believe in expansion their reign by war.
  • Sufi said guidance of guru/pir for salvation so that more people connected.
  • They also talked about ethical issues like tolerance, mediation, fasting charity.

Spread and expansion of Sufism:

The Sufi movement initially began in North Western frontiers of the country in areas like Punjab, Multan, Lahore and it spread to Delhi and other areas.

  • Denounce idol worship, lower strata saw its relief against brahminical society.
  • Promote common brotherhood and peace.

Some major Incidents of Spread are:

  • Establishments of Muinuddin Chisti’s sect at Chist in Afghanistan. He later moved to Ajmer, where he spent his rest of life.
  • Muhammad bin Tughlaq moved to Daulatabad. He took numerous Sufi saints with him, this caused establishments of Sufism in Southern India.
  • Patronage of Sufis by Sultans of Delhi, and then by Mughals especially by Akbar, Aurangzeb and Dara Sikh.
  • Sufism helped the assimilation of the Afghani Delhi Sultanate rulers within mainstream society.
  • By building a syncretic medieval culture tolerant and appreciative of non-Muslims, Sufi saints contributed to a growth of stability, vernacular literature, and devotional music in India.

 Conclusion:

Sufi movement a deep-rooted change came about to lay the foundations of a liberal and composite Indian society. The Sufi movement is a characteristics feature of the medieval Indian Period. As the Sufi saints’ holiness, asceticism and relatively open hospices appealed to the masses and numerous followers thronged to them.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic : Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. Land reforms in India.

3. Explain in what way SVAMITVA scheme can  set free productive forces in agriculture and non-farm rural activities while discussing the possible challenges that may come in its path. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The article brings to us the significance of SVAMITVA scheme and the possible challenges that may come in its way.

Key Demand of the question:

One has to explain in what way SVAMITVA scheme can set free productive forces in agriculture and non-farm rural activities while discussing the possible challenges that may come in its path.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by explaining what SVAMITVA scheme is all about.

Body:

SVAMITVA (Survey of Villages and Mapping with Improvised Technology in Village Areas) scheme is a collaborative effort of the Ministry of Panchayati Raj, State Panchayati Raj Departments, State Revenue Departments and Survey of India. Its aim is to provide an integrated property validation solution for rural India.

Discuss the key features of the scheme and explain in what way it can benefit Indian farm system.

Then move onto discuss the possible challenges before it. Take cues from the article and explain.

Conclusion:

Conclude with what needs to be done.

Introduction:

SVAMITVA (Survey of Villages and Mapping with Improvised Technology in Village Areas) scheme is a collaborative effort of the Ministry of Panchayati Raj, State Panchayati Raj Departments, State Revenue Departments and Survey of India. Swamitva Yojana’ or Ownership Scheme is to map residential land ownership in the rural sector using modern technology like the use of drones. The scheme aims to revolutionize property record maintenance in India.  

 Body:

Aim:

  • To provide an integrated property validation solution for rural India.
  • It is a scheme formapping the land parcels in rural inhabited areas using drone technology and Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS).
  • The mapping will be done across the country in aphase-wise manner over a period of four years – from 2020 to 2024.

Benefits:

  • The scheme will help in streamlining planning and revenue collection in rural areas and ensuring clarity on property rights.
  • The scheme will enable creation of better-quality Gram Panchayat Development Plans (GPDPs), using the maps created under this programme.
  • The Gram Panchayats are constitutionally mandated for preparation of Gram Panchayat Development Plans (GPDP) for economic development and social justice.
  • The GPDP is based on a participatory process in convergence with schemes of all related Central Ministries/Line Departments related to 29 subjects listed in the Eleventh Schedule of the Constitution.

Challenges:

  • Centre State coordination: Inter agency coordination is must.
  • Poor Data Security: Data Security being a new field has not been legislated effectively. Due weightage to data protection system and backups must be given
  • There is no provision for smooth dispute settlement when the case occurs.
  • Rural areas people suffer from digital divide.
  • Effective participation of local administration and political parties.

The way it can empower agricultural and non- farm activities are:

  • Digital mapping: help individual farmer to confidently lease out land and institutional crediting will gain the boost as proofs would be available to diminish disputes.
  • Empowered rural exchequer: allows panchayats to have increased revenue as collection of property tax would be easier and hectic free.
  • Effective policies: land valuation will allow PM Kisan Nidhi, Fasal Bima yojana like policies to be implemented efficaciously.
  • Financial stability among rural areas.
  • It will increase their productivity as they will not involve in property disputes.
  • It will lead to progressive and peaceful life.

Need for and significance of the scheme:

The need for this Yojana was felt since several villagers in the rural areas don’t have papers proving ownership of their land. In most states, survey and measurement of the populated areas in the villages has not been done for the purpose of attestation/verification of properties. The new scheme is likely to become a tool for empowerment and entitlement, reducing social strife on account of discord over properties.

 Conclusion:

Land ownership is a sensitive and important issue especially in rural areas, which has been avoided due to political unwilling. SVAMITVA scheme is a step in the right direction opening the gates on existing economic and social productivity.

 

Topic : India and its neighborhood- relations.

4. Discuss the possible repercussions of impressive economic performance of Bangladesh in the recent times. Also explain its regional implications. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express 

Why the question:

The editorial brings to us insights on the recent Bangladesh’s rise and in what way it is an opportunity for India, but is overshadowed by negative domestic politics.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the possible repercussions of impressive economic performance of Bangladesh in the recent times. Also explain its regional implications.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Discuss the background of the question.

Body:

Discuss how such a surprising economic growth happened and was realised by Bangladesh.

Then move onto explain in what way Bangladesh’s economic growth can accelerate regional integration in the eastern subcontinent.

Explain the need for Delhi to usefully focus on promoting regionalism with Bangladesh.

Discuss the regional implications of its economic performance in detail.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

According to World Economic Outlook 2020, Bangladesh per capita GDP is expected to grow by 4% in 2020. In terms of per capita GDP, Bangladesh grown at CAGR of 9% since 2015. This can however affect us both positively and negatively.

Body:

Prime causes attributed to this Growth:

  • Lenient labour laws and cheap labour.
  • Greater participation of woman in labour force.
  • Flourishing garments and apparel industry.
  • Special privileges in European Union (DFQF status) and China.
  • Export oriented economy, Bangladesh is 2nd largest exporter of Readymade Garments.

Repercussions:

  • Cheap labour will attract international companies to setup manufacturing units in the country.
  • Bangladesh will have a greater role in regional trade and commerce.
  • Development of other industries in manufacturing sector such as Electronics, Hardware etc.
  • Gradually reduce debt to GDP ratio of the country and become more self-reliant.
  • This will also play greater and vital role in South Asia politic. Bangladesh has good relation with China and USA.
  • Increasing weight of Bangladesh currency.
  • Hitherto focus on Pakistan and India will turn to Pakistan.
  • Although the difference of GDP growth of India and Bangladesh is small but considering India’s GDP growth rate this situation may change.
  • It can help in playing regional soft power.

Implications on India:

  • Can help India develop its North Eastern region.
  • Increasing ties with Bangladesh help Indian to maintain its power.
  • Investment possibilities with Indians into Bangladesh.
  • Improve port connectivity with Bangladesh to facilitate inland transport through waterways.
  • Learning from Bangladesh, India can emulate some of the policies like:
  • Strong micro finance infrastructure in rural areas
  • More focus on manufacturing sector than service sector and agriculture sector.
  • More investment in infrastructure to promote employment and job creation.
  • Encourage greater participation of women in the workforce by incentivizing them.

Implications on South Asian Region:

  • Bangladesh’s economic growth promote self-reliance and prevent it from fall in into China’s Debt trap policy.
  • It can re invigorate SAARC and accelerate regional integration.
  • Today with India can improve connectivity and cooperation between Bangladesh, Bhutan, India and Nepal(BBIN)

 Conclusion:

The notion of Bangladesh being perceived in negative notion should be wielded out. The impressive growth of Bangladesh emerged as a challenge as well as opportunity for India. If we approach this positively, India is sure to extract benefits.

 

Topic : GS-2: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

GS-3: Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.

5. Discuss the Fertilizer woes in Indian agriculture. Do you think Indian farmers can reduce urea use by half by 2022? Comment. (250 words)

Reference: Financial Express 

Why the question:

The article presents to us the fertilizer related challenges of the Indian Agriculture system.

Key Demand of the question:

One has to explain the challenges associated with fertilizers in Indian Agriculture, also brief on whether Indian farmers can reduce urea use by half by 2022.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by presenting few key facts related to fertilizer reforms in the recent times.

Body:

Explain that over the last five years, the government has made several efforts to tackle diversion, hoarding, black marketing and excessive use of urea—a widely-used fertilizer that accounts for nearly half of India’s total fertilizer consumption.

Explain the factor of excessive urea use in the country. Suggest what way it needs to be overcome.

What policy measures are must at this point to overcome the fertilizer woes in the country.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions.

Introduction:

India is an agriculture dominated nation with more than 50% population engaged in primary sector. India spends around 0.5% of total GDP on subsidies of which fertilizer forms a dominant part. Only 35% of total fertilizer subsidies reaches farmers who are marginalized or small.

Body:

Issues:

  • Fertilizers are too costly and small farmers can’t afford much.
  • A bad harvest period along with excessive fertilizer use makes them debt ridden.
  • In Agricultural, affects fertility of soil, crop yield and excessive usage will lead to salinization of soil.
  • In Environmental, it will lead to soil eutrophication, may affect marine organisms and create water pollution.
  • Political: movement of urea and MRPMRP of urea is government controlled. Only 3 PSU can import.
  • Subsidy specific:
    • Skewed nature: 70% of total fertilizer subsidy spent on urea.
  • Imbalance in NPK use.
  • Rewarding inefficiencies: Inefficient firms providing urea at higher cost gets more subsidies.
  • Due to multiple usage in industry, they are black marketed from agriculture to industry thereby making it tougher for small farmers to access fertilizers.

Measures:

  • De canalization of imports: allowing more PSU to enter into importing of fertilizers.
  • MRP of all fertilization and not just potash and phosphorus should be market controlled.
  • JAM trinity should be followed even for fertilizer subsidy to protect black marketing and hoarding businesses
  • Inefficient firms should be ruled out to ease government burden on subsidy expenditure

 Way forward:

According to Economic Survey 2018 has suggested to bring urea under NBS like P and K. Farmer community in India comprise more than 50% and right use of policy should bring to make them benefit out of it which will also be used in doubling farmers’ income 2021.

 

Topic : Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and nonpartisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker-sections.

7. Discuss the role of Empathy in public services. Explain with suitable examples. (250 words)

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications.

Why the question:

The question is based on the concept of Empathy and its importance to Public services.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the role of Empathy in public services. Explain with suitable examples.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by defining what you understand by Empathy.

Body:

Empathy is the experience of understanding another person’s thought feelings and condition from his point of view rather than from our own. Empathy ensures that a person is compassionate towards the condition of another person.

Discuss the merits of Empathy in public services.  

Also suggest methods to inculcate empathy in general.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance.

Introduction:

Empathy is the ability to be aware of, understand, and appreciate the feelings and thoughts of others. Empathy is “tuning in” (being sensitive) to what, how, and why people feel and think the way they do. Being empathic means being able to “emotionally read” other people.

Body:

Public Servants are the glue between the State and the people. Empathy is important for public services due to the following reasons:

Empathy and implementation of welfare programs:

  • Develop listening skills:
    • The civil service requires an individual to be more patient and keep his temper and actions under check. For that to happen he/she is required to listen to the arguments of the other side before taking any action.
    • Ex: The ground level implementation of many welfare programmes are wrought with problems. For instance, in PM Ujjwala Yojana, the lack of last mile delivery of gas cylinders pushes people to go back to firewood or cow dung cakes, thus defeating the programme. In such case, a patient civil servant can listen to woes and help overcome people’s issues.
  • Ensure wellness of public:
    • Public welfare is an important part of duty of a civil servant. He/she is liable to take decisions that help in improving lives of the citizens. For him/her to be sympathetic towards public cause, there is a need for cultivating empathy in them.
    • Ex: A public official needs to be empathetic towards problems faced by women for collecting drinking water so as to make necessary arrangements as seen in implementation of National Drinking Water Programme.
  • Prevents misuse of power:
    • A public official is susceptible to misuse of powers if there is lack of empathy in him/her. By developing this character there are possibilities that he/she realizes his mistakes and tries to rectify them.
    • Ex: A government official misusing his powers to transfer a poor man’s land to a rich company as seen in the case of Vedanta mining case and Dongria Kondh Tribals. This can be prevented if the official has empathy towards the poor man.
  • Acceptability of diverse thoughts:
    • Civil service is a platform where there are more chances to experience diverse opinion and thoughts. It is necessary to accommodate other views and try to implement them if they are found to be appropriate.
    • Ex: Public official may get agitated if there is diverse opinion regarding his/her decisions. Empathy will give him ability to tackle such situations. This is necessary especially for programmes involving transgenders or Divyangs. Civil servants need to be more inclusive
  • Expresses concern for Others:
    • Empathy enables civil servants to understand other humans’ motivation to change and predict how policy will affect people’s behaviour.
    • Example: Pati.NO.1 campaign done in Agra to encourage Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, involving both husbands and wives of the district to be a part of the behavioural change after understanding that the inhibitions associated with the use of toilets for women.
  • Helps develop inclusive views:
    • It helps in understanding the lacunas in existing policies and programmes and makes appropriate changes.
    • For example: An IAS officer can empathize with persons who lost their land due to developmental project by framing better policy such as better compensation, rehabilitation, education and health facilities etc
  • Acts as a Role model:
    • Makes a balanced assessment of a person’s strengths and weaknesses based on a deeper understanding of the individual. Enable civil servants to work with a dedicated service, involving the community at large.
    • Example: The Secretary of water and sanitation ministry himself demonstrated the usage and cleaning of the twin pit system under Swachh Bharat Mission. This helped allay the fears, doubts of people and also helped overcome the ill-thoughts of untouchability associated with sanitation.
  • Creates and provides an environment of Respect:
    • Creates a culture of mutual trust and respect.
    • Example: In the remote areas of Manipur, with no road, connectivity to the two villages of Tusem and Tamenglong was a huge problem and the locals had to either walk for hours, or swim across the river. Armstrong Pame, an IAS officer collected Rs 40 lakh through social media for the construction of the road and got a 100 km stretch of road constructed in the state.

Conclusion:

Empathy is a vital skill for the public sector. Seeing the government work through a lens of empathy makes them better at their jobs and helps fulfill the purpose. Civil servants must be cool-headed, but must be warm-hearted too.


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